A conspiracy theory is an explanation of an event or situation that invokes a conspiracy by sinister and powerful actors political in motivation, when other explanations are more probable. The term has a pejorative connotation, implying that the appeal to a conspiracy is based on prejudice or insufficient evidence. Conspiracy theories resist falsification and are reinforced by circular reasoning: both evidence against the conspiracy and an absence of evidence for it are re-interpreted as evidence of its truth, whereby the conspiracy becomes a matter of faith rather than something that can be proved or disproved. Research suggests that conspiracist ideation—belief in conspiracy theories—can be psychologically harmful or pathological and that it is correlated with psychological projection and Machiavellianism. Conspiracy theories once limited to fringe audiences have become commonplace in mass media, emerging as a cultural phenomenon of the late 20th and early 21st centuries; the Oxford English Dictionary defines conspiracy theory as "the theory that an event or phenomenon occurs as a result of a conspiracy between interested parties.
A belief that some covert but influential agency is responsible for an unexplained event". It cites a 1909 article in The American Historical Review as the earliest usage example, although it appears in journals as early as April 1870; the word "conspiracy" derives from the Latin con- and spirare. Robert Blaskiewicz notes examples of the term were used as early as the nineteenth century and states that its usage has always been derogatory. According to a study by Andrew McKenzie-McHarg, in contrast, in the nineteenth century the term conspiracy theory "suggests a plausible postulate of a conspiracy" and "did not, at this stage, carry any connotations, either negative or positive", though sometimes a postulate so-labeled was criticized. Lance deHaven-Smith suggested that the term entered everyday language in the United States after 1964, the year in which the Warren Commission shared its findings, with The New York Times running five stories that year using the term. A conspiracy theory is not a conspiracy.
Barkun writes that conspiracies are "actual covert plots planned and/or carried out by two or more persons". A conspiracy theory, on the other hand, is "an intellectual construct", a "template imposed upon the world to give the appearance of order to events". Positing that "some small and hidden group" has manipulated events, a conspiracy theory can be local or international, focused on single events or covering multiple incidents and entire countries and periods of history. Conspiracy theorists see themselves as having privileged access to special knowledge or a special mode of thought that separates them from the masses who believe the official account. A conspiracy theory may take any matter as its subject, but certain subjects attract greater interest than others. Favored subjects include famous deaths and assassinations, morally dubious government activities, suppressed technologies, “false flag” terrorism. Among the longest-standing and most recognized conspiracy theories are notions concerning the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the 1969 Apollo moon landings, the 9/11 terrorist attacks, as well as numerous theories pertaining to alleged plots for world domination by various groups both real and imaginary.
Scholars argue that conspiracy theories once limited to fringe audiences have become commonplace in mass media, contributing to conspiracism emerging as a cultural phenomenon in the United States of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The general predisposition to believe conspiracy theories cuts across partisan and ideological lines. Conspiratorial thinking is correlated with antigovernmental orientations and a low sense of political efficacy, with conspiracy believers perceiving a governmental threat to individual rights and displaying a deep skepticism that who one votes for matters. According to anthropologists Todd Sanders and Harry G. West, a broad cross-section of Americans today gives credence to at least some conspiracy theories. For instance, a study conducted in 2016 found that 10% of Americans think the chemtrail conspiracy theory is "completely true" and 20-30% think it is "somewhat true"; this puts "the equivalent of 120 million Americans in the'chemtrails are real' camp."
Belief in conspiracy theories has therefore become a topic of interest for sociologists and experts in folklore. Conspiracy theories are present on the Web in the form of blogs and YouTube videos, as well as on social media. Whether the Web has increased the prevalence of conspiracy theories or not is an open research question; the presence and representation of conspiracy theories in search engine results has been monitored and studied, showing significant variation across different topics, a general absence of reputable, high-quality links in the results. Jesse Walker has identified five kinds of conspiracy theories: The "Enemy Outside" refers to theories based on figures alleged to be scheming against a community from without; the "Enemy Within" finds the conspirators lurking inside the nation, indistinguishable from ordinary citizens. The "Enemy Above" involves powerful people manipulating events for their own gain; the "Enemy Below" features the lower classes working to overturn the social order.
The "Benevolent Conspiracies" are angelic forces that work behind the scenes to improve the world and help people. Michael Barkun has identified three classifications of conspiracy theory: Event conspiracy theories; this refers to well-defined events. Examples may include such conspiracies theories as those concerning the Kennedy assassination, 9
As of 2017, Alaska has an estimated population of 739,818. In 2005, the population of Alaska was 663,661, an increase of 5,906, or 0.9%, from the prior year and an increase of 36,730, or 5.9%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 36,590 people and an increase due to net migration of 1,181 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 5,800 people, migration within the country produced a net loss of 4,619 people. More than half of the state's population lives in Anchorage and Fairbanks, with two-fifths in Anchorage alone. With a population of 710,231, according to the 2010 U. S. census, Alaska is the 48th least densely populated state. For purposes of the federal census, the state is divided into artificial divisions defined geographically by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes only; the center of population of Alaska is located 64.37 kilometers east of Anchorage at 61.399882 N. latitude, -148.873973 W. longitude.
