Consonance and dissonance

In music and dissonance are categorizations of simultaneous or successive sounds. Consonance is associated with sweetness and acceptability; the terms form a structural dichotomy in which they define each other by mutual exclusion: a consonance is what is not dissonant, a dissonance is what is not consonant. However, a finer consideration shows that the distinction forms a gradation, from the most consonant to the most dissonant; as Hindemith stressed, "The two concepts have never been explained, for a thousand years the definitions have varied". The opposition can be made in different contexts: In acoustics or psychophysiology, the distinction may be objective. In modern times, it is based on the perception of harmonic partials of the sounds considered, to such an extent that the distinction holds only in the case of harmonic sounds. In music if the opposition is founded on the preceding, objective distinction, it more is subjective, conventional and style- or period-dependent. Dissonance can be defined as a combination of sounds that does not belong to the style under consideration.

A major second would be considered dissonant if it occurred in a J. S. Bach prelude from the 1700s. In both cases, the distinction concerns simultaneous sounds. For this reason and dissonance have been considered in the case of Western polyphonic music, the present article is concerned with this case. Most historical definitions of consonance and dissonance since about the 16th century have stressed their pleasant/unpleasant, or agreeable/disagreeable character; this may be justifiable in a psychophysiological context, but much less in a musical context properly speaking: dissonances play a decisive role in making music pleasant in a consonant context—which is one of the reasons why the musical definition of consonance/dissonance cannot match the psychophysiologic definition. In addition, the oppositions pleasant/unpleasant or agreeable/disagreeable evidence a confusion between the concepts of "dissonance" and of "noise". While consonance and dissonance exist only between sounds and therefore describe intervals, such as the perfect intervals, which are viewed as consonant, Occidental music theory considers that, in a dissonant chord, one of the tones alone is in itself deemed to be the dissonance: it is this tone in particular that needs "resolution" through a specific voice leading procedure.

For example, in the key of C Major, if F is produced as part of the dominant seventh chord, it is deemed to be "dissonant" and it resolves to E during a cadence, with the G7 chord changing to a C Major chord. Consonances may include: Perfect consonances: unisons and octaves perfect fourths and perfect fifths Imperfect consonances: major seconds and minor sevenths major thirds and minor sixths minor thirds and major sixths The definition of consonance has been variously based on experience and both physical and psychological considerations; these include: Frequency ratios: with ratios of lower simple numbers being more consonant than those that are higher. Many of these definitions do not require exact integer tunings, only approximation. Coincidence of partials: with consonance being a greater coincidence of partials. By this definition, consonance is dependent not only on the width of the interval between two notes, but on the combined spectral distribution and thus sound quality of the notes.

Thus, a note and the note one octave higher are consonant because the partials of the higher note are partials of the lower note. Although Helmholtz's work focused exclusively on harmonic timbres and the tunings, subsequent work has generalized his findings to embrace non-harmonic tunings and timbres. Fusion: perception of unity or tonal fusion between two notes. A stable tone combination is a consonance. Dissonances may include: Perfect dissonances: tritones minor seconds and major sevenths An unstable tone combination is a dissonance, thus dissonant chords are "active". In Western music, dissonance is the quality of sounds that seems unstable and has an aural need to resolve to a stable consonance. Both consonance and dissonance are words applied to harmony and intervals and, by extension, to melody and rhythm and metre. Although there are physical and neurological facts important


Sankhwali is a village in the Ahore tehsil of Jalore district of Indian state Rajasthan. Mithari river, the tributary river of Luni vanishes near this village after entering the Jalore district from Pali district, it is an ancient village, inhabited about more than 5,000 years ago. Arjun after eloping with Lord Krishna's sister Subhadra from Dwarika got married here in a nearby village Bhadrajun with the help of a priest. In exchange for his services, Arjuna gave his conch shell to the brahmin and Subhadra gave him her earring. Hence brahman's this village. A small temple was erected there and Devi Subhadra is being worshipped as "Dhumda Mata". & Population of Sankhwali is 3,059 according to census 2001. Where male population is 1,410 while female population is 1,649. Sankhwali Location

Putnam Hall School

Putnam Hall School is a bygone notable nonsectarian boarding school for girls located in Poughkeepsie, New York. Predecessor school, Brooks SeminaryPutnam Hall was the successor to an earlier nonsectarian girls boarding school on the same property, it was named Brooks Seminary for Young Ladies. Brooks Seminary was founded September 1871 – not long after the opening of Vassar College. Mary Bryan Johnson was its founder, she and her future husband, Edward White, erected a building on six acres of elevated grounds in the southeastern section of Poughkeepsie at the corner of what was Southeast and Hanscom Avenues. Due to competition from Vassar Preparatory School, Brooks Seminary moved to 11 Montague Terrace, New York, around 1880; the last news article of a Brooks Seminary commencement was June 1881 -- New York Herald-Tribune. Putnam Hall SchoolAfter an interval of use as a hotel and Vassar dormitory, the Poughkeepsie building and property again launched as a new girls' boarding school in about 1901 under the name of Putnam Hall.

Bartlett ParkMiss Ellen Clizbe Bartlett, who presided as proprietor and principal of Putnam Hall when it closed in 1940, donated the six acres to the city of Poughkeepsie. It is now a city park, known as Bartlett Park. Founders of Brooks Seminary Edward White married Mary Bryan Johnson July 30, 1872. Mary founded Brooks Seminary, she rented her school to that institution and the building, Brooks Seminary became Putnam Hall. She died July 3, 1925, at the home of her daughter, Mary Elizabeth White Miller, at Stamford, Connecticut. Edward White was a trustee, he was assistant cashier of the Chase National Bank of New York for three years and treasurer of the Erie R. R. fourteen years. Founders of Putnam Hall School Miss Ellen Clizbe Bartlett, principal since 1905 and connected with the school since 1901 became the proprietor of Putnam Hall School Directors and leadership of Brooks Seminary Edmund P. Platt, director Mary Bryan White née Johnson, proprietor & head of school, Brooks Seminary Mrs. Hanks Amy Johnson, teacher Miss Minna Hinkle, teacher of French and GermanDirectors and leadership of Putnam Hall School Miss Ellen Clizbe Bartlett, principal since 1905 and connected with the school since 1901 Brooks Seminary Alumni Mrs. William Booth Garlick, a descendant of Rutherford B.

HayesPutnam Hall Alumni Katherine Jean Davison