Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012 holding the position from 2000 until 2008. In between his presidential terms he was the Prime Minister of Russia under his close associate Dmitry Medvedev. Putin was born in Leningrad during the Soviet Union, he studied law at Leningrad State University, graduating in 1975. Putin was a KGB foreign intelligence officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before resigning in 1991 to enter politics in Saint Petersburg, he moved to Moscow in 1996 and joined President Boris Yeltsin's administration, rising through the ranks and becoming Acting President on 31 December 1999, when Yeltsin resigned. During his first presidency, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, GDP measured in purchasing power increased by 72%; the growth was a result of the 2000s commodities boom, recovery from the post-Communist depression and financial crises, prudent economic and fiscal policies.
In September 2011, Putin announced. He won the March 2012 presidential election with 64% of the vote. Falling oil prices coupled with international sanctions imposed at the beginning of 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea and military intervention in Eastern Ukraine led to GDP shrinking by 3.7% in 2015, though the Russian economy rebounded in 2016 with 0.3% GDP growth and the recession ended. Putin gained 76% of the March 2018 presidential vote and was re-elected for a six-year term that will end in 2024. Under Putin's leadership, Russia has scored poorly in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index and experienced democratic backsliding according to both the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index and Freedom House's Freedom in the World index. Experts do not consider Russia to be a democracy, citing the lack of free and fair elections and jailing of opponents, curtailed press freedom. Human rights organizations and activists have accused Putin of persecuting political critics and activists, as well as ordering them tortured or assassinated.
Officials of the United States government have accused him of leading an interference program against Hillary Clinton in support of Donald Trump during the U. S. presidential election in 2016, an allegation which both Trump and Putin have denied and criticized. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin was born on 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, the youngest of three children of Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin and Maria Ivanovna Putina, his birth was preceded by the death of two brothers and Albert, born in the mid-1930s. Albert died in infancy and Viktor died of diphtheria during the Siege of Leningrad in World War II. Putin's mother was a factory worker and his father was a conscript in the Soviet Navy, serving in the submarine fleet in the early 1930s. Early in World War II, his father served in the destruction battalion of the NKVD, he was transferred to the regular army and was wounded in 1942. Putin's maternal grandmother was killed by the German occupiers of Tver region in 1941, his maternal uncles disappeared at the war front.
On 1 September 1960, Putin started near his home. He was one of a few in the class of 45 pupils, not yet a member of the Young Pioneer organization. At age 12, he began to practice judo, he is a Judo black belt and national master of sports in Sambo. He wished to emulate the intelligence officers portrayed in Soviet cinema. Putin speaks German fluently. Putin studied Law at the Leningrad State University in 1970 and graduated in 1975, his thesis was on "The Most Favored Nation Trading Principle in International Law". While there, he was required to join the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and remained a member until December 1991. Putin met Anatoly Sobchak, an assistant professor who taught business law, was co-author of the russian constitution, who would be influential in Putin's career. In 1975, Putin trained at the 401st KGB school in Okhta, Leningrad. After training, he worked in the Second Chief Directorate, before he was transferred to the First Chief Directorate, where he monitored foreigners and consular officials in Leningrad.
In September 1984, Putin was sent to Moscow for further training at the Yuri Andropov Red Banner Institute. From 1985 to 1990, he served in East Germany, using a cover identity as a translator. Masha Gessen, a Russian-American who has authored a biography about Putin claims, "Putin and his colleagues were reduced to collecting press clippings, thus contributing to the mountains of useless information produced by the KGB." According to Putin's official biography, during the fall of the Berlin Wall that began on 9 November 1989, he burned KGB files to prevent demonstrators from obtaining them. After the collapse of the Communist East German government, Putin returned to Leningrad in early 1990, where he worked for about three months with the International Affairs section of Leningrad State University, reporting to Vice-Rector Yuriy Molchanov. There, he looked for new KGB recruits, watched the student body, renewed his friendship with his former professor, Anatoly Sobchak, soon to be the Mayor of Leningrad.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government with regional governments in a single political system. Its distinctive feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern federalism by the United States under the Constitution of 1787, is a relationship of parity between the two levels of government established, it can thus be defined as a form of government in which there is a division of powers between two levels of government of equal status. Federalism differs from confederalism, in which the general level of government is subordinate to the regional level, from devolution within a unitary state, in which the regional level of government is subordinate to the general level, it represents the central form in the pathway of regional integration or separation, bounded on the less integrated side by confederalism and on the more integrated side by devolution within a unitary state. Leading examples of the federation or federal state include India, the United States, Mexico, Germany, Switzerland and Australia.