In 2006, Alaska had a larger percentage of tobacco smokers than the national average, with 24% of Alaskan adults smoking. According to the 2010 United States census, the racial composition of Alaska was the following: White: 66.7% Black 3.6% Asian 5.4% American Indian or Alaskan Native 14.8% Pacific Islander: 1.0% Two or more races: 7.3% Other races: 1.7%The population was 5.5% of Hispanic or Latino origin and 94.5% of Non-Hispanic and Latino origin. The largest ancestry groups in the state are: 18.3% German 11.0% Irish 8.5% English 6.5% Norwegian 4.4% Filipino 3.8% French 3.7% Native American 3.3% Italian 3.0% Mexican 2.9% Scottish 2.7% Polish 2.5% Swedish 1.9% Dutch 1.4% RussianThe vast and sparsely populated regions of northern and western Alaska are inhabited by Alaska Natives, who are numerous in the southeast. Anchorage and other parts of south-central and southeast Alaska have many White Americans of northern and western European ancestry; the Wrangell-Petersburg area has many residents of Scandinavian ancestry and the Aleutian Islands contain a large Filipino population.
The vast majority of the state's African American population lives in Fairbanks. Alaska has the largest percentage of American Indians of any state; some of the Alaska Natives absorbed the small 1700s Russian-era settlement. There are some Creole people of natives and Russians mixture. Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group. According to the 2005-2007 American Community Survey, 84.7% of people over the age of five speak only English at home. About 3.5% speak Spanish at home. About 2.2% speak an Indo-European language other than Spanish or English at home, about 4.3% speak an Asian language at home and about 5.3% speak Russian and other languages at home. A total of 5.2% of Alaskans speak one of the state's 22 indigenous languages, known locally as "native languages". These languages belong to two major language families: Eskimo–Aleut and Na-Dené.
As the homeland of these two major language families of North America, Alaska has been described as the crossroads of the continent, providing evidence for the recent settlement of North America via the Bering land bridge. Christian - 79.0% Protestant - 47.0% Evangelical Protestant - 26.0% Mainline Protestant - 19.0% Black Protestant - 2.0% Roman Catholic - 14.0% Orthodoxy - 12.5% Latter-day Saint - 4.0% Jehovah's Witnesses - <0.5% Other Christian - <0.5%Other religions Jewish - 0.9% Buddhist- <0.5% Islam - 0.5% Hindu - <0.5% Other World Religions - <0.5% Other Faiths - 2.0% Unaffiliated - 17.0% Refused to answer - 1.0%Alaska's large Orthodox Christian population is notable. The large Eastern Orthodox population is a result of early Russian colonization of the Americas which centered on Alaska, the missionary work among Alaska Natives. In 1795, the first Russian Orthodox Church was established in Kodiak. Intermarriage with Alaskan Natives helped the Russian immigrants integrate into society.
As a result, a number of Russian Orthodox churches became established within Alaska. Many are members of the Orthodox Church in America while others are members of the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia. Alaska has the largest Quaker population of any state; as of 1994, there were 3,060 Jews in Alaska. Jehovah's Witnesses stands at a little less than 2,400. Estimates for the number of Alaskan Muslims range from 1,000 to 5,000. List of cities in Alaska 2000 Census of Population and Housing for Alaska, U. S. Census Bureau Graphical Library of Demographic Change in Arctic Alaska
Basal body-orientation factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the gene CCDC176, located on the plus strand of chromosome 14 at 14q24.3. CCDC176 is neighbored by ENTPD5 at the same locus; the mRNA is 3123 base pairs long and has 12 exons, the protein is 529 amino acids long and has a molecular weight of 61987 Da and a predicted isoelectric point of 9.07 in humans. CCDC176 has no known paralogs and is orthologous in primates, birds, amphibians, all the way back to invertebrates, a fungi parasite and a proteobacteria; the domain found to be homologous is the DUF4515, a domain of unknown function. This basal body protein has been shown in multiciliated cells to align and maintain cilia orientation in response to flow; this protein may act by mediating a maturation step that stabilizes and aligns cilia orientation. No other genes or proteins have been found. A similar set of genes, tubulin tyrosine ligase-like genes 3 and 6, has been found in zebrafish that maintain cilia structure and motility.
