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Constantan is a copper–nickel alloy known as Eureka and Ferry. It consists of 55% copper and 45% nickel, its main feature is the low thermal variation of its resistivity, constant over a wide range of temperatures. Other alloys with low temperature coefficients are known, such as manganin. In 1887, Edward Weston discovered that metals can have a negative temperature coefficient of resistance, inventing what he called his "Alloy No. 2." It was produced in Germany where it was renamed "Konstantan". Of all modern strain gauge alloys, constantan is the oldest, still the most used; this situation reflects the fact that constantan has the best overall combination of properties needed for many strain gauge applications. This alloy has, for example, an adequately high strain sensitivity, or gauge factor, insensitive to strain level and temperature, its resistivity is high enough to achieve suitable resistance values in very small grids, its temperature coefficient of resistance is low. In addition, constantan is characterized by good fatigue life and high elongation capability.

However, constantan tends to exhibit a continuous drift at temperatures above 65 °C. Constantan is used for electrical resistance heating and thermocouples. Constantan can be processed for self-temperature compensation to match a wide range of test material coefficients of thermal expansion. A-alloy is supplied in self-temperature-compensation numbers 00, 03, 05, 06, 09, 13, 15, 18, 30, 40 and 50, for use on test materials with corresponding thermal expansion coefficients, expressed in parts per million by length per degrees Fahrenheit. For the measurement of large strains, 5% or above, annealed constantan is the grid material selected. Constantan in this form is ductile, it should be borne in mind, that under high cyclic strains the P alloy will exhibit some permanent resistivity change with each cycle, cause a corresponding zero shift in the strain gauge. Because of this characteristic, the tendency for premature grid failure with repeated straining, P alloy is not ordinarily recommended for cyclic strain applications.

P alloy is available with S-T-C numbers of 08 and 40 for use on plastics, respectively. Constantan is used to form thermocouples with wires made of iron, copper, or chromel, it has an extraordinarily strong negative Seebeck coefficient above 0 Celsius, leading to a good temperature sensitivity. J. R. Davis. Copper and Copper Alloys. ASM International. ISBN 0-87170-726-8. National Pollutant Inventory - Copper and compounds fact sheet

John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut

John of Ibelin, called the Old Lord of Beirut, was a powerful crusader noble in the 13th century, one of the best known representatives of the influential Ibelin family. The son of Balian of Ibelin and Maria Comnena, Queen consort of Jerusalem, he had close ties with the nobility of both Cyprus and Jerusalem, since he was the half-brother of Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem. Before he was 20, he was appointed constable of Jerusalem, a few years became lord of Beirut, where he rebuilt the city after Saladin's conquest, established the grand Ibelin family palace, he served as regent for two of his young relatives, Isabella's daughter Maria of Montferrat from 1205 to 1210, Henry I of Cyprus from 1228 until Henry came of age in 1232. John was known as a principled man, was seen as the natural leader of the Christian barons in the Holy Land, he resisted the power-seeking of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in Cyprus, opposed the imperial forces until Henry came of age. He was the son of Balian, Lord of Nablus and Ibelin, Maria Comnena, widow of Amalric I of Jerusalem.

By 1198 he had become constable of Jerusalem. At the time he was a vassal of Ralph of Tiberias, exiled from the kingdom after being accused of attempting to assassinate king Amalric II. John attempted to mediate but Amalric would not back down. Sometime before 1205 John relinquished the office of constable in exchange for the lordship of Beirut, which became the home of the Ibelin family for the rest of the century, he rebuilt the city, destroyed during Saladin's conquest of the Jerusalem kingdom. He constructed an opulent palace with art from both Muslim and Byzantine influences. A German ambassador in 1212, Wilbrand of Oldenburg, wrote an impressive account of the castle, describing fresco paintings, mosaics on the floors, a marble fountain in the courtyard. Historian Peter Edbury described the ambassador's account as "A feature of the public rooms were the Trompe-l'oeil effects achieved with marble inlays, with a floor resembling the sea and a ceiling'painted with such life-like colours that clouds pass across, the west wind blows, there the sun seems to mark out the year and the months, the days and the weeks, the hours and the moments by its movement in the zodiac'.

