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Construction engineering

Construction engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the designing, planning and management of infrastructures such as roads, bridges, railroads, buildings, dams and other projects. Civil engineering is a related field. Construction engineers learn some of the design aspects similar to civil engineers as well as project site management aspects. At the educational level, civil engineering students concentrate on the design work, more analytical, gearing them toward a career as a design professional; this requires them to take a multitude of challenging engineering science and design courses as part of obtaining a 4-year accredited degree. Education for construction engineers is focused on construction procedures, costs and personnel management, their primary concern is to deliver a project on time within budget and of the desired quality. The difference between a construction engineer and a civil engineer is that construction engineering students take basic design courses as well as construction management courses.

Being a sub-discipline of Civil Engineering, construction Engineers apply their knowledge and business and management skills obtained from their undergraduate degree to oversee projects that include bridges and housing projects. Construction Engineers are involved in the design and management/ allocation of funds in these projects, they are charged with risk analysis and planning. A career in design work does require a professional engineer license. Individuals who pursue this career path are advised to sit for the Engineer in Training exam referred to as the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam while in college as it takes five years' post-graduate to obtain the PE license; some state have changed the PE license exam pre-requisite of 4 years work experience after graduation to become a licensed Professional Engineer where an EIT is eligible to take the PE Exam in as little as 6 months after taking the FE exam. Entry-level construction engineers position is project engineers or assistant project engineers.

They are responsible for preparing purchasing requisitions, processing change orders, preparing monthly budgeting reports and handling meeting minutes. The construction management position does not require a PE license. Construction engineers are problem solvers, they contribute to the creation of infrastructure that best meets the unique demands of its environment. They must be able to understand infrastructure life cycles; when compared and contrasted to design engineers, construction engineers bring to the table their own unique perspectives for solving technical challenges with clarity and imagination. While individuals considering this career path should have a strong understanding of mathematics and science, many other skills are highly desirable, including critical and analytical thinking, time management, people management and good communication skills. Individuals looking to obtain a construction engineering degree must first ensure that the program is accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology.

ABET accreditation is assurance that a college or university program meets the quality standards established by the profession for which it prepares its students. In the US there are twenty-five programs that exist in the entire country so careful college consideration is advised. A typical construction engineering curriculum is a mixture of engineering mechanics, engineering design, construction management and general science and mathematics; this leads to a Bachelor of Science degree. The B. S. degree along with some design or construction experience is sufficient for most entry level positions. Graduate schools may be an option for those who want to go further in depth of the construction and engineering subjects taught at the undergraduate level. In most cases construction engineering graduates look to either civil engineering, engineering management or business administration as a possible graduate degree. Job prospects for construction engineers have a strong cyclical variation. For example, starting in 2008 and continuing until at least 2011, job prospects have been poor due to the collapse of housing bubbles in many parts of the world.

This reduced demand for construction, forced construction professionals towards infrastructure construction and therefore increased the competition faced by established and new construction engineers. This increased competition and a core reduction in quantity demand is in parallel with a possible shift in the demand for construction engineers due to the automation of many engineering tasks, overall resulting in reduced prospects for construction engineers. In early 2010, the United States construction industry had a 27% unemployment rate, this is nearly three times higher than the 9.7% national average unemployment rate. The construction unemployment rate is comparable to the United States 1933 unemployment rate—the lowest point of the Great Depression—of 25%; the average salary for a civil engineer in the UK depends on the sector and more the level of experience of the individual. A 2010 survey of the remuneration and benefits of those occupying jobs in construction and the built environment industry showed that the average salary of a civil engineer in the UK is £29,582.

In the United States, as of May 2013, the average was $85,640. The average salary varies depending on expe

Prue Leith

Prudence Margaret "Prue" Leith, is a British-South African restaurateur, caterer, television presenter/broadcaster, journalist, cookery writer and novelist. She is Chancellor of Edinburgh, she was a judge on BBC Two's Great British Menu for eleven years, before joining The Great British Bake Off in March 2017, replacing Mary Berry, when the series moved to Channel 4. Leith was born in South Africa, her father, Sam Leith, worked for African Explosives, a subsidiary of ICI producing dynamite for use in mines and served as a director. Her mother, Margaret'Peggy' Inglis, was an actress of her time. From the age of 5 until she was 17, Leith attended St Mary's School, Waverley, an English independent private boarding school for girls in Johannesburg run by Anglican nuns, she left with a first class matriculation and studied at the University of Cape Town, where she failed to follow for any length of time courses in drama, fine art, architecture or French. She persuaded her parents to allow her to attend the Sorbonne, ostensibly to better learn French while studying the Cours de Civilisation Française.