These genes belong to the TTL family. BBOF1 has two coiled coil domains, one, 117 amino acids in length at the position 85-201 and the second is 91 amino acids in length at the position 271-361. There is a region of interest located at the position 77-270 and is named DUF4515, a domain of unknown function belonging to the family of pfam14988. There are three predicted protein-protein interactions concerning CCDC176; the most prevalent and most interaction is with LIG4, a human gene that encodes the protein DNA Ligase IV. Two experiments in a publication of 1030 unique reactions support the LIG4-CCDC176 interaction; the second and third predicted interactions are NRF1 and HYLS1. The predicted secondary structure of BBOF1 in humans is as follows: 87.1% alpha helix, 63.9% beta sheet, 15.7% beta turn. CCDC176 has known expression in the human testis and lung tissues. There are six articles of research related to the gene CCDC176, with four out of six being large-scale sequencing, one article not naming the gene or protein, one article with only the abstract available.
This last article, Global, in vivo, site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks, is the only article that directly mentions the protein of interest and it does so only once. This study detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins. Expression data from different health states in humans predicts high expression of CCDC176 in glioma; the interaction data concerning CCDC176 and LIG4 came from a publication studying protein-protein interaction involved with the DNA damage response network in association with cancer
The Battle of Indus was fought at the Indus river, in the year 1221 between Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, the sultan of the Khwarezmian dynasty and his only remaining forces of thirty thousand against the two hundred thousand strong Mongolian army of Genghis Khan. Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu was fleeing to India with his men and thousands of refugees from Persia, following the Mongol sacking of several cities, including Bukhara and Samarkand, the latter being the Khwarezmian capital. After having won the Battle of Parwan, near the city of Ghazni, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu headed for India to seek refuge together with his army of some 3,000 men and several thousand refugees. However, a powerful army under Genghis Khan, numbering 25,000–50,000 cavalry, caught up with him when he was about to cross the river Indus. Jalal ad-Din positioned his army of at least thirty thousand men in a defensive stance against the Mongols, placing one flank against the mountains while his other flank was covered by a river bend.
The initial Mongol charge that opened the battle was beaten back. Jalal al-Din counterattacked, nearly breached the center of the Mongol army. Genghis sent a contingent of 10,000 men around the mountain to flank Jalal ad-Din's army. With his army attacked from two directions and collapsing into chaos, Jalal al-Din fled across the Indus river
Golzheim, a borough of Düsseldorf in District 1 on the Rhine, just north of the city center, is a business and hotel district, but retains some of the old stately villas. The oldest parts of Düsseldorf are to be found in Golzheim and Stockum, but the Golzheim area was not so built-up that it could not accommodate the large international Trade Fair of 1902, thus was established as the primary Düsseldorf exhibition site, it hosted the international national Health Fair of 1926 and the huge cultural NSDAP Exhibition of 1937. The waterfront on the Rhine, the Rheinpark Golzheim, owes its shape to these exhibitions. Started in 1947, the annual Düsseldorf Trade Fair was held in Golzheim in the Ehrenhof complex, until the new exhibition grounds were built next to the airport in 1971. Many of the apartments, surrounding the area of Kaiserswerther Straße and Uerdinger Straße, were used as holiday apartments for members of the German Armed Forces in the 1930s. From the air, gun emplacements can still be seen on top of these apartments and these were used to defend Düsseldorf during World War II.
Since 1958 Golzheim is the place of the New Synagogue of Düsseldorf, the religious center for about 7.500 members of the local Jewish community, the third largest in Germany. Golzheim is one of the most prestigious office addresses in the city; the tallest building is the Sky Office at 22 stories, completed in 2006. On the Ehrenhof are the NRW-Forum Kultur und Wirtschaft, the art museum; the Tonhalle Düsseldorf, located next to Oberkassel bridge on the Rhine, used to be a planetarium. It and the Rheinpark Golzheim are important places for events; the land for the park was reclaimed from an old harbor basin in 1900 in preparation for the 1902 Exhibition, was used for exhibition and trade fair purposes until 1926. After the international Health Fair of 1926, which had 7.5 million visitors, the area was turned into a park. Called "Kaiser-Wilhelm-Park", the Rheinpark Golzheim is not a classical park, but is more of a greenbelt, 24 hectares, between Cecilienallee and the Rhine, from the Oberkassel bridge to the Theodor Heuss bridge, with arranged copses of trees and plenty of open lawn for sunbathing and amateur volleyball games.