A marble fountain with a dragon as the centre-piece stood in the central hall, its jets cooling the air and the murmur of the water giving an altogether soothing effect." The castle was so well fortified. Beirut was an independent state under John's rule. From 1205 to 1210 John served as regent in Acre, the new capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, for Maria of Montferrat, Queen Isabella I's daughter; as regent, John helped arrange the marriage of Amalric II's son Hugh I of Cyprus to Alice of Champagne, daughter of Amalric's predecessor as King of Jerusalem, Henry II of Champagne. In 1210 he helped arrange Maria of Montferrat's marriage to John of Brienne, suggested by king Philip II of France. By 1217 John and his brother Philip of Ibelin had become involved in the politics of the Kingdom of Cyprus as well, they had alienated themselves from John of Brienne, but the two represented Cyprus at a council in Acre, which met to plan for the arrival of the Fifth Crusade. When Hugh I died in 1218, Philip became regent for Hugh's son Henry I of Philip's nephew.

When Philip died in 1228, John took over the same office. Although both Philip and John were related to Henry I, as his uncles, they were still opposed on Cyprus by supporters of the Lusignan family, of which Henry was a member. In 1228, the power struggle was amplified when Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II arrived in Cyprus on the Sixth Crusade. Frederick was connected to the Jerusalem nobles by being married to Isabella II, John of Brienne's daughter, Frederick attempted to use this to take power, he claimed the kingship of Jerusalem and the overlordship of Cyprus, as well as John of Ibelin's lordship of Beirut, which John refused. When lured to a banquet and confronted with Frederick's armed guards, John was forced to hand over the regency, Cyprus, to Emperor Frederick's control. However, this was temporary, as John resisted with military force. After Frederick departed from the island in April, John's forces defeated the remaining imperial bailiffs in a battle outside Nicosia on July 14, 1229, thus beginning the War of the Lombards.

Frederick sent an army in 1231, under the marshal of the Empire. John was able to repel the invasion at the Battle of Agridi, but the imperial fleet sailed to John's power center of Beirut, which they besieged and captured; the imperial marshal, Richard Filangieri, was able to establish himself in Jerusalem and Tyre, which he had regained by treaty in 1229, but not in Beirut or the capital in Acre. In Acre, John's supporters formed a commune, of which John himself was elected mayor when he arrived in 1232; the Commune of Acre was able to relieve the siege of Beirut, but in John's absence from Cyprus, the supporters of the Lusignans took control. In any case, the boy Henry I of Cyprus came of age in the same year, John's regency was no longer necessary; when Henry I succeeded to the throne, both John and Riccardo raced back to Cyprus, where the imperial forces were defeated in battle on June 15. Henry became undisputed king of Cyprus, si

Roopa Iyer

Roopa Iyer is an award-winning conscientious film director, dancer, model, business executive, humanitarian, a philanthropist, a philosopher. She has been involved with over a dozen movies from acting to direction, has orchestrated and performed in numerous musical and dance events in over tens of countries around the world to support HIV infected children through ICA, her film "MUKHAPUTA – The Cover Page", produced by Narayan Hosmane, about a child suffering from HIV/AIDS through India Classic Arts has won worldwide accolades. Iyer is the recipient of multiple awards for her artistic achievement in film. She's known for her selfless contribution to society and indulging in creating awareness about HIV/AIDS among the people through her company ICA. Roopa Iyer was born in Belakavadi, a small village in Karnataka, India, to a lower middle class orthodox family, her father was a farmer, mother, an elementary school teacher. She grew up in the village till her father died due to a heart ailment when she was 6, after which her family moved to Bellur, another small village in Karnataka.

