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Constitution of Vermont

The Constitution of the State of Vermont is the fundamental body of law of the U. S. state of Vermont. It was adopted in 1793 following Vermont's admission to the Union in 1791 and is based upon the 1777 Constitution of the Vermont Republic, ratified at Windsor in the Old Constitution House and amended in 1786. At 8,295 words, it is the shortest U. S. state constitution. From 1777 to 1791, Vermont was an independent country referred to in the present day as the Vermont Republic. During that time it was called the State of Vermont but sometimes called the Commonwealth of Vermont or the Republic of Vermont, its first constitution, drafted in 1777, was among the most far-reaching in guaranteeing personal freedoms and individual rights. In particular, it banned adult slavery, saying male slaves become free at the age of 21 and females at 18; the 1777 constitution's Declaration of Rights of the Inhabitants of the State of Vermont anticipated the United States Bill of Rights by a dozen years. The first chapter, a "Declaration of Rights of the Inhabitants of the State of Vermont", is followed by a "Plan or Frame of Government" outlining the structure of governance.

It provided that the governor would be elected by the freemen of the state, who could vote regardless of whether they owned property, that each town would be represented in the legislative assembly, that there would be a court of law in each county, that the legislative assembly and the governor's council would jointly hold legislative power. In 1786, the Constitution was extensively revised to establish a far greater separation of powers than what had prevailed under the 1777 Constitution. In particular, it forbade anyone to hold more than one of certain offices, including those of judges, members of the governor's council, the governor, the surveyor-general, it provided that the legislature could no longer function as a court of appeals nor otherwise intervene in cases before the courts, as it had done. The 1786 Constitution continued in effect when, in 1791, Vermont made the transition from independence to the status of one of the states of the Union. In particular, the governor, the members of the governor's council, other officers of the state, including judges in all courts continued their terms of office that were underway.

The 1793 Constitution was adopted two years after Vermont's admission to the Union and continues in effect, with various amendments, to this day. It eliminated all mention of grievances against the State of New York. In 1790, New York's legislature renounced its claims that Vermont was a part of New York, the cessation of those claims being effective if and when Congress decided to admit Vermont to the Union. "In order that the freedom of this Commonwealth may be preserved inviolate" the 1777 constitution established a Council of Censors. This body consisted of thirteen elected members, chosen every seven years, but not from the Council or General Assembly, they were to check that "the legislative and executive branches of government have performed their duty as guardians of the people". They had the power to call a convention, if needed, to amend the constitution; this council had been based on a similar element of the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776. In 1786, the constitution was amended with language proposed by the 1785 Council of Censors, their first meeting, adopted by the 1786 Constitutional Convention.

The section on the Council of Censors remained unchanged, with only an added clarification of scope. In 1793, the constitution was amended with language proposed by the 1792 Council of Censors and adopted by the 1793 Constitutional Convention; the Council now had the "power to send for persons and records". In 1870, the constitution was amended with language proposed by the 1869 Council of Censors, their last meeting, adopted by the 1870 Constitutional Convention; the Council of Censors was replaced by a new procedure to amend the constitution. The Vermont Constitution, Chapter 2, Section 72 establishes the procedure for amending the constitution; the Vermont General Assembly, the state's bi-cameral legislature, has the sole power to propose amendments to the Constitution of Vermont. The process must be initiated by a Senate, elected in an "off-year", that is, an election that does not coincide with the election of the U. S. president. An amendment must be approved by a two-thirds vote, it must receive a majority vote in the House.

After a newly elected legislature is seated, the amendment must receive a majority vote in each chamber, first in the Senate in the House. The proposed amendment must be presented to the voters as a referendum and receive a majority of the votes cast. In 1991 and again in 1993, the Vermont General Assembly approved a constitutional amendment authorizing the justices of the Vermont Supreme Court to revise the Constitution in "gender-inclusive" language, replacing gender-specific terms.. The revision was ratified by the voters in the general election of November 8, 1994. Vermont is one of six states. Full text of the Constitution of Vermont The Vermont State Archives text of the Vermont Republic Constitution, 1777 The Vermont State Archives text of the 1786 Constitution The Vermont State Archives text of the 1793 Constitution Visit the birthplace of Vermont and its Constitution See the original Constitution manuscript