Some today characterize the European Union as the pioneering example of federalism in a multi-state setting, in a concept termed the federal union of states. The terms'federalism' and'confederalism' both have a root in the Latin word foedus, meaning "treaty, pact or covenant." Their common meaning until the late eighteenth century was a simple league or inter-governmental relationship among sovereign states based upon a treaty. They were therefore synonyms, it was in this sense that James Madison in Federalist 39 had referred to the new US Constitution as'neither a national nor a federal Constitution, but a composition of both'. In the course of the nineteenth century the meaning of federalism would come to shift, strengthening to refer uniquely to the novel compound political form established, while the meaning of confederalism would remain at a league of states. Thus, this article relates to the modern usage of the word'federalism'. Modern federalism is a system based upon democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial/state governments.
The term federalist describes several political beliefs around the world depending on context. Federalism is sometimes viewed as in the context of international negotiation as "the best system for integrating diverse nations, ethnic groups, or combatant parties, all of whom may have cause to fear control by an overly powerful center." However, in some countries, those skeptical of federal prescriptions believe that increased regional autonomy is to lead to secession or dissolution of the nation. In Syria, federalization proposals have failed in part because "Syrians fear that these borders could turn out to be the same as the ones that the fighting parties have carved out."Federations such as Yugoslavia or Czechoslovakia collapsed as soon as it was possible to put the model to the test. According to Daniel Ziblatt's Structuring the State, there are four competing theoretical explanations in the academic literature for the adoption of federal systems: Ideational theories, which hold that a greater degree of ideological commitment to decentralist ideas in society makes federalism more to be adopted.
Cultural-historical theories, which hold that federal institutions are more to be adopted in societies with culturally or ethnically fragmented populations. "Social contract" theories, which hold that federalism emerges as a bargain between a center and a periphery where the center is not powerful enough to dominate the periphery and the periphery is not powerful enough to secede from the center. "Infrastructural power" theories, which hold that federalism is to emerge when the subunits of a potential federation have developed infrastructures. Immanuel Kant was an advocate of federalism, noting that "the problem of setting up a state can be solved by a nation of devils" so long as they possess an appropriate constitution which pits opposing factions against each other with a system of checks and balances. In particular individual states required a federation as a safeguard against the possibility of war. On the 1st of January 1901 the nation-state of Australia came into existence as a federation.
The Australian continent was colonised by the United Kingdom in 1788, which subsequently established six self-governing, colonies there. In the 1890s the governments of these colonies all held referendums on becoming the unified, self-governing "Commonwealth of Australia" within the British Empire; when all the colonies voted in favour of federation, the Federation of Australia commenced, resulting in the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The model of Australian federalism adheres to the original model of the United States of America, although it does so through a parliamentary Westminster system rather than a presidential system. In Brazil, the fall of the monarchy in 1889 by a military coup d'état led to the rise of the presidential system, headed by Deodoro da Fonseca. Aided by well-known jurist Ruy Barbosa, Fonseca established federalism in Brazil by decree, but this system of government would be confirmed by every Brazilian constitution since 1891, although some of them would distort some of the federalist principles.
