SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Constitution Avenue

Constitution Avenue is a major east-west street in the northwest and northeast quadrants of the city of Washington, D. C. in the United States. It was known as B Street, its western section was lengthened and widened between 1925 and 1933, it received its current name on February 26, 1931, though it was named Jefferson Avenue in honor of Thomas Jefferson. Constitution Avenue's western half defines the northern border of the National Mall and extends from the United States Capitol to the Theodore Roosevelt Bridge, its eastern half runs through the neighborhoods of Capitol Hill and Kingman Park before it terminates at Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium. Many federal departmental headquarters and museums line Constitution Avenue's western segment; when the District of Columbia was founded in 1790, the Potomac River was much wider than it is, a major tidal estuary known as Tiber Creek flowed from 6th Street NW to the shore of the river. In Pierre Charles L'Enfant's original plan for the city in 1791, B Street NW began at 6th Street NW, ended at the river's edge at 15th Street NW.

Its eastern segment, unimpeded by any water obstacles, ran straight to the Eastern Branch river. Along its entire length, B Street was 60 feet wide. L'Enfant proposed turning Tiber Creek into a canal, his plan included cutting a new canal south across the western side of the United States Capitol grounds and converting James Creek into the canal's southern leg. The Washington Canal Company was incorporated in 1802, after several false starts substantial work began in 1810; the Washington City Canal began operation in 1815. The canal suffered from maintenance problems and economic competition immediately. Traffic on the canal was adversely affected by tidal forces, which the builders had not accounted for, which deposited large amounts of sediment in the canal. At low tide, portions of the canal were dry. After the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad built Washington Branch into the city in 1835, competition from railroads left the canal economically unviable. Although the Washington City Canal remained in use after the coming of the railroad, by 1855 it had filled with silt and debris to the point where it was no longer functional.

It remained in this condition throughout the 1860s. In 1871, Congress abolished the elected mayor and bicameral legislature of the District of Columbia, established a territorial government. Territorial government only lasted until 1874, but during this period the D. C. Board of Public Works turned it into a sewer. B Street NW from 15th Street to Virginia Avenue NW was constructed on top of it. Work began in October 1871 and was complete in December 1873. After terrible flooding inundated much of downtown Washington, D. C. in 1881, Congress ordered the United States Army Corps of Engineers to dredge a deep channel in the Potomac to lessen the chance of flooding. Congress ordered that the dredged material be used to fill in what remained of the Tiber Creek estuary and build up much of the land near the White House and along Pennsylvania Avenue NW by nearly 6 feet to form a kind of levee; this "reclaimed land" — which today includes West Potomac Park, East Potomac Park, the Tidal Basin — was complete by 1890, designated Potomac Park by Congress in 1897.

Congress first appropriated money for the beautification of the reclaimed land in 1902, which led to the planting of sod and trees. B Street NW extended through the newly created West Potomac Park between Virginia Avenue NW and 23rd Street NW. However, since this area was considered parkland, the street narrowed to just 40-foot in width. On March 4, 1913, Congress created the Arlington Memorial Bridge Commission whose purpose was to design and build a bridge somewhere in West Potomac Park which would link the city to Arlington National Cemetery, but Congress appropriated no money for the design or construction due to the onset of World War I. But after President Warren G. Harding was trapped in a three-hour traffic jam on the Highway Bridge while on his way to dedicate the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier on November 11, 1921, Harding began pushing Congress to move on constructing a new bridge. Congress approved funding for design work on June 12, 1922, authorized construction of the Arlington Memorial Bridge on February 24, 1925.

The 1925 legislation specified that B Street NW be treated as a major approach to Arlington Memorial Bridge. Several design problems presented themselves; the first was. The second was; this second problem was important, because the Lincoln Memorial stood at the northeastern terminus of the proposed bridge. Third, the Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway was being designed to terminate at the Lincoln Memorial as well; the parkway would interact with the B Street approaches to the bridge. Additionally, three agencies had design approval over the bridge; the first was the AMBC, building it. The second was the National Capital Parks Commission, which had statutory authority to approve federal transportation construction in the city; the third was the United States Commission of Fine Arts. Since the bridge was considered a memorial, it had to pass CFA muster as well. In April 1924, the Arlington Memorial Bridge Commission proposed extending B Street a

