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Constans

Constans or Constans I was Roman Emperor from 337 to 350. He defeated his brother Constantine II in 340, but anger in the army over his personal life and favouritism towards his barbarian bodyguards led the general Magnentius to rebel, resulting in the assassination of Constans in 350. Constans was the third and youngest son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, his father's second wife, he was educated at the court of his father at Constantinople under the tutelage of the poet Aemilius Magnus Arborius. On 25 December 333, Constantine I elevated Constans to the rank of Caesar at Constantinople. Constans became engaged to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, but the marriage never came to pass. With Constantine’s death in 337, Constans and his two brothers, Constantine II and Constantius II, divided the Roman world among themselves and disposed of all relatives who could have a claim to the throne; the army proclaimed them Augusti on September 9, 337. Constans was required to deal with a Sarmatian invasion in late 337, in which he won a resounding victory.

Constans was under the guardianship of Constantine II. The original settlement assigned Constans the praetorian prefecture of Italy, which included Northern Africa. Constans was unhappy with this division, so the brothers met at Viminacium in 338 to revise the boundaries. Constans managed to extract the prefecture of Illyricum and the diocese of Thrace, provinces that were to be ruled by his cousin Dalmatius, as per Constantine I’s proposed division after his death. Constantine II soon complained that he had not received the amount of territory, his due as the eldest son. Annoyed that Constans had received Thrace and Macedonia after the death of Dalmatius, Constantine demanded that Constans hand over the African provinces, which he agreed to do in order to maintain a fragile peace. Soon, they began quarreling over which parts of the African provinces belonged to Carthage, thus Constantine, which belonged to Italy, therefore Constans; this led to growing tensions between the two brothers, which were only heightened by Constans coming of age and Constantine refusing to give up his guardianship.

In 340 Constantine II invaded Italy. Constans, at that time in Dacia and sent a select and disciplined body of his Illyrian troops, stating that he would follow them in person with the remainder of his forces. Constantine was trapped at Aquileia, where he died, leaving Constans to inherit all of his brother’s former territories – Hispania and Gaul. Constans began his reign in an energetic fashion. In 341-42, he led a successful campaign against the Franks, in the early months of 343 he visited Britain; the source for this visit, Julius Firmicus Maternus, does not provide a reason, but the quick movement and the danger involved in crossing the channel in the winter months suggests it was in response to a military emergency to repel the Picts and Scots. Regarding religion, Constans was tolerant of Judaism and promulgated an edict banning pagan sacrifices in 341, he suppressed Donatism in Africa and supported Nicene orthodoxy against Arianism, championed by his brother Constantius. Although Constans called the Council of Serdica in 343 to settle the conflict, it was a complete failure, by 346 the two emperors were on the point of open warfare over the dispute.

The conflict was only resolved by an interim agreement which allowed each emperor to support their preferred clergy within their own spheres of influence. The Roman historian Eutropius says Constans "indulged in great vices," in reference to his homosexuality, Aurelius Victor stated that Constans had a reputation for scandalous behaviour with "handsome barbarian hostages." Constans did sponsor a decree alongside Constantius II that ruled that marriage based on "unnatural" sex should be punished meticulously. Boswell argues that the decree outlawed homosexual marriages only, rather than homosexual activity more generally. However, it was the case that Constans promulgated the legislation under pressure from the growing band of Christian leaders, in an attempt to placate public outrage at his own perceived indecencies. In the final years of his reign, Constans developed a reputation for misrule. Dominated by favourites and preferring his select bodyguard, he lost the support of the legions. In 350, the general Magnentius declared himself emperor at Augustodunum with the support of the troops on the Rhine frontier and the western provinces of the Empire.

Constans was enjoying himself. Lacking any support beyond his immediate household, he was forced to flee for his life; as he was trying to reach Hispania, supporters of Magnentius cornered him in a fortification in Helena in the eastern Pyrenees of southwestern Gaul, where he was killed after seeking sanctuary in a temple. An alleged prophecy at his birth had said, his place of death happens to have been named after Helena, mother of Constantine and his own grandmother, thus realizing the prophecy. Itineraries of the Roman emperors, 337–361 List of Byzantine emperors Zosimus, Historia Nova, Book 2 Historia Nova Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus Eutropius, Breviarium ab urbe condita DiMaio, Michael. H. M. Martindale, J. R; the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: AD260-395, Cambridge University Press, 1971 Gibbon. Edward Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire Media re

Eliadah McCord

Eliadah "Lia" McCord is an American woman, convicted of smuggling heroin in Bangladesh at the age of 18. She was subsequently sentenced to life in prison, but was pardoned after four years and six months at the request of Congressman Bill Richardson. McCord's story was documented on Raw TV's Banged Up Abroad McCord grew up in Houston, Texas, USA, she left home. After a few months, they were becoming low on funds when McCord's roommate returned from a trip to Europe, claiming to have made $10,000 by smuggling diamonds. Intrigued, McCord agreed to meet her roommate's employer, but when she learned that not only would she be traveling to Bangladesh, but would be smuggling drugs, she became reluctant. McCord's soon-to-be employer doubled the payment to $20,000 and informed her that she would be smuggling drugs into Switzerland, not the US. McCord agreed, she learned that her roommate had smuggled heroin, not diamonds, through an airport. After two weeks, the last five days of which were spent at a five-star resort in Dhaka, unsure of when she would receive the drugs, McCord became impatient as her vacation visa was about to expire.