Her sister Deepa Iyer and brother in law Sudesh k rao are Kannada serial actors and their daughter Sanya Iyer is a child artist who acted in Roopa Iyer's Mukhaputa and plays the lead role of Gowri in the serial Puttagowri maduve telecasted on Etv Kannada. Sanya has played the role of Shriya Saran's sister in Roopa Iyer's Chandra, her humble beginnings date back to 1992, when 10-year-old young Roopa started a dance academy in Bellur for young girls. She performed numerous dance programs. Five years she moved to Bangalore with her family and started Gurukul that not only extended dance lessons to include multiple classical disciplines but produced and coordinated events. Alongside, she pursued her academic goal and earned a master's degree in Commerce from Karnataka State Open University. After her start of the world tour during the early part of the decade, Gurukul evolved into India Classic Arts, a nonprofit global fine arts performing production organization, based both at New Jersey, USA & Bangalore, India.

Her repertoire of expertise encompasses various Indian dance forms that include: Bharatanatyam, Odissi, Modern Art, Folk and Film. She is not only the Director of the movie "Mukha Puta – The Cover Page" but has written the story and screenplay, while being the lead actress in the latest award-winning movie "Daatu". In 2013, she directed & produced her bilingual big budget film "CHANDRA" in Tamil and Kannada with star cast comprising South queen Shriya Saran, Handsome hero Prem, Padmashree Vivekh, Vijay Kumar, Ganesh Venkataram, Sukhanya, Dr Iyer is the recipient of many awards for her artistic achievement and contribution to charity and her involvement in supporting HIV affected children, including: Young Leader Award – Vivekananda V-Lead NaaTya Kalaabhinethri - Brain Centre Indian Achiever – Gold Medal Glory of India – Gold Medal Non Resident Indian "Pravasi" Award from British High Commissioner Adarsha Ratna Natya Saraswathi Padma Kalaashri Indira Priyadarshini Bangalore Supermodel She is promoting Indian dance & culture around the globe.

The list of performances produced and performed for the purpose of serving victims of HIV affected through ICA. Direction and Screenplay: "Mukha Puta" or "The Cover Page" 2009o Winner Silver Sierra Award, Yosemite Film Festival, California, USA o Winner Best Feature Film, International Film Festival, Ireland o Winner Best Feature Film, International Film Festival, South Africa o Official Feature, Cairo International Film Festival, Egypt o Official Feature, Indian Film Festival, Washington, DC USA o Award Nominee, Swansea Bay Film Festival, Wales, UK o Award Nominee, International Film Festival, Boston o Award Nominee, International Film Festival, Singapore Lead role in the Award Winning Kannada Movie "Daatu"o Best Actress Award at the International Images Film Festival for Women 2008 in Zimbabwe. Lead role in "Chaitanya" 2008 & "Ondooralli" 2010Other Programs and performances of Roopa Iyer in support of HIV/AIDS affected children through ICA Producer & the organizer for "1st Vishwa Kannada SammeLana – Europe" at London 2011.

V-Fight: is an organization for youngsters to serve the society. Conducting "Youth Conference" to build Enteroprinership & Patriotism in Youth; as part of the World Tour and choreographed a unique creation, the Universal Truth! – a fascinating journey navigating the evolution of knowledge and culture in India. Production and Performance of Classical and Contemporary Dance Programs at more than a dozen cities in the US, including New York, New Jersey, Los Angeles, Chicago, Boston and Detroit Performances at the 2002 and 2004 World Kannada Conferences World Tour Performances in Malaysia and Dubai Title role in the long-standing popular Kannada TV serial "Mahamaye" Produced the biggest in the live entertainment: Double Oscar Winner A R Rahman at Bangalore, India Produced State level fashion shows and pageants – Mr. & Miss Sandalwood 2003, 2008, 2009, 2010 & 2011 Produced numerous charity events An ardent student of Indian philosophy, she is writing a detailed monograph on "Yoga and Marga" as expounded in the Bhagavad-Gita that synthesizes the complex material into a simple and lucid presentation.