The Circus Roncalli is located year-round in the park, in the summer a local brewery sponsors an open-air cinema. Golzheim has an area of 2.64 km2, 10,248 inhabitants and therefore a density of 3,882 inhabitants/km2. Golzheim borders on the Rhine to the west, on Pempelfort to the south, on Kaiserswerth to the north, on Derendorf to the east. Https://web.archive.org/web/20061023164155/http://www.duesseldorf.de/bv/01/stadtteile/golzheim.shtml https://web.archive.org/web/20070304201906/http://www.duesseldorf.de/bv/01/infos/historie.shtml https://web.archive.org/web/20040919055933/http://www.duesseldorf-today.rp-online.de/cityguide/stadtrundgang/tour8/tour803.shtml https://web.archive.org/web/20070304201434/http://www.duesseldorf.de/bv/01/infos/daten.shtml http://www.nrw-forum.de/ Websites from Düsseldorf Golzheim on Duesselgo - an search engine and portal for the region with an English range
Port Arthur is a small town and former convict settlement on the Tasman Peninsula, in Tasmania, Australia. Port Arthur is an open-air museum; the site forms part of the Australian Convict Sites, a World Heritage property consisting of 11 remnant penal sites built within the British Empire during the 18th and 19th centuries on fertile Australian coastal strips. Collectively, these sites, including Port Arthur, now represent, "...the best surviving examples of large-scale convict transportation and the colonial expansion of European powers through the presence and labour of convicts."It is located 97 kilometres southeast of the state capital, Hobart. In 1996 it was the scene of the worst mass murder event in post-colonial Australian history. Port Arthur is located about 97 km southeast of Hobart, on the Tasman Peninsula; the scenic drive from Hobart, via the Tasman Highway to Sorell and the Arthur Highway to Port Arthur, takes around 90 minutes. Transport from Hobart to the site is available via bus or ferry, various companies offer day tours from Hobart.
At the 2016 census, Port Arthur had a population of 251. This was down from 499 in 2006. Port Arthur was named after the lieutenant governor of Van Diemen's Land; the settlement started as a timber station in 1830. From 1833 until 1853, it was the destination for the hardest of convicted British criminals, those who were secondary offenders having reoffended after their arrival in Australia. Rebellious personalities from other convict stations were sent there. In addition, Port Arthur had some of the strictest security measures of the British penal system. Port Arthur was one example of the "Separate Prison Typology", which emerged from Jeremy Bentham's theories and his panopticon; the prison was completed in 1853, but extended in 1855. The layout of the prison was symmetrical, it was a cross shape with exercise yards at each corner. The prisoner wings were each connected to the surveillance core of the prison, as well as the chapel, in the centre hall. From this surveillance hub, each wing could be seen, although individual cells could not.
This is. The Separate Prison System signaled a shift from physical punishment to psychological punishment; the hard corporal punishment, such as whippings, used in other penal stations was thought to only serve to harden criminals, did nothing to turn them from their immoral ways. For example, food was used to reward well-behaved prisoners and as punishment for troublemakers; as a reward, a prisoner could receive larger amounts of food or luxury items such as tea and tobacco. As punishment, the prisoners would receive the bare minimum of water. Under this system of punishment, the "Silent System" was implemented in the building. Here, prisoners were made to stay silent. Many of the prisoners in the Separate Prison developed mental illness from the lack of light and sound; this was an unintended outcome. In many ways, Port Arthur was the model for many of the penal reform movement, despite shipping and slave-labour use of convicts being as harsh, or worse, than others stations around the nation; the peninsula on which Port Arthur is located is a secure site by being surrounded by water.
The 30-m-wide isthmus of Eaglehawk Neck, the only connection to the mainland was fenced and guarded by soldiers, man traps, half-starved dogs. Contact between visiting seamen and prisoners was barred. Ships had to check in their oars upon landing to prevent any escapes. However, many attempts were made, some were successful. Boats rowed or sailed long distances to freedom. Shore-based and ship-based whaling was banned in the area to prevent convicts trying to escape in the boats. Officers at Port Arthur sometimes attempted to catch whales; this may have been more for sport than as a commercial activity. In 1836, a tramway was established between a jetty in Long Bay, north of Port Arthur; the sole propulsion was convicts. One of the last remaining sections of the tramway can be viewed at the Federation Chocolate Factory at Taranna. Smooth Island in Norfolk Bay was most used to grow fresh vegetables for the Port Arthur penal settlement. Port Arthur was sold as an inescapable prison, much like the Alcatraz Island in the United States.
Some prisoners were not discouraged by this, tried to escape. Martin Cash escaped along with two others. One of the most infamous incidents for its bizarreness, was the escape attempt of one George "Billy" Hunt. Hunt disguised himself using a kangaroo hide and tried to flee across the Neck, but the half-starved guards on duty tried to shoot him to supplement their meager rations; when he noticed them sighting him up, Hunt threw off his disguise and surrendered, receiving 150 lashes. Port Arthur was the destination for juvenile convicts, receiving many boys, some as young as nine; the boys were separated from the main convict population and kept on Point Puer, the British Empire's second boys' prison. Like the adults, the boys were used in hard labour such as stone construction. One of the buildings constructed was one of Australia's first nondenominational churches, built in a gothic style. Attendance of the weekly Sunday service was co