According to McCord, as she was attempting to flee at the last minute, she was caught in the resort's lobby by the supplier, who forced her into a cab and duct-taped 7 lbs of heroin to her body. McCord stated in her interview on National Geographic's Locked Up Abroad that she was threatened by her supplier as her brother dropped her at the airport. Afraid, anxious to return home, McCord approached her gate; when she realized passengers were being searched physically, she rushed to the restroom to attempt to remove the packages. The heat made the duct tape melt and she was unable to remove it, she stated that she prayed and asked that she get through this, promising she would never do anything bad again. Upon exiting the restroom, McCord could not see her, she attempted to go to the airplane without being searched. Mere steps away from success, the official called McCord back. After being taken into custody, McCord was shocked to learn that the penalty for drug smuggling in Bangladesh was death.

The police led McCord to believe that if she identified the supplier who gave her the heroin, all charges would be dropped and she would be allowed to go home. As an American teenager raised to trust the police, McCord took them at their word, she told Christian Reader Magazine that she had heard of extradition agreements and expected, at the least, to be returned to the US once she led them to the supplier. Her good behavior in prison, the fact that the judge did not believe McCord to be a frequent smuggler, resulted in McCord receiving a life sentence rather than death by hanging. McCord reported being told that the court asked the Americans if they could sentence her to hang as a sign of solidarity with the US Government's War on Drugs. McCord was told that the court was advised that the Americans would accept no harsher sentence for their citizen than what had been handed down to one of their own women for a similar case. Days before McCord's sentencing hearing, she told Christian Reader, a renowned drug dealer in Dhaka was sentenced mid-trial to life imprisonment.

She was released for mistrial, but the precedent had been set. Though devastated that her "youth was over," McCord tried to make the most of being in prison, she learned to speak Bengali and taught other prisoners of her Christianity, as they taught her of their Hindu and Muslim faiths. In 1996, after four years and six months in prison, McCord was pardoned at the request of Congressman Bill Richardson. Due to significant efforts by US Embassy consulate officers, the pardon was processed in record time and she returned home in Richardson's custody on July 30, 1996. After a day in Washington D. C. McCord returned to Houston with her mother on August 1, 1996. McCord earned an associate degree and bachelor's degree within five years of returning to the US, she worked full-time at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston and, more at the AES Corporation. She now works on the East Coast. During the interview on the National Geographic episode, McCord said she learned a lot and would never do it again, but would not change the past.

In an interview at the airport in Dhaka, McCord spoke in Bengali and expressed affection for the people of Bangladesh, as well as a desire to return one day and show the gracious government what she has done with the second chance they gave her. McCord's story was featured in series three of the British TV series Banged Up Abroad. JC Gonzalez portrayed Lia McCord's brother, who drove to pick her up at Bush Airport while she was being arrested in Bangladesh. Bali Nine Schapelle Corby The Kansas City Star article The Miami Herald article Austin American-Statesman article

Maccabi București

Maccabi or Macabi Bucureşti known as Ciocanul, was a Romanian sport club, representing the Jewish community, akin to the famous Hakoah Vienna. Named after the Maccabees and centering on football competitions, it was the first Jewish side to send a player, the goalkeeper Samuel Zauber, to the FIFA World Cup. Maccabi Bucureşti was founded in 1919 by a Jewish entrepreneur at a time when representatives of the ethnic minorities of Greater Romania established distinctive football sides. In 1925, a women's seven-a-side handball team was inaugurated as a branch of the Maccabi club, like all Romanian teams of the time, only played exhibition games. Before the 1940–1941 season, at a time when Romania adopted antisemitic policies, the club was expelled from official competitions, it reemerged in 1945 at the end of World War II and kept its name before merging with another club to form Ciocanul. For the 1946 season, the club was coached by Hungarian coach Béla Guttmann, who went on to coach many prominent European and South American teams of the 1940s and 1950s.

As Ciocanul, the club played in two seasons in Divizia A. In May 1948, it merged with Unirea Tricolor Bucureşti, to create the present-day major Romanian club Dinamo, administrated by the Ministry of the Interior. During the 1947–1948 season they remained two separate clubs: Dinamo A and Dinamo B. Liga I: Winners:, Best finnish: 7th 1946–47Liga II: Winners: 1934–35 Runners-up: 1938–39