Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution. Constitutional monarchy differs from absolute monarchy in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Monaco, Jordan and Bahrain, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as the United Kingdom, Belgium and Japan, where the monarch retains no formal authority. Constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution, whether written or unwritten. While most monarchs may hold formal authority and the government may operate in the monarch's name, in the form typical in Europe the monarch no longer sets public policy or chooses political leaders. Political scientist Vernon Bogdanor, paraphrasing Thomas Macaulay, has defined a constitutional monarch as "A sovereign who reigns but does not rule".

In addition to acting as a visible symbol of national unity, a constitutional monarch may hold formal powers such as dissolving parliament or giving royal assent to legislation. However, the exercise of such powers is strictly in accordance with either written constitutional principles or unwritten constitutional conventions, rather than any personal political preference imposed by the sovereign. In The English Constitution, British political theorist Walter Bagehot identified three main political rights which a constitutional monarch may exercise: the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, the right to warn. Many constitutional monarchies still retain significant authorities or political influence however, such as through certain reserve powers, may play an important political role; the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms are all constitutional monarchies in the Westminster system of constitutional governance. Two constitutional monarchies – Malaysia and Cambodia – are elective monarchies, wherein the ruler is periodically selected by a small electoral college.

Limited constitutional monarchies can be called crowned republics. The concept of semi-constitutional monarch identifies constitutional monarchies with fewer parliamentary powers; because of this, constitutional monarchies are called'parliamentary monarchies' to differentiate them from semi-constitutional monarchies. The oldest constitutional monarchy dating back to ancient times was that of the Hittites, they were an ancient Anatolian people that lived during the Bronze Age whose king or queen had to share their authority with an assembly, called the Panku, the equivalent to a modern-day deliberative assembly or a legislature. Members of the Panku came from scattered noble families who worked as representatives of their subjects in an adjutant or subaltern federal-type landscape. In the Kingdom of England, the Glorious Revolution of 1688 led to a constitutional monarchy restricted by laws such as the Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701, although limits on the power of the monarch are much older than that.

At the same time, in Scotland, the Convention of Estates enacted the Claim of Right Act 1689, which placed similar limits on the Scottish monarchy. Although Queen Anne was the last monarch to veto an Act of Parliament when, on 11 March 1708, she blocked the Scottish Militia Bill, Hanoverian monarchs continued to selectively dictate government policies. For instance King George III blocked Catholic Emancipation precipitating the resignation of William Pitt the Younger as prime minister in 1801; the sovereign's influence on the choice of prime minister declined over this period, King William IV being the last monarch to dismiss a prime minister, when in 1834 he removed Lord Melbourne as a result of Melbourne's choice of Lord John Russell as Leader of the House of Commons. Queen Victoria was the last monarch to exercise real personal power, but this diminished over the course of her reign. In 1839, she became the last sovereign to keep a prime minister in power against the will of Parliament when the Bedchamber crisis resulted in the retention of Lord Melbourne's administration.

By the end of her reign, she could do nothing to block the unacceptable premierships of William Gladstone, although she still exercised power in appointments to the Cabinet, for example in 1886 preventing Gladstone's choice of Hugh Childers as War Secretary in favor of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman. Today, the role of the British monarch is by convention ceremonial. Instead, the British Parliament and the Government – chiefly in the office of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom – exercise their powers under "Royal Prerogative": on behalf of the monarch and through powers still formally possessed by the Monarch. No person may accept significant public office without swearing an oath of allegiance to the Queen. With few exceptions, the monarch is bound by constitutional convention to act on the advice of the Government. Constitutional monarchy originated in continental Europe, with Poland developing the first constitution for a monarchy with the Constitution of May 3, 1791. Constitutional monarchy occurred in the early years of the French Revolution, but much more afterwards.

Napoleon Bonaparte is considered the first monarch proclaiming himself as an embodiment of the nation, rather than as a divinely-app


Witchfynde are a British heavy metal band, one of the forerunners of the new wave of British heavy metal in the late 1970s. Witchfynde were formed in Derbyshire, England, in 1974, by bass guitarist Richard Blower and vocalist Neil Harvey. Richard Blower discovered; when Richard left the band in 1975, they reformed Witchfynde with lead guitarist Montalo, bassist Andro Coulton and drummer Gra Scoresby, soon recruiting vocalist Steve Bridges. The band released their first single, "Give'Em Hell" in 1979 and released its first full-length album entitled Give'Em Hell, on Rondelet Records in 1980. A major attribute to success may have originated by the frequent airplay on the Friday Rock Show, hosted by Tommy Vance on BBC Radio 1; the band gained some exposure by touring the United Kingdom with Def Leppard in the summer of 1980. The band's sound incorporated a mix of influences, such as progressive and hard rock, with various aspects of the heavy metal sound as well as prominent use of satanic imagery.

In 1980, the band released their second album Stagefright. Like their debut, it was recorded at Fairview Studios in Willerby, East Riding of Yorkshire, is considered their most experimental work to date. During the period the album was released, bassist Andro Coulton was replaced by Pete Surgey. Around the time of the band's second release, the relationship with their label Rondelet Records became strained, to the point where the label withdrew the band's funding; this made things difficult for Witchfynde and led to the departure of vocalist Steve Bridges. The band recruited new singer Luther Beltz and began working on third album Cloak and Dagger; the band signed a deal in 1984 with Mausoleum Records to release their fourth album Lords of Sin. During the recording of the album, bassist Pete Surgey left the band and was replaced by Edd Wolfe, who had played in one of Luther Beltz's former bands. Although the band considered the album their strongest to date, it received bad reviews from critics, with the final blow delivered when Mausoleum Records went bankrupt.