Faizal Saari

Faizal bin Saari is a Malaysian field hockey player. Playing as a striker for Terengganu Hockey Team. Faizal start his Malaysia Hockey League career with Terengganu Hockey Team, he was the 2011 league top goalscorer with 19 goals. In June 2011, Faizal start his overseas career along with another Malaysian Sukri Mutalib, they were selected by the Southern Hotshots team for the Australian Hockey League. He represent Southern Hotshots in the ten matches league He scored three goals in five matches for Southern Hotshots, he played in the Adelaide League and made seven strikes for Forestville Hockey Club in three appearances. In 2012, he return to Tenaga Nasional Berhad Hockey Club and earn the top goalscorer award with 20 goals. While playing for Tenaga Nasional Berhad, he receive an offer to play in the Spanish Division One for Atlètic Terrassa Hockey Club. After the 2012 season ended, Faizal was bought over by Mumbai Magicians for US$26,000 in an auction to feature in the Hockey India League, he is the highest paid hockey player in Malaysia, followed by Kumar Subramaniam who featured for Uttar Pradesh Wizards after being bought over for US$15,000.

However he has a miserable outing in the HIL firing blanks in all 12 matches. Faizal made his national senior team debut in the Champions Challenge II in Dublin in 2009 at age of 18, he was the members of the Malaysian squad. He part of Malaysia youth team that won the 2012 Asian Hockey Youth Cup, he scored one of the two goals in the final against Pakistan. Faizal was the leading goal scorer at the 2018 Asian Men's Hockey Champions Trophy where he finished with 8 goals. Malaysia finished at the 3rd place after defeating Japan 3-2 in the penalty shootouts in the bronze medal match. Faizal Saari at the International Hockey Federation

Bryan Hodge

Bryan Johnstone Hodge is a Scottish footballer who plays for Arbroath. Hodge is a versatile midfielder who has represented Scotland at under-17, under-18, under-19 and under-20 levels, he started his career at Blackburn Rovers and in his time there had loan spells at Mansfield Town and Darlington. He returned to Scotland, signing for Partick Thistle, from there moved to Brechin City and Stenhousemuir. Hodge signed a pre-contract agreement to sign for Forfar Athletic in the summer of 2015, where he stayed for one season before moving to Stirling Albion. Hodge spent just 6 months with Albion, signing for Arbroath in January 2017. Born in Hamilton, Hodge began his professional footballing career as a trainee with Blackburn Rovers in August 2006, he was loaned to Mansfield Town in late February 2007 in order to gain first-team experience, made nine appearances before returning to Blackburn in April 2007. He joined Millwall on loan in November 2007, for whom he made 13 league and cup appearances in a two-month spell.

He signed a new contract with Blackburn before joining Darlington on loan in February 2008. Hodge made his Blackburn Rovers debut as an 83rd minute substitution for Matt Derbyshire in the FA Cup against Blyth Spartans in January 2009. On 4 July 2009, Hodge signed a two-year contract with Partick Thistle. In August 2011, Hodge appeared as an unused substitute on the bench, as a trialist, for Greenock Morton in two league games. However, after not being offered a contract at Cappielow, Hodge signed with Second Division side Brechin City. On 8 June 2012, Hodge signed for Scottish Second Division side Stenhousemuir. At the end of the 2014–15 season, Hodge left The Warriors, after signing a pre-contract agreement with Forfar Athletic, joining the Station Park side at the end of the 2014–15 season. After one year with Forfar, which saw the side relegated to Scottish League Two, Hodge signed for fellow League Two club Stirling Albion in May 2016. Hodge left Stirling Albion after 6 months with the side, signing for Arbroath on 1 January 2017.

Hodge has represented Scotland at under-18, under-19 and under-20 levels. ArbroathScottish League Two: 2016-17 Bryan Hodge at Soccerbase

St Kilda, New Zealand

St Kilda is a suburb of the New Zealand city of Dunedin. A densely populated residential suburb, it lies on the southern part of the city's central plain, to the southwest of the head of the harbour and north of Ocean Beach, parts of which are within the suburb and form its major geographical feature. Saint Kilda's 2001 population was 5,904; the suburb has well-defined boundaries, having been a separate borough from 1875 until the time of local government restructuring in 1989. This borough was bounded by Forbury Road in the west, Bay View Road in the north, Royal Crescent in the east, at the time of its amalgamation into Dunedin City, was the most densely populated borough in New Zealand. Much of the borough's growth was between 1900 and 1930, during which time the population rose from around 1500 to 8000 declining from that time to its current figure. Many of St Kilda's houses date from this period. St Kilda was named for the Melbourne suburb by early property developer George Scott, who had arrived in New Zealand from Victoria in 1862.