North Fortuna Mountain

North Fortuna Mountain is a 1,291-foot mountain located in Mission Trails Regional Park in San Diego, California. The mountain is the northern most of the five peaks that dominate the center of Mission Trails Regional Park. Due to the surrounding lower mesa topography, North Fortuna is visible to those traveling on nearby Interstate 15 through Marine Corps Air Station Miramar and those on State Route 52 over the Mission Trails Summit between San Diego and Santee, California. There are several routes to the summit of North Fortuna Mountain. More popular routes being those that leave from the area around the Old Mission Dam and proceed up the saddle between North Fortuna and its smaller neighbor South Fortuna before turning to the north up the summit ridge to the North Fortuna Summit; the summit affords those that make it to the top 360-degree views of San Diego, Santee, MCAS Miramar as well as other landmarks such as Cowles Mountain to the immediate south and the Cuyamaca Peak and the Cuyamaca Mountains to the east

Paul & Paula

Paul & Paula are a former American pop singing duo, best known for their 1963 million selling No. 1 hit record, "Hey Paula". Hildebrand was born in Joshua and Jackson in McCamey, Texas. Both were attending Howard Payne College in Brownwood, Texas in 1962 when a local disc jockey, Riney Jordan, of station KEAN, asked listeners to come to the studio and sing their songs to help the American Cancer Society; the duo sang. Jordan decided that Hildebrand and Jackson should record the song, they did. Shelby Singleton of Philips Records signed the two, but not before changing their professional name. "Hey Paula" sold over two million copies globally, was awarded a gold disc by the Recording Industry Association of America in 1963. The pairing of Paul & Paula was credited with inspiring other famous male/female pairings down the line from record companies that had turned the duo down in 1962. In November 1963 Nino Tempo & April Stevens and Dale and Grace had back-to-back Hot 100 #1s. Jerry Butler was paired with Betty Everett, Marvin Gaye was paired with a number of female partners before Motown settled on Tammi Terrell.

A revival of this duet craze started in 1977, when country music stars Kenny Rogers and Dottie West teamed up and recorded a series of big hit duets, such as "Everytime Two Fools Collide" and "Anyone Who Isn't Me Tonight." Rogers would pair up with Kim Carnes, Sheena Easton and Dolly Parton. The duo released two regular albums and a Christmas-themed album after the success of "Hey Paula", which charted at #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 for the entire month of February 1963, their follow-up, "Young Lovers", reached #6 on the Billboard chart in the same year. In 1963, American Bandstand signed Paul & Paula to Dick Clark's Caravan of Stars national U. S. tour, scheduled to perform its 15th show on the night of November 22, 1963 at the Memorial Auditorium in Dallas, Texas until the Friday evening event had to be cancelled moments after U. S. President John F. Kennedy was assassinated that afternoon while touring Dallas in an open car caravan. In 1965, Hildebrand left the act to complete his college education, having decided that a future in show business was not for him.

He made this decision in the middle of another Dick Clark Caravan of Stars road trip, Clark had to fill in at the last minute. Hildebrand recorded, he became best-known among Christian music fans for his 1970s hit song "Anybody Here Wanna Live Forever?" Subsequently, Hildebrand joined up with another Christian performer, Paul Land, during the 1980s and 1990s, they performed comedy and Christian music under the name of Land & Hildebrand. Jackson went on with a solo career, married a Los Angeles businessman named Marvin Landon. Since their days as a singing duo and Ray have remained friends, well into the early 2000s, they would get together to sing as Paul & Paula for special events like oldies shows. In 2002, Hildebrand and Jackson returned to Howard Payne University in Brownwood, TX, where they were the homecoming guests of honor and Grand Marshals. Paul & Paula Sing for Young Lovers We Go Together Holiday for Teens Welcome Warrior National Lampoon's Animal House The Best of Paul & Paula Greatest Hits "Hey Paula" b/w "Bobby Is the One" "Young Lovers" b/w "Ba-Hey-Be" "First Quarrel" b/w "School Is Thru" "Something Old, Something New" b/w "Flipped Over You" "First Day Back at School" b/w "A Perfect Pair" "Holiday Hootenanny" b/w "Holiday for Teens" "We'll Never Break Up for Good" b/w "Crazy Little Things" "Darlin'" b/w "The Young Years" "No Other Baby" b/w "Too Dark to See" "True Love" b/w "Any Way You Want Me" "Dear Paula" b/w "All the Love" List of Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles of 1963