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Constantine VIII

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Constantine VIII
Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans
Histamenon nomisma-Constantine VIII-sb1776.jpg
Constantine VIII on the reverse of a histamenon coin, with crown, labarum and akakia
Emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Reign 962–1025[notes 1]
15 December 1025 –
11 November 1028
Predecessor Basil II
Successor Romanos III Argyros
Born 960
Died 11 November 1028
Spouse Helena
Issue Eudokia
Zoe
Theodora
Full name
Constantine VIII
Dynasty Macedonian dynasty
Father Romanos II
Mother Theophano

Constantine VIII (Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος Η΄, Kōnstantinos VIII) (960 – 11 November 1028) was the Byzantine Emperor from 15 December 1025 until his death in 1028. He was the son of the Emperor Romanos II and Theophano, and the younger brother of the eminent Basil II, who died childless and thus left the rule of the Byzantine Empire in his hands. He had been nominal co-emperor for the preceding 63 years. Constantine was an incompetent hedonist with no interest in politics, statecraft or the military, his brief reign was "an unmitigated disaster", sparking "a collapse of the military power of the Empire".

Family[edit]

Constantine's father, Romanos, was the sixth Byzantine emperor of the Macedonian dynasty, after the death of his first wife, Bertha (who took the name Eudocia), daughter of Hugh of Arles, he fell in love with and married an innkeeper's daughter from the Peloponnese, Theophano. Contemporaries called Theophano the most beautiful woman in Christendom as well as ambitious, an inveterate schemer and utterly amoral, she bore Romanos four children, including Constantine, born in 960, and his elder brother Basil, born in 958.[1] His sister Anna married Vladimir I of Kiev. Anna's hand was considered such a prize that Vladimir converted to Christianity in order to marry her.[2] Aged eight, Constantine was engaged to a daughter of Emperor Boris II of Bulgaria but in the end he married a Byzantine aristocrat named Helena, daughter of Alypius. By Helena he had three daughters: Eudokia, who became a nun; Zoe, who was empress for 22 years; and Theodora who reigned for 18 months and was the last of the Macedonian line.[3]

Life[edit]

Childhood[edit]

A photograph of a gold coin depicting two crowned figures, both grasping a double-barred patriarchal cross between them
Basil II and Constantine VIII, holding a patriarchal cross

Romanos died in 963, amidst rumours that Theophano had poisoned him; Constantine was three years old. Constantine and his brother had been crowned co-emperors by their father in March 962,[4] the widowed Theophano installed herself as regent for her sons and promptly purged the imperial government, appointing her own men. Passing over a bevy of suitors among Constantinople's courtiers, she made an alliance with Nikephoros Phokas. Nikephoros, a physically repulsive ascetic twice her age, was the greatest military hero of the Empire; in return for her hand, the childless Nikephoros gave his sacred pledge to protect her children and their interests. Nikephoros entered Constantinople three months after Romanus' death, breaking the resistance of Joseph Bringas, a eunuch palace official who had been Romanos' chief counsellor, in street fighting.[5] Nikephoros was crowned emperor in the presence of his nominal co-emperors, Constantine and Basil. A month later he married their mother.[6]

Six years later, Nikephoros was murdered at Theophano's instigation and her lover and co-conspirator John Tzimisces was acclaimed emperor. Tzimiskes proposed to marry Theophano but the Empress had by then been too damaged by gossip and rumours, many of them accurate. Patriarch Polyeuktos refused to perform the coronation unless John removed the "scarlet empress" from the court.[7][8] John calculated that his legitimacy would be better enhanced by church approval than betrothal to the unpopular empress and acceded to the Patriarch's demands. Theophano was sent into exile and John was crowned, again with Constantine and Basil as co-emperors.[7][8] Tzimisces married Theodora, Constantine's aunt.[9]

Adulthood[edit]

Following the assassination of Tzimiskes in January 976, Basil and Constantine took power, although the sixteen year old Constantine was nominally co-emperor it was clear that Basil was senior emperor as Basileus Basil II.[10] Constantine as a young man was tall and graceful, he was a superb horseman and trained his own horses, he competed in athletic and wrestling competitions, which he brought back into fashion. He had an excellent speaking voice and a good grasp of rhetoric, he was a gourmet and a gourmand.[11] He had no interest in politics, statecraft or the military and never developed any.[12] Constantine led troops alongside his brother in 989; the campaign ended without any combat and Constantine was not appointed to military command again.[13]

