SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Constitution of Australia

The Constitution of Australia, or Australian Constitution, is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia. It consists of several documents; the most important is the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia, referred to as the "Constitution" in the remainder of this article. The Constitution was approved in a series of referendums held over 1898–1900 by the people of the Australian colonies, the approved draft was enacted as a section of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900, an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom; the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 was given Royal Assent on 9 July 1900, was proclaimed on 17 September 1900, entered into force on 1 January 1901. Though the Constitution was given legal force by an Act of the United Kingdom parliament, the Australia Act 1986 removed the power of the United Kingdom parliament to change the Constitution as in force in Australia, the Constitution can now only be changed in accordance with the prescribed referendum procedures in Section 128.

Other pieces of legislation have constitutional significance for Australia. These are the Statute of Westminster, as adopted by the Commonwealth in the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942, the Australia Act 1986, passed in equivalent forms by the United Kingdom Parliament and the Australian Federal Parliament; the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act is regarded as the point at which Australia became de jure an independent nation, while the Australia Act for all practical purposes severed the remaining constitutional links between Australia and the United Kingdom. Although the monarch of the United Kingdom remains the monarch of Australia, today this person Queen Elizabeth II, acts in a distinct capacity as monarch of each. Authority to interpret the Constitution lies with federal courts: with the Federal Court of Australia and the High Court of Australia; the history of the Constitution of Australia began with moves towards federation in the 19th century, which culminated in the federation of the Australian colonies to form the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.

However, the Constitution has continued to develop since with two laws having significant impact on the constitutional status of the nation. In the mid-19th century, a desire to facilitate co-operation on matters of mutual interest intercolonial tariffs, led to proposals to unite the separate British colonies in Australia under a single federation. However, impetus came from Britain and there was only lacklustre local support; the smaller colonies feared domination by the larger ones. These difficulties led to the failure of several attempts to bring about federation in the 1850s and 1860s. By the 1880s, fear of the growing presence of the Germans and the French in the Pacific, coupled with a growing Australian identity, created the opportunity for establishing the first inter-colonial body, the Federal Council of Australasia, established in 1889; the Federal Council could legislate on certain subjects, but did not have a permanent secretariat, an executive, or independent source of revenue.

The absence of New South Wales, the largest colony diminished its representative value. Henry Parkes, the Premier of New South Wales, was instrumental in pushing for a series of conferences in the 1890s to discuss federalism – one in Melbourne in 1890, another in Sydney in 1891, attended by colonial leaders. By the 1891 conference, significant momentum had been built for the federalist cause, discussion turned to the proper system of government for a federal state. Under the guidance of Sir Samuel Griffith, a draft constitution was drawn up. However, these meetings lacked popular support. Furthermore, the draft constitution sidestepped certain important issues, such as tariff policy; the draft of 1891 was submitted to colonial parliaments but lapsed in New South Wales, after which the other colonies were unwilling to proceed. In 1895, the six premiers of the Australian colonies agreed to establish a new Convention by popular vote; the Convention met over the course of a year from 1897 to 1898.

The meetings produced a new draft which contained the same principles of government as the 1891 draft, but with added provisions for responsible government. To ensure popular support, the draft was presented to the electors of each colony. After one failed attempt, an amended draft was submitted to the electors of each colony except Western Australia. After ratification by the five colonies, the Bill was presented to the British Imperial Parliament with an Address requesting Queen Victoria to enact the Bill. Before the Bill was passed, one final change was made by the imperial government, upon lobbying by the Chief Justices of the colonies, so that the right to appeal from the High Court to the Privy Council on constitutional matters concerning the limits of the powers of the Commonwealth or States could not be curtailed by parliament; the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1900. Western Australia agreed to join the Commonwealth in time for it to be an original member of the Commonwealth of Australia, established on 1 January 1901.

In 1988, the original copy of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 from the Public Record Office in London was l

Washington Township, Scioto County, Ohio

Washington Township is one of the sixteen townships of Scioto County, United States. The 2010 census counted 5,555 people in the township. Located in the southern part of the county along the Ohio River, it borders the following townships: Rush Township - north Clay Township - northeast Nile Township - southwest Union Township - northwestAcross the Ohio River lies Kentucky to the south: Greenup County to the southeast, Lewis County to the southwest. No municipalities are located in Washington Township, although the census-designated place of West Portsmouth lies in the northern part of the township. Shawnee State Forest covers much of Washington Township as well as neighboring Nile Township. Named after George Washington, it is one of forty-three Washington Townships statewide. Washington Township was organized in 1814; the township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it.