While in Paris, she realised she wanted a career in the premium food industry. In 1960, Leith moved to London to attend the Cordon Bleu Cookery School and began a business supplying high-quality business lunches; this grew to become a party and event caterer. In 1969, she opened Leith's, her Michelin-starred restaurant in Notting Hill selling it in 1995. In 1975, she founded Leith's School of Food and Wine, which trains professional chefs and amateur cooks; the group reached a turnover of £15m in 1993, which she sold. In 1995, she helped. Concurrently with running her business, Leith became a food columnist for, the Daily Mail, Sunday Express, The Guardian and the Daily Mirror. Aside from writing 12 cookery books, including Leith's Cookery Bible, she has written seven novels: Leaving Patrick, Sisters, A Lovesome Thing, Choral Society, A Serving of Scandal, The Food of Love: Laura's Story and The Prodigal Daughter; these last two form part of the Food of Love trilogy. The trilogy has been optioned for a TV series by Sprout Pictures in partnership with Parallel Films.

Her memoir, was published in 2012. Her first television appearance was in the 1970s as a presenter of two thirteen-episode magazine series aimed at women at home, made by Tyne Tees Television, she was a last-minute replacement for Jack de Manio, with no experience and a director who liked everything scripted, including interviews, she disliked the experience. In the 1980s, she was the subject of two television programmes about her life and career: the first episode of Channel Four's Take Six Cooks and the BBC's The Best of British, a series about young entrepreneurs. In 1999, she was one of the Commissioners on Channel 4's Poverty Commission, she came back to television to be a judge on The Great British Menu for eleven years until 2016, a judge for My Kitchen Rules, which she left to replace Mary Berry in The Great British Bake Off on Channel Four. She has been involved in food in education; when chair of the Royal Society of Arts she founded and chaired the charity Focus on Food which promotes cooking in the curriculum.

She started, with the charity Training for Life, the Hoxton Apprentice – a not-for-profit restaurant which for ten years trained the most disadvantaged long-term unemployed young people. Until 2015, she was a member of the Food Strand of the grant giving Esmée Fairbairne. From 2007–10, she was the Chair of the School Food Trust, the government quango responsible for the improvement in school food after Jamie Oliver’s television exposé of the poor state of school food; the Trust set up and runs Let's Get Cooking, an organisation of over 5000 cooking clubs in state schools, of which she is a patron. She is Vice-President of a trustee of Baby Taste Journey, she has been active in general education, chairing Ashridge Management College. She has been involved in many diverse organisations: she chaired the Restaurateurs Association, she was a director of the housing association, Places for People and a member of the Consumer Debt Working Group that contributed to the Conservative Party's 2006 policy document Breakdown Britain.

While at the RSA she led the successful campaign to use the empty plinth in Trafalgar Square to house changing sculptures or installations by the best contemporary artists. Leith has been a non-executive director of British Rail. In July 2017, she was

Birla Vidya Mandir

Birla Vidya Mandir in Nainital is a residential public school for boys in India, founded in July 1947. The school is the product of the vision of an Indian independence activist, it was built in the 1870s as Oak Openings High School and the naturalist and story teller Jim Corbett studied at it. In 1905, Oak Openings was amalgamated with the Philander Smith Institute of Mussoorie, resulting in the Philander Smith College. In the wake of the Second World War, Hallet War School was built on the same campus, established for the children of the British who were in India at that time due to the war. Birla Vidya Mandir came into existence in 1947. Before India achieved its independence, Pant wanted to start a public school. Pant used the estate of Philander Smith, which had housed the Hallet War School during India's war years, to create Birla Vidya Mandir; the school takes admissions from Class 4 to Class 12. Though an English medium school, the ethos is Indian. Prayers in Sanskrit are held before every meal and students celebrate the festivals of India.

The school is affiliated to CBSE Delhi and is a member of Indian Public School's Conference, National Progressive Schools’ Conference, CBSE Sahodaya School Complex and International Confederation of Principals. The school is an ISO 9002:2000 and ISO:14001:1996 certified institution; the school is 330 km to the northeast of Delhi in the Central Himalayan township of Nainital. Its campus is 65 acres in area set at the top of a ridge, called "Sher-Ka-Danda" overlooking the lake, 1,500 feet above the town and 7,800 feet above sea level, it is connected by a motorable road. The estate was first owned by J. W. Waugh, it was close to where the GB Pant Hospital now stands. “Situated just below the summit of Sher-ka-danda, the most easterly of the peaks surrounding Nainital and just above St Asaph Road,” writes Martin Booth, “it commanded a stunning panoramic view of the town, the tal and the drop to the plains of India.” The much expanded Birla Vidya Mandir stands in the hoary campus of the Oak Opening High School the vestiges of which still survive in the guise of much renovated Gandhi House and in all probability the Administrative Block and Library, described by Martin Booth as “Jim's original school surviving as a house close to the main building.”