The area had the Maori name Whakaherekau. St Kilda gave its name to a New Zealand electoral constituency which covered much of southern Dunedin and the Otago Peninsula; this electorate existed from 1946 to 1993, was represented in turn by Fred Jones, Sir James Barnes, Bill Fraser, Michael Cullen. St Kilda is surrounded by the suburbs of St Clair, Caversham, South Dunedin and Tainui. Other major streets in St Kilda include Prince Albert Road in the east, Queens Drive, Richardson Street and Victoria Road, the last of which runs along the southern shore, separated from the Pacific Ocean by wide high dunes; the Sir James Barnes Lookout is located close to the highest point of the dunes and commands views across the plain on which Saint Kilda lies and the surrounding parts of the city. The streets of St Kilda form a grid pattern, interrupted by a long crescent, which runs around the original boundary of the city's main horse racing venue, Forbury Park; the suburb contains the Dunedin Ice Stadium, an Olympic-sized ice-skating rink and several sports fields, notably De Carle Park, Marlow Park, Kettle Park, Hancock Park.

Chisholm Park Golf Course lies within Saint Kilda. Saint Kilda has three pubs, a bowling green, tennis courts, a badminton hall. Though it contains no secondary schools, the paired single-sex King's and Queen's High Schools lie close to its northern edge. St Kilda is the home of the St Kilda Sentinel Brass Band, Pirates Rugby Club, Otago Model Engineering Society, Ocean Beach Railway, St Kilda Surf Lifesaving Club, Hot Rod Club and Ocean Beach scout group. Being residential, there are few notable industries within the suburb, an exception being Wests, a soft drink manufacturers located in Bay View Road

Stella, Wisconsin

Stella is a town in Oneida County, United States. The population was 633 at the 2000 census; the unincorporated community of Starks is located within the town. The town was named for Stella, a character mentioned in works by Jonathan Swift. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 37.3 square miles, of which, 35.3 square miles of it is land and 2.0 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 633 people, 236 households, 188 families residing in the town; the population density was 17.9 people per square mile. There were 316 housing units at an average density of 8.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.63% White, 0.47% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.16% from other races, 1.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.32% of the population. There were 236 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.4% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.3% were non-families.

14.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 2.90. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 28.6% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $40,909, the median income for a family was $46,375. Males had a median income of $36,375 versus $20,694 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,712. About 5.1% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.9% of those under age 18 and 3.9% of those age 65 or over. The Rhinelander-Oneida County Airport serves Stella, the county and surrounding communities with both scheduled commercial jet service and general aviation services.

Town of Stella, Wisconsin

F. J. C. Hearnshaw

Fossey John Cobb Hearnshaw was an English professor of history, specializing in medieval history. He was noted for his conservative interpretation of the past, showing an empire-oriented ideology in defence of hierarchical authority, deference, the monarchy, family, nation and place, he was a Tory Democrat who sought to realize Disraeli's goal of preserving invaluable historic traditions while encouraging timely reforms. He believed that a meritocratic, effective elite should lead the weaker majority. Educated at Walsall and Manchester Grammar Schools, he went on to the University of London, Peterhouse and Trinity College, Cambridge. Hearnshaw was an External Examiner in History at the University of London 1909-1913. Hearnshaw held the posts of Honorary Secretary of the Royal Historical Society, 1931-1934 and President of the Historical Association, 1936-1938. Democracy at the crossways: a study in politics and history full text online Main currents of European history, 1815-1915 Mediaeval Contributions to modern Civilisation The social and political ideas of some great mediaeval thinkers A survey of socialism The centenary history of King's College London, 1828-1928 1929.

Germany the Aggressor Throughout the Ages Hearnshaw wrote textbooks, as well as chapters in collaborative works, such as the omnibus An Outline of Modern Knowledge, edited by William Rose and published by Victor Gollancz in 1931, along with other leading authorities of the time, including Roger Fry, C. G. Seligman, Maurice Dobb, G. D. H. Cole. For a fuller list of publications: AIM25: King's College London College Archives: HEARNSHAW, Fossey John Cobb at www.aim25.ac.uk King's College London College Archives The Development of Political Ideas, published by Thomas Nelson & sons Ltd, June 1927 King's College London College Archives Reba N. Soffer. History and Conservatism in Britain and America: From the Great War to Thatcher and Reagan. Works by Fossey John Cobb Hearnshaw at Project Gutenberg Works by or about F. J. C. Hearnshaw at Internet Archive