There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. Citizens of the township are served by the Washington-Nile Local School District. County website Washington-Nile Local School District

N. V. M. Gonzalez

Néstor Vicente Madali González was a Filipino novelist, short story writer, essayist and, poet. Conferred as the National Artist of the Philippines for Literature in 1997, he was born on 8 September 1915 in Philippines. González, was raised in Mansalay, a southern town of the Philippine province of Oriental Mindoro. González was a son of a teacher; as a teenager, he helped his father by delivering meat door-to-door across provincial villages and municipalities. González was a musician, he played the violin and made four guitars by hand. He earned his first peso by playing the violin during a Chinese funeral in Romblon. González attended Mindoro High School from 1927 to 1930. González attended college at National University but he was unable to finish his undergraduate degree. While in Manila, González wrote for the Philippine Graphic and edited for the Evening News Magazine and Manila Chronicle, his first published essay appeared in the Philippine Graphic and his first poem in Poetry in 1934. González made his mark in the Philippine writing community as a member of the Board of Advisers of Likhaan: the University of the Philippines Creative Writing Center, founding editor of The Diliman Review and as the first president of the Philippine Writers' Association.

González attended creative writing classes under Wallace Stegner and Katherine Anne Porter at Stanford University. In 1950, González returned to the Philippines and taught at the University of Santo Tomas, the Philippine Women's University and the University of the Philippines. At U. P. González was only one of two faculty members accepted to teach in the university without holding a degree. On the basis of his literary publications and distinctions, González taught at the University of California, Santa Barbara, California State University, the University of Washington, the University of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, Berkeley. On 14 April 1987, the University of the Philippines conferred on N. V. M. González the degree of Doctor of Humane Letters, honoris causa, "For his creative genius in shaping the Philippine short story and novel, making a new clearing within the English idiom and tradition on which he established an authentic vocabulary... For his insightful criticism by which he advanced the literary tradition of the Filipino and enriched the vocation for all writers of the present generation...

For his visions and auguries by which he gave the Filipino sense and sensibility a profound and unmistakable script read and reread throughout the international community of letters..." N. V. M. González was proclaimed National Artist of the Philippines in 1997, he died on 28 November 1999 at the age of 84. As a National Artist, Gonzalez was honored with a state funeral at the Libingan ng mga Bayani; the works of Gonzalez have been published in Filipino, Chinese, German and Indonesian. The Winds of April A Season of Grace The Bamboo Dancers The Land And The Rain The Happiest Boy in The World Bread of Salt "The Tomato Game".1992 A Grammar of Dreams and Other Stories. University of the Philippines Press, 1997 The Bread of Other Stories. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1993. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1981. Denver, Colorado: Alan Swallow, 1964 Look, Stranger, on this Island Now. Manila: Benipayo, 1963 Children of the Ash-Covered Loam and Other Stories. Manila: Benipayo, 1954.

Denver, Colorado: Alan Swallow, 1947 A Novel of Justice: Selected Essays 1968–1994. Manila: National Commission for Culture and the Arts and Anvil, 1996 Work on the Mountain, University of the Philippines Press, 1996 Given a Trophy from A Jokarts company Regents Professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, 1998–1999 Philippines Centennial Award for Literature, 1998 National Artist Award for Literature, 1997 Oriental Mindoro Sangguniang Panlalawigan Resolution "extending due recognition to Nestor V. M. González... the commendation he well deserves..." 1996 City of Manila Diwa ng Lahi award "for his service and contribution to Philippine national Literature," 1996 City of Los Angeles resolution declaring October 11, 1996 "N. V. M. González Day, 1996 The Asian Catholic Publishers Award, 1993 The Filipino Community of California Proclamation "honoring N. V. M. González for seventy-eight years of achievements," 1993 Ninoy Aquino Movement for Social and Economic Reconstruction through Volunteer Service award, 1991 City and County of San Francisco proclamation of March 7, 1990 "Professor N.

V. M. González Day in San Francisco," 1990 Cultural Center of the Philippines award, Gawad Para sa Sining, 1990 Writers Union of the Philippines award, Gawad Pambansang Alagad ni Balagtás, 1989 University of the Philippines International Writer-in-Residence, 1988 Doctor of Humane Letters from the University of the Philippines, 1987 Djerassi Foundation Artist-in-Residence, 1986 Philippine Foreign Service Certificate of Appreciation for Work in the International Academic and Literary Community, at San Francisco, 1983 Emeritus Professor of English, California State University, 1982 Carlos Palanca Memorial Award, First Prize for'The Tomato Game,' 1971 City of Manila Medal of Honor, 1971. Awarded Leverhulme Fellowship, University of Hong Kong, 1969. Visiting Associate Professorship in English, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1968. British Council aw