In October 1999, Montalo and Luther began to discuss the possibility of a reunion, owing to a resurgence of interest in the band after the release of the Best of Witchfynde CD in 1996, which sold well. Pete Surgey rejoined the band on bass. However, during rehearsals Luther Beltz announced that he no longer wanted to participate in the reunion; the band began to work on their fifth album The Witching Hour, which they released on Edgy Records in 2001. Their first three albums were re-released by Lemon Recordings. A new Best Of album was released in 2007 by Lemon Recordings; the band began work on their sixth studio album called Play It to Death, which they recorded at Bandwagon Studios and released in July 2008. Towards the end of 2008, owing to Harry Harrison's ill-health and other commitments, Luther Beltz returned to front the band for the Play It to Death UK Tour. July 2014 saw the addition of second guitarist Tracey Abbott from Overdrive, which created a more solid and powerful sound. Witchfynde played the Metalcova Festival in Barcelona on 28 November 2015.

It was one of the first shows they played in Spain. Witchfynde played at the Alpine Steel Festival in Innsbruck on 22 October 2016, it was Witchfynde's first show in Austria. Luther Beltz - lead vocals Montalo - guitar Ian Hamilton - bass guitar - Gra Scoresby - drums & percussion Tracey Abbott - guitar Steve Bridges Andro Coulton Alan Edwards Dave Lindley Ron Reynolds Dave Hewitt Neil Harvey Luther Beltz Richard Blower Tez Brown Harry Harrison Pete Surgey Give'Em Hell Stagefright Cloak and Dagger Lords of Sin The Witching Hour Play It to Death Royal William Live Sacrifice The Best of Witchfynde The Lost Tapes of 1975 "Give'Em Hell" / "Gettin' Heavy" 7" "In the Stars" / "Wake Up Screaming" 7" "I'd Rather Go Wild" / "Cry Wolf" 7" Anthems 12" "Conspiracy" / "Scarlet Lady" 7" Demo 2000 The Awakening LP List of new wave of British heavy metal bands Official Witchfynde website Official Witchfynde Myspace page Witchfynde @ Lemon Recordings Allmusic Witchfynde biography The Official website of Andro Coulton ex-Witchfyde bass player

Methylidyne radical

Methylidyne, or carbyne, is an organic compound whose molecule consists of a single hydrogen atom bonded to a carbon atom. It is the parent compound of the carbynes, which can be seen as obtained from it by substitution of other functional groups for the hydrogen; the carbon atom is left with either one or three unpaired electrons, depending on the molecule's excitation state. Accordingly, the chemical formula can be CH• or CH3•; the corresponding systematic names are methylylidene or hydridocarbon, methanetriyl or hydridocarbon. However, the formula is written as CH. Methylidyne is a reactive gas, destroyed in ordinary conditions but is abundant in the interstellar medium; the trivial name carbyne is the preferred IUPAC name. Following the substitutive nomenclature, the molecule is viewed as methane with three hydrogen atoms removed, yielding the systematic name "methylidyne". Following the additive nomenclature, the molecule is viewed as a hydrogen atom bonded to a carbon atom, yielding the name "hydridocarbon".

By default, these names pay no regard to the excitation state of the molecule. When that attribute is considered, the states with one unpaired electron are named "methylylidene" or "hydridocarbon", whereas the excited states with three unpaired electrons are named "methanetriyl" or "hydridocarbon"; as an odd-electron species, CH is a radical. The ground state is a doublet; the first two excited states are a doublet. The quartet lies at 71 kJ/mol above the ground state. Reactions of the doublet radical with non-radical species involves insertion or addition: • + H2O → • + H2 or •whereas reactions of the quartet radical involves only abstraction: 3• + H2O → + •Methylidyne can bind to metal atoms as tridentate ligand in coordination complexes. An example is methylidynetricobaltnonacarbonyl HCCo39. Methylidyne-like species are implied intermediates in the Fischer–Tropsch process, the hydrogenation of CO to produce hydrocarbons. Methylidyne entities are assumed to bond to the catalyst's surface. A hypothetical sequence is: MnCO + 1/2 H2 → MnCOH MnCOH + H2 → MnCH + H2O MnCH + 1/2 H2 → MnCH2The MnCH intermediate has a tridentate methylidine ligand.

The methylene ligand is poised couple to CO or to another methylene, thereby growing the C–C chain. The methylylidyne group can exhibit both Lewis basic character; such behavior is only of theoretical interest. In October 2016, astronomers reported that the basic chemical ingredients of life – the methylidyne radical ⫶CH, the carbon-hydrogen positive ion:CH+, the carbon ion ⫶C+ – are the result of ultraviolet light from stars, rather than in other ways, such as the result of turbulent events related to supernovae and young stars, as thought earlier; these results have given new light to the formation of organic compounds in the early development of life on earth. Methylidine can be prepared from bromoform. Methylene group Methylene bridge