Writing a Special column for UDAYAVANI titled "Modern Aadhyathma". Mukhaputa – The Cover Page,a feature film produced by Narayan Hosmane and is directed by Roopa Iyer under the ICA banner, is about HIV/AIDS affected kids and the importance of Love and freedom in their life; the film wo

Mojave Moon

Mojave Moon is a 1996 American road movie. It stars Anne Archer, Michael Biehn, Angelina Jolie and Jack Noseworthy; the film was directed by Kevin Dowling. Al McCord is hanging out at his favourite restaurant when he meets an attractive young woman, looking for a ride from the city into the Mojave Desert, where her mother Julie lives. Al discovers romance with the free-spirited Julie despite the nearby presence of her boyfriend Boyd, who seems to go berserk at any moment. Strange events follow and it's up to Al to find an explanation. In the desert, Al's car develops a flat tire, he discovers an apparent dead body. Al heads to a gas station for repairs, following a near run-in with a highway patrolman, when he is interrupted by an attempted robbery; the confusion created by the gun-happy gas station worker allows Al to escape unhurt. Back home, Al is visited followed by Julie. Unknown to him at this point, his car is being stolen. Outside they notice flee to a nearby motel. Just after Al leaves to search for his car, Boyd arrives at the motel, taking the women back to Mojave and locking them in a shed.

Al and actor buddy Sal are themselves knocked out by Boyd. Kaiser, still alive, arrives at Mojave unseen as Boyd drives off with Al, Sal and Ellie in the car atop his truck, intending on tipping the car and passengers over the edge of a quarry, they escape uninjured while Boyd plummets to his doom, signaled by an ostentatious explosion. Ellie returns to Los Angeles with Sal. Danny Aiello - Al McCord Angelina Jolie - Ellie Rigby Anne Archer - Julie, Ellie's mother Michael Biehn - Boyd, Julie's boyfriend Alfred Molina - Sal Santori Jack Noseworthy - Kaiser, Ellie's boyfriend Zack Norman - Terry Michael Massee as the Fifth Guy Mojave Moon on IMDb Mojave Moon at Rotten Tomatoes

Buw Holding

The buw Holding GmbH, was an owner-run German company based in Osnabrück acquired by Convergys through a definitive merger, is known for its call centres. Buw has altogether about 6,000 employees who work in Osnabrück, Münster, Schwerin, Berlin and Wismar. in Germany, Pécs in Hungary, Timișoara and Cluj in Romania. Jens Bormann and Karsten Wulf, who met at the University of Osnabrück, founded their company in March 1993 as b u. w Telefonmarketing GmbH while they still were students. In 2001 the company was restructured. In 2002 employees founded the organisation Lernen fürs Leben, committed to projects in the Third World, in particular if they serve the purpose to teach people how to make a living on their own. In 2003 the buw Holding had 1,700 employees in Münster and Munich. Temporarily it ran a call centre in Vienna, Austria. In 2006 the company received the European Call Centre Award for its corporate identity. In 2008 the holding's turnover was EUR 76 million and in 2009 buw employed up to about 3,700 people.

In February 2011 a call centre was opened in Romania. In August 2016 Convergys Corporation has completed its announced acquisition of buw, By adding buw’s geographic footprint, complementary client base, German language capabilities, Convergys becomes the second largest outsourced customer services provider in Germany; the combination creates a team of 7,000 German-speaking service professionals, located in 19 sites and four countries – Germany, Hungary and Poland. The buw Holding GmbH consists of two main branches: buw customer care operations buw consulting GmbH. Official website

Treaty of Fort Wise

The Treaty of Fort Wise of 1861 was a treaty entered into between the United States and six chiefs of the Southern Cheyenne and four of the Southern Arapaho Indian tribes. A significant proportion of Cheyennes opposed this treaty on the grounds that only a minority of Cheyenne chiefs had signed, without the consent or approval of the rest of the tribe. Different responses to the treaty became a source of conflict between whites and Indians, leading to the Colorado War of 1864, including the Sand Creek Massacre. By the terms of the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie between the United States and various tribes including the Cheyenne and Arapaho, the Cheyenne and Arapaho were recognized to hold a vast territory encompassing the lands between the North Platte River and Arkansas River and eastward from the Rocky Mountains to western Kansas; this area included present-day southeastern Wyoming, southwestern Nebraska, most of eastern Colorado, the westernmost portions of Kansas. However, the discovery in November 1858 of gold in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado brought on a gold rush and a consequent flood of white emigration across Cheyenne and Arapaho lands.