The 1937 federal government had the authority to appoint State Governors at will, thus centralizing power in the hands of P
Prime Minister of Russia
The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister is the head of the Russian government and the second most powerful figure of the Russian Federation. The official residence of the prime minister is Gorki-9 in Odintsovsky District, Moscow Oblast, but his working residence is in Moscow. Under Article 24 of the Federal Constitutional Law'On the Government of the Russian Federation', the prime minister "heads the Government of the Russian Federation"; the Russian Prime Minister is considered the second highest position in the government, after the President. Due to the central role of the President of Russia in the political system, the activities of the executive branch are influenced by the head of state; the use of the term "Prime Minister" is informal and is never used by the Russian Constitution, Federal Laws and other laws. Until 1905, the head of government was the Emperor. In the absence of the Emperor, the Ministers one by one, starting with the oldest in the rank, each for 4 sessions.
In 1810, the chairmanship was granted to the state Chancellor count Nikolay Rumyantsev, the former Chairman of the State Council. Since 1812, as Chairman of the Committee has evolved into an independent position, which until 1865 coincide with the presidency of the Council of State. Traditionally, the chairmanship of the Committee was last in the public service honorary position appointed by the dignitaries that have become too old to execution of the duties of the Minister. A number of Committee chairmen was characterized by contemporaries as "barely alive", "miserable". Count Modest Korf jokingly wrote about count Chernyshov: "Look, just live!" Duke Pavel Gagarin died in office at the age of 83 years. The modern post of Prime Minister appeared in 1905. By the decree of Emperor Nicholas II on the 19 October 1905 was established the government — the Council of Ministers bringing together the Ministers in one Cabinet; the Chairman of the Council of Ministers became a full-fledged head of government.
The first Prime Minister was appointed count Sergei Witte. Since 1905, the Prime Minister received extensive powers, had the opportunity to pursue their own policies and reforms. So one of the strongest Prime Ministers is considered Pyotr Stolypin, who during his Premiership has held several major reforms. Despite the presence of the State Duma, the Government was not responsible to Parliament. Although Sergei Witte and Pyotr Stolypin at the beginning of his Premiership, tried to form a coalition government of the largest political organizations, they did not succeed. State Duma tried to gain influence on the government the conflict of the state Duma and the government were evident during the Premiership of Ivan Goremykin; the position of Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire, lasted 12 years, during this time, 7 people took this post. The position was abolished after the Russian revolution, the abdication of Nicholas II from the throne and the formation of the Provisional government.
During the Russian Provisional Government in 1917, the official title of the prime minister was "Minister-Chairman of the Russian Provisional Government". This position was held by Georgy Lvov and Alexander Kerensky; the position lasted about six months, after the October Revolution, was replaced by Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR. In the era of the Soviet Union, the head of government was the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers. People who held those positions are sometimes referred to as the prime ministers, they may have been referred to as Premier of Ministers, or premier. The formal title is the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation. In modern Russia the Prime Minister is appointed by the President with the consent of the State Duma; the Prime Minister is responsible to the President and reports to him, however to the State Duma he reports only once a year. After the election of Boris Yeltsin, President of Russia, the head of the government was Yeltsin personally.
He headed the Russian SFSR Council of Ministers for about six months. In fact, Yeltsin was the first Head of Government of Russia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, however he was not the Prime Minister. After Yeltsin, Yegor Gaidar became Acting Prime Minister, but the Russian Supreme Soviet refused to approve him as Prime Minister. On 14 December 1992, the Prime Minister appointed was Viktor Chernomyrdin; the Russian political system is similar to the modern French system. For the appointment of the Prime Minister the President needs a majority in the state Duma. If the party President does not have the majority and fails to form a coalition, the President may need to appoint a loyalist to the position of Prime Minister. For example this occurred in 1998 when the state Duma (which had most of the opposition to the P
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012. From 2008 to 2012, Medvedev served as the third President of Russia. Regarded as more liberal than his predecessor and successor as president, Vladimir Putin, Medvedev's top agenda as president was a wide-ranging modernisation programme, aiming at modernising Russia's economy and society, lessening the country's reliance on oil and gas. During Medvedev's tenure, the New START nuclear arms reduction treaty was signed by Russia and the United States, Russia emerged victorious in the Russo-Georgian War, recovered from the Great Recession. Medvedev initiated a substantial law enforcement reform and launched an anti-corruption campaign, despite having been accused of corruption himself. Dmitry Medvedev was born in the Soviet Union, his father, Anatoly Afanasyevich Medvedev, was a chemical engineer teaching at the Leningrad State Institute of Technology. Dmitry's mother, Yulia Veniaminovna Medvedeva, studied languages at Voronezh University and taught Russian at Herzen State Pedagogical University.