Jim Corbett, the famous naturalist and story teller from Nainital, attended Oak Openings School. Some of the Jim’s biographers speak of the school being operated and co-owned by a ruthless and cruel ex-Indian Army Officer, known to his 70 pupils as ‘Dead Eye Dick’ “for his aim both with a rifle and a bamboo cane was exceedingly accurate.” It became a favourite memory of Jim’s, in his years, to remark how Oak Openings was the site of the shooting of the last mountain quail in 1876, driving it into extinction. In 1905, the Philander Smith Institute of Mussoorie, founded by Mrs. Smith, widow of Mr. Philander Smith of Illinois, was moved to Nainital and “amalgamated” with the Oak Opening Boys’ High School; the result was the Philander Smith College with Rev. FS Ditto as its first principal. Describing the development and expansion of Philander Smith College, Deputy Commissioner of Nainital JM Clay wrote in his monograph that “The extensive buildings which now exist have been built since and a large dormitory block has been constructed.

The site is over 7,500 feet above sea-level and is the highest school site in India in the world.” Here the building being referred to is the imposing ‘Ashok Bhavan’ called the ‘Hurricane House.’ Incidentally, Orde Wingate of Chindit Circus fame, born on 26 February 1903 in a house called Montrose in Nainital, had his early schooling in all probability at Philander Smith College. Despite their birthplace being the same, Jim never met the "Bible" general Wingate. However, as a Lieutenant Colonel and senior instructor in jungle craft, he trained some of Orde Wingate’s ‘Chindits’ at Chhindwara in the Central Province. An article by AG Atkins, the pastor of the Union Church for two summers at Nainital and better known for his translation of Ram Charit Manas, published in the Hindustan Times Sunday Magazine on 14 August 1956 says that Jim and his sister Maggie were the most awaited guests at the Philander Smith College and its sister institution the Wellesley. Installing Maggie on the dais in the central hall of what now is known as Gandhi House he would lecture on his favourite subject, the Jungle Telegraph.

“A tiger is coming, he would announce, mimic a series of bird calls: the jungle babbler, peafowl, etc. One evening after Corbett had screened his first tiger film and given his wildlife lecture at Philander Smith College, the pastor walked Corbett half way home to the lake from the college. After sometime the priest asked him what made a hunter a photographer, the response of Jim as records Atkins was “It required much more of my skill and gives me an greater thrill to get good pictures of my animals than when I used to hunt just to kill.” Official website BVM, Through the corridor of Time – History of the school

Hammet Street, Taunton

Hammet Street is a street in Taunton, England, that runs between the Church of St Mary Magdalene and the town centre. It is named after Sir Benjamin Hammet, who had a bill passed through parliament to allow him to build the street in 1788; the street includes four listed buildings: numbers 4 and 5–8, 9–12, 13–17, number 18 with 33 Fore Street. The first three buildings are grade II* listed, while the last is grade II listed, together with the Church of St Mary Magdalene and the listed buildings in Church Square, the English Heritage consider them to "form an important group." Sir Benjamin Hammet was born in Taunton around 1736, was a Member of Parliament for the town from 1782 until his death in 1800. In the late 1780s, a number of Acts of Parliament were passed to make improvement to town and city centres, Hammet carried such an Improvement Act for Taunton through in 1788; the Act allowed Hammet to purchase two houses on Fore Street, one occupied and the other empty, demolish them to make way for the new road.

The road built ran directly towards the Church of St Mary Magdalene, accessible only via a narrow lane. Hammet Street is 36 feet wide at its narrowest point, designed to allow carriages to travel to the church without endangering pedestrians. In his history of Taunton, Joshua Toulmin describes the terraces along Hammet Street as "handsome houses", praises the way the street opened up the view of the church from the town centre; the original houses remain, the ground floors of many are used as estate agents. Hammet Street has four listed building entries. On the north side, numbers 4–8 make up one entry, while on the south side, numbers 9–12 are considered one entry, number 13–17 another, number 18 forms a separate entry, along with number 33 Fore Street. Both sides of the road are of similar design, consisting of the original eighteenth century three-storey terraces of brown brick, with each house separated by plain pilasters, continuous eaves cornice; each property has five sash windows in plain reveals.