Colorado territorial officials pressured federal authorities to redefine the extent of Indians treaty lands, in the fall of 1860 A. B. Greenwood, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, arrived at Bent's New Fort along the Arkansas River to negotiate a new treaty. On February 18, 1861, six chiefs of the Southern Cheyenne and four of the Arapaho signed the Treaty of Fort Wise with the United States, at Bent's New Fort at Big Timbers near what is now Lamar, Colorado leased by the U. S. Government and renamed Fort Wise, in which they ceded to the United States most of the lands designated to them by the Fort Laramie treaty; the Cheyenne chiefs were Black Kettle, White Antelope, Lean Bear, Little Wolf, Tall Bear, Left Hand. The new reserve, less than one-thirteenth the size of the 1851 reserve, was located in eastern Colorado along the Arkansas River between the northern boundary of New Mexico and Sand Creek; some bands of Cheyenne including the Dog Soldiers, a militaristic band of Cheyennes and Lakotas that had evolved beginning in the 1830s, were angry at those chiefs who had signed the treaty, disavowing the treaty and refusing to abide by its constraints.

They continued to live and hunt in the bison-rich lands of eastern Colorado and western Kansas, becoming belligerent over the tide of white immigration across their lands in the Smoky Hill River country of Kansas, along which whites had opened a new trail to the gold fields. Cheyennes opposed to the treaty said that it had been signed by a small minority of the chiefs without the consent or approval of the rest of the tribe, that the signatories had not understood what they signed, that they had been bribed to sign by a large distribution of gifts; the whites, claimed the treaty was a "solemn obligation" and considered that those Indians who refused to abide by it were hostile and planning a war. The beginning of the American Civil War in 1861 led to the organization of military forces in Colorado Territory. In March 1862, the Coloradans defeated the Texas Confederate Army in the Battle of Glorieta Pass in New Mexico. Following the battle, the First Regiment of Colorado Volunteers returned to Colorado Territory and were mounted as a home guard under the command of Colonel John Chivington.

Chivington and Colorado territorial governor John Evans adopted a hard line against Indians. Continuing escalation led to the Colorado War of 1864-1865. On November 29, 1864, troops under Chivington attacked a peaceful Cheyenne and Arapaho camp at Sand Creek on the reserve established for them under the Treaty of Fort Wise; this event became known as the Sand Creek Massacre. Brown, Dee.. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West. Owl Books. ISBN 0-8050-6669-1. Greene, Jerome A.. Washita, The Southern Cheyenne and the U. S. Army. Campaigns and Commanders Series, vol. 3. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3551-4. Hoig, Stan.. The Peace Chiefs of the Cheyennes. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1573-4. Hyde, George E.. Life of George Bent Written from His Letters. Ed. by Savoie Lottinville. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1577-7. Michno, Gregory F.. Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes 1850-1890. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company.

ISBN 0-87842-468-7. "Treaty of Fort Laramie with Sioux, Etc. 1851." 11 Stats. 749, Sept. 17, 1851. In Charles J. Kappler and editor, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties — Vol. II: Treaties. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1904, pp. 594–596. Through Oklahoma State University Library, Electronic Publishing Center. "Treaty with the Arapaho and Cheyenne, 1861". 12 Stat. 1163, Feb. 15, 1861. Ratified Aug. 6, 1861. In Charles J. Kappler and editor, Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties — Vol. II: Treaties. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1904, pp. 807–811. Through Oklahoma State University Library, Electronic Publishing Center