Emperor[edit]

Basil II had an illustrious reign, earning the sobriquet "Bulgar-slayer" (Bulgaroktonus), he died childless on 15 December 1025 and Constantine became sole emperor as Constantine VIII. He was sixty-five and a widower, he had been a co-emperor for sixty-three years but had always been content to enjoy the privileges of imperial status, without concerning himself with state affairs.[14] He spent his life in the search of pleasure and entertainment, or amusing himself with riding and hunting, he was "of frivolous disposition, he desired nothing more than to pass his life wallowing in extravagant pleasures."[15] Constantine as emperor carried on as he always had – hunting, feasting, and enjoying life – and avoided state business as much as possible.[15]

By the time he became emperor he had chronic gout and could hardly walk, he met challenges with impulsive cruelty, persecuting the nobility and ordering an orgy of torture; blinding was a favoured punishment for crimes real or imagined. He filled the senior court and state positions with nonentities. Within months the land laws of Basil II were dropped, under pressure from the Anatolian aristocracy. "Devoid of any semblance of moral fibre"[16] he would grant any concession.[16] Favouritism failed to win him friends and he persecuted the nobility when he felt threatened by conspiracy, the start of the decline of the Byzantine Empire has been linked to Constantine's accession to the throne.[17] His reign has been described as "an unmitigated disaster", "a break up of the system" and causing "a collapse of the military power of the Empire".[18][10]

He ruled for less than three years before his death on 11 November 1028, on his deathbed, and without a male heir, Constantine recalled the senior aristocrat Constantine Dalessenus, Duke of Antioch, to the capital in order to marry his oldest daughter Zoe. The Dalassenus were one of the few powerful patrician families who had been unswervingly loyal to the Macedonian dynasty.[19] Constantine Dalassenos set out from his estates in the Armeniac Theme, but before reaching Constantinople the situation changed: the emperor's advisors preferred a weak ruler whom they could control, and, typically, Constantine was persuaded, he choose Romanos Argyros instead, forcing him to divorce his wife and marry Zoe. The wedding took place only three days before Constantine died on 11 November 1028. Romanos was crowned Romanos III (r. 1028–1034) four days later.[20][21]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Co-Emperor with Romanos II (962–963), Nikephoros II Phokas (963–969), John I Tzimiskes (969–976) and Basil II (962–1025)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Norwich 1991, p. 174.
  2. ^ SkylitzesWortley 2010, p. 319 (footnote).
  3. ^ Garland 1999, pp. 165–66.
  4. ^ Brand, Charles M.; Cutler, Anthony (1991). "Constantine VIII". In Kazhdan, Alexander. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 503–504. ISBN 0-19-504652-8. 
  5. ^ Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 284.
  6. ^ Norwich 1991, pp. 174–75, 183–190.
  7. ^ a b Ash 1995, p. 248.
  8. ^ a b Norwich 1991, p. 240.
  9. ^ Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 261.
  10. ^ a b Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 264.
  11. ^ Norwich 1991, pp. 267, 269.
  12. ^ Norwich 1991, p. 231.
  13. ^ Norwich 1991, pp. 242–43.
  14. ^ Brand, Charles M.; Cutler, Anthony (1991). "Constantine VIII". In Kazhdan, Alexander. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 503–504. ISBN 0-19-504652-8. 
  15. ^ a b Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 265.
  16. ^ a b Norwich 1991, p. 268.
  17. ^ Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 283.
  18. ^ Norwich 1991, pp. 283, 268.
  19. ^ Norwich 1991, p. 269.
  20. ^ Patlagean 2007, pp. 131–132; Treadgold 1997, p. 584.
  21. ^ Ostrogorsky 1957, p. 322.

Bibliography[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

Secondary sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Constantine VIII
Born: 960 Died: 15 November 1028
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Basil II
Byzantine Emperor
962–1028
with Romanos II (962–963)
with Nikephoros II Phokas (963–969)
with John I Tzimiskes (969–976)
with Basil II (962–1025)
Succeeded by
Zoe and Romanos III