The roofs are a mix of tile and slate, retain the original rainwater pipes. The door-cases of numbers 4–8 and 9–12 are of painted stone, with "half round Tuscan pilasters, open pediments and traceried fanlights." Numbers 13 and 17 with semi-circular rather than traceried fanlights. The majority of the doors have six panels, but numbers 8 and 9 have four, number 10 has no panels. There is an archway between numbers 5 and 6. Numbers 5 and 9 have modern shop windows on the ground floor; the east side of number 8 and 9 form the side of Church Square, each have three windows facing into the square. The entry for numbers 13–17 notes that those properties have been "considerably altered on the ground floor," and have shop fronts dating from no than the nineteenth century. Number 18 is different from the other listed buildings, having been colour washed, the part of the building facing into Fore Street has been elevated

Thomas Gwatkin

Thomas Gwatkin was an English cleric and academic. He is known as a Tory and loyalist figure at the College of William & Mary in colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, he was the son of Thomas Gwatkin of Middlesex. He matriculated in 1763, at Jesus College, but left university without taking a degree; as a student Gwatkin was an opponent of views of Thomas Secker. In 1766 he was a nonconformist minister at Blackley, but changed his views. In 1767 he was ordained priest in the Church of England by Richard Terrick, Bishop of London, became a curate at Stebbing. At this period he was a correspondent of Jeremy Bentham. In 1769 Terrick as chancellor of the College of William & Mary appointed Gwatkin a professor there. At William and Mary, Gwatkin was in a group of clerics, including his associate Samuel Henley, who opposed the project to create Anglican bishops for American dioceses; the Virginia House of Burgesses supported their stand. A controversy followed that drew in William Willie and Thomas Bradbury Chandler, others.

Defending Henley against the burgess Robert Carter Nicholas, Gwatkin used the provocative pseudonym "Hoadleianus", alluding to Benjamin Hoadley whose opposition to the High Church clergy caused the Bangorian Controversy. Gwatkin became professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at William and Mary in 1770. In 1773, he was master of the grammar school; the College of William and Mary was a centre of loyalism in the years preceding the American Revolution of 1776, Gwatkin and Henley remained in post as hardcore Tories, while American patriots attempted to undermine loyalists there. The politics made for unpleasant friction; the battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775 brought matters to a head, Gwatkin refused to preach for the disbanded burgesses on 1 June. He refused, according to his own account, from Richard Henry Lee and Thomas Jefferson, to draw up "memorials in the defense of congress."Gwatkin and Henley shortly departed for England, as Lord Dunmore, the last colonial governor of Virginia, was forced out.

It followed a menacing incident. Gwatkin acted as chaplain to Lady Dunmore, sailed with her and her son on HMS Magdalen, on 29 June 1775. Gwatkin was awarded a B. A. degree at Oxford by Convocation on 21 May 1778. Admitted to Christ Church, Oxford, he graduated M. A. on 23 March 1781. He was appointed vicar of Cholsey in August 1781, a position he held to 1800, he was curate at Clehonger, where his uncle Richard Gwatkin was rector of Allensmore-cum-Clehonger. He resided in Hereford, died on 4 October 1800, he was buried in Clehonger Gwatkin married Jane Powle, daughter of John Powle. Richard Gwatkin the geologist was his son, father of Henry Melvill Gwatkin. Remarks upon the first of Three letters against the confessional, by "a Country Clergyman" Remarks Upon the Second and Third of Three Letters Against the Confessional, by "a Country Clergyman" A Letter to the Clergy of New York and New Jersey. Gwatkin opposed James Horrocks, over the proposal to create an Anglican bishop in America

Huey P. Long House (Forest Ave., Shreveport, Louisiana)

The Huey P. Long House on Forest Avenue in Shreveport, Louisiana was built in 1926, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991. It is a two-story Spanish Colonial Revival-style house made with stucco over hollow tile, it is significant for its association with politician Huey P. Long, who with his family moved into the house in 1926, he moved to Baton Rouge in 1928 when he became governor of the state, but the house remained in the family until the 1970s. It is the only house which Long had constructed for himself and in which he took much personal interest. Huey P. Long Mansion, in New Orleans NRHP-listed Huey P. Long House, destroyed NRHP-listed National Register of Historic Places listings in Caddo Parish, Louisiana