She would work as a tour guide at Pavlovsk Palace. The Medvedevs lived in a 40 m² apartment at 6 Bela Kun Street in the Kupchino Municipal Okrug of Leningrad. Dmitry was his parents' only child; the Medvedevs were regarded as Soviet intelligentsia family of the time. His maternal grandparents were Ukrainians, whose surname was Kovalev Koval. Medvedev traces his family roots to the Belgorod region; as a child, Medvedev was bookish and studious, described by his first grade teacher Vera Smirnova as a "dreadful why-asker". After school, he would spend some time playing with his friends before hurrying home to work on his assignments. In the third grade, Medvedev studied the ten-volume Small Soviet Encyclopedia belonging to his father. In the second and third grades, he showed interest in dinosaurs and memorized primary Earth's geologic development periods, from the Archean up to the Cenozoic. In the fourth and fifth grades, he demonstrated interest in chemistry, conducting elementary experiments, he was involved to some degree with sport.
In grade seven, adolescent curiosity blossomed through Svetlana Linnik, his future wife, studying at the same school in a parallel class. The relationship affected Medvedev's school performance. Medvedev calls the school's final exams in 1982 a "tough period when I had to mobilize my abilities to the utmost for the first time in my life." In the autumn of 1982, 17-year-old Medvedev enrolled at Leningrad State University to study law. Although he considered studying linguistics Medvedev said he never regretted his choice, finding his chosen subject fascinating, stating that he was lucky "to have chosen a field that genuinely interested him and that it was really'his thing". Fellow students described Medvedev as a correct and diplomatic person who in debates presented his arguments without offending. During his student years, Medvedev was a fan of the English rock bands Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, fond of sports and participated in athletic competitions in rowing and weight-lifting.
He graduated from the Law Department of Leningrad State University in 1987. After graduating, Medvedev considered joining the prosecutor's office to become an investigator however, he took an opportunity to pursue graduate studies as the civil law chair, deciding to accept three budget-funded post-graduate students to work at the chair itself. In 1990, Medvedev defended his dissertation titled, "Problems of Realisation of Civil Juridical Personality of State Enterprise" and received his Candidate of Sciences degree in private law. Anatoly Sobchak, a major democratic politician of the 1980s and 1990s was one of Medvedev's professors at the university. In 1988, Medvedev joined Sobchak's team of democrats and served as the de facto head of Sobchak's successful campaign for a seat in the new Soviet parliament, the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR. After Sobchak's election campaign Medvedev continued his academic career in the position of docent at his alma mater, now renamed Saint Petersburg State University.
He taught civil and Roman law until 1999. According to one student, Medvedev was a popular teacher. During his tenure Medvedev co-wrote a popular three-volume civil law textbook which over the years has sold a million copies. Medvedev worked at a small law consultancy firm which he had founded with his friends Anton Ivanov and Ilya Yeliseyev, to supplement his academic salary. In 1990, Anatoly Sobchak returned from Moscow to become Chairman of the Leningrad City Council. Sobchak hired Medvedev who had headed his election campaign. One of Sobchak's former students, Vladimir Putin, came on board as an adviser; the next summer Sobchak was elected Mayor of the city, Medvedev became a consultant to City Hall's Committee for Foreign Affairs. It was headed by Putin. In November 1993 Medvedev became the legal affairs director of Ilim Pulp Enterprise, a St. Petersburg-based timber company. Medvedev aided the company in developing a strategy. Medvedev received 20% of the company's stock. In the next seven years Ilim Pulp Enterprise became Russia's largest lumber company with an annual revenue of around $500 million.
Medvedev sold his shares in ILP in 1999. He took his first
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Presidential Administration of Russia
The Presidential Administration of Russia is the executive office of Russia's president created by a decree of Boris Yeltsin on 19 July 1991 as an institution supporting the activity of the president and vice-president of Russian SFSR, as well as deliberative bodies attached to the president, including the Security Council. The chief of the presidential administration, his deputies, heads of main directorates and services and their deputies are appointed by the President of Russia and don't need to be approved by any other government body. Other staff is appointed by the chief of the presidential administration. On 25 March 2004, Vladimir Putin undertook a major reorganisation of this institution by a decree. Only two deputy chiefs remained out of seven; the Press Office and the Information Office were merged into the Press and Information Office, the Pardon Directorate and the Citizenship Directorate were merged into the Directorate for Protecting Citizens' Constitutional Rights. The Personnel Directorate and the State Decorations Directorate were merged into the Personnel and State Decorations Directorate, the Protocol Directorate and the Organisation Directorate were merged into the Protocol and Organization Directorate.
The Territorial Directorate was included in the Domestic policy Directorate. The Economic Directorate was abolished, the Civil Service Directorate was created; the Presidential Administration of Russia is situated in Moscow where it holds offices in several buildings of Kitay-gorod and inside the Kremlin. Chief of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office: Anton VainoFirst Deputy Chiefs of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office: Sergey Kiriyenko Alexey GromovDeputy Chiefs of Staff of the Presidential Executive Office: Magomedsalam MagomedovDeputy Chief of the Presidential Executive Office and Presidential Press Secretary: Dmitry PeskovAides to the President: Andrej Belousov Larisa Brychyova Vladislav Surkov Igor Levitin Vladimir Kozhin Yuri Ushakov Andrei Fursenko Konstantin Chuychenko Evgeny Shkolov Igor ShchegolevChief of the Presidential Protocol: Vladimir OstrovenkoAdvisers to the President: Alexander Bedritsky Sergey Glazyev Sergei Grigorov Anton Kobyakov Alexandra Levitskaya Vladimir Tolstoy Anton Ustinov Mikhail Fedotov Veniamin YakovlevPresidential Commissioner for Children’s Rights: Anna Kuznetsova Presidential Commissioner for Entrepreneurs’ Rights: Boris Titov The Federal districts of Russia are a level of administration for the convenience of the federal government and have been organised in 2000.
They are not the constituent units of Russia. Each district includes each federal district has a presidential envoy; the official task of the Plenipotentiary Representative is to oversee the work of federal agencies in the regions, although in practice this oversight is extensive and of considerable consequence. Federal districts' envoys serve as liaisons between the federal subjects and the federal government and are responsible for overseeing the compliance of the federal subjects with the federal laws; this institution is organised as followed: Central Federal District Georgy Poltavchenko Oleg Govorun Alexander Beglov Southern Federal District Viktor Kazantsev Vladimir Yakovlev Dmitry Kozak Grigory Rapota Vladimir Ustinov Northwestern Federal District Viktor Cherkesov Valentina Matviyenko Ilya Klebanov Nikolay Vinnichenko Vladimir Bulavin Nikolay Tsukanov Far Eastern Federal District Konstantin Pulikovsky Kamil Iskhakov Oleg Safonov Viktor Ishayev Yury Trutnev Siberian Federal District Leonid Drachevsky Anatoly Kvashnin Viktor Tolokonsky Nikolay Rogozhkin Sergey Menyaylo Ural Federal District Pyotr Latyshev Nikolay Vinnichenko Yevgeny Kuyvashev Igor Kholmanskikh Volga Federal District Sergey Kiriyenko Aleksandr Konovalov Grigory Rapota Mikhail Babich North Caucasian Federal District Alexander Khloponin Sergey Melikov Oleg Belaventsev Crimean Federal District Oleg Belaventsev The Presidential Plenipotentiary to the Federation Council of Russia: Anatoly Sliva Yury Yarov Vyacheslav Khizhnyakov Alexander Kotenkov Arthur Muravyov The Presid