Consul was the title of one of the two chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, subsequently an important title under the Roman Empire. The title was used in other European city states through antiquity and the Middle Ages revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic; the related adjective is consular, from the Latin consularis. This usage contrasts with modern terminology. A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum. Consuls were held power for one year. There were always two consuls in power at any time. Chronological listings of Roman consuls: List of Roman consuls List of topics related to ancient Rome Pauly–Wissowa Political institutions of Rome Hypatos It was not uncommon for an organization under Roman private law to copy the terminology of state and city institutions for its own statutory agents; the founding statute, or contract, of such an organisation was called lex,'law'.
The people elected each year were members of the upper class. While many cities had a double-headed chief magistracy another title was used, such as Duumvir or native styles such as Meddix, but consul was used in some. Throughout most of southern France, a consul was an office equivalent to the échevins of the north and similar with English aldermen; the most prominent were those of Bordeaux and Toulouse, which came to be known as jurats and capitouls, respectively. The capitouls of Toulouse were granted transmittable nobility. In many other smaller towns the first consul, was the equivalent of a mayor today, assisted by a variable number of secondary consuls and jurats, his main task was to collect tax. The Dukes of Gaeta used the title of "consul" in its Greek form "Hypatos"; the city-state of Genoa, unlike ancient Rome, bestowed the title of consul on various state officials, not restricted to the highest. Among these were Genoese officials stationed in various Mediterranean ports, whose role included helping Genoese merchants and sailors in difficulties with the local authorities.
This institution, with its name, was emulated by other powers and is reflected in the modern usage of the word. After Napoleon Bonaparte staged a coup against the Directory government in November 1799, the French Republic adopted a constitution which conferred executive powers upon three consuls, elected for a period of ten years. In reality, the first consul, dominated his two colleagues and held supreme power, soon making himself consul for life and in 1804, emperor; the office was held by: Napoleon Bonaparte, Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès, Roger Ducos, provisional consuls Napoleon Bonaparte, Jean-Jacques Cambacérès, Charles-François Lebrun, consuls The short-lived Bolognese Republic, proclaimed in 1796 as a French client republic in the Central Italian city of Bologna, had a government consisting of nine consuls and its head of state was the Presidente del Magistrato, i.e. chief magistrate, a presiding office held for four months by one of the consuls. Bologna had consuls at some parts of its Medieval history.
The French-sponsored Roman Republic was headed by multiple consuls: Francesco Riganti, Carlo Luigi Costantini, Duke Bonelli-Crescenzi, Antonio Bassi, Gioacchino Pessuti, Angelo Stampa, Domenico Maggi, provisional consuls Liborio Angelucci, Giacomo De Mattheis, Reppi, Ennio Quirino Visconti, consuls Brigi, Francesco Pierelli, Giuseppe Rey, Federico Maria Domenico Michele, consuls Consular rule was interrupted by the Neapolitan occupation, which installed a Provisional Government: Prince Giambattista Borghese, Prince Paolo-Maria Aldobrandini, Prince Gibrielli, Marchese Camillo Massimo, Giovanni Ricci Rome was occupied by France and again by Naples, bringing an end to the Roman Republic. Among the many petty local republics that were formed during the first year of the Greek Revolution, prior to the creation of a unified Provisional Government at the First National Assembly at Epidaurus, were: The Consulate of Argos had a single head of state, styled consul, 28 March 1821 – 26 May 1821: Stamatellos Antonopoulos The Consulate of East Greece was headed 1 April 1821 – 15 November 1821 by three consuls: Lambros Nakos, Ioannis Logothetis & Ioannis FilonNote: in Greek, the term for "consul" is "hypatos", which translates as "supreme one", hence does not imply a joint office.
In between a series of juntas and various other short-lived regimes, the young republic was governed by "consuls of the republic", with two consuls alternating in power every 4 months: 12 October 1813 – 12 February 1814, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco 12 February 1814 – 12 June 1814, Fulgencio Yegros y Franco de Torres 12 June 1814 – 3 October 1814, José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco.
Audaxlytoceras is an extinct genus of lytoceratid ammonites. The Middle Jurassic Nannolytoceras is its closest relative. Aegolytoceras and Peripleuroceras Tutcher and Trueman 1925 are synonyms; this genus is known in the fossil record from the Lower Jurassic. Fossils of species within this genus have been found in France, Italy and Spain, its shell is small, evolute, only impressed dorsally. Whorls are compressed, subquadrate in section, higher than wide, with few narrow constrictions; the suture simple with a long ventral lobe and two lateral lobes. Arkell et al. 1957. Mesozoic Ammonoidea, Systematic Descriptions. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part L, Ammonoidea. Geol Soc of Amer. and Univ Kans. Press. L199 Fantini Sestini N.. Revisione del genere “Audaxlytoceras” Fucini, 1923. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 79: 479-502. Federico Venturi, Carlo Nannarone, Massimiliano Bilotta - Early Pliensbachian ammonites from the Furlo Pass: two new faunas for the middle-western Tethys List of ammonite genera
Isaac Kashdan was an American chess grandmaster and chess writer. He was twice U. S. Open champion, he played five times for the United States in chess Olympiads, winning a total of nine medals, his Olympiad record is the all-time best among American players. Kashdan was called'der Kleine Capablanca' in Europe because of his ability to extract victories from even positions. Alexander Alekhine named him one of the most players to succeed him as World Champion. Kashdan could not, engage in a chess career for financial reasons, he resorted to earning a living as an insurance agent and administrator in order to support his family. Kashdan, Jewish, attended CCNY in the 1920s, he played five times for U. S. team in the Chess Olympiads, with his detailed results below: In 1928, he played at first board in 2nd Chess Olympiad in The Hague. In 1930, he played at first board in 3rd Chess Olympiad in Hamburg. In 1931, he played at first board in 4th Chess Olympiad in Prague. In 1933, he played at first board in 5th Chess Olympiad in Folkestone.
In 1937, he played at third board in 7th Chess Olympiad in Stockholm. In Stockholm 1937, he scored the best individual record of all the players, his all-time Olympic record stands at the best all-time among American players. Kashdan won four team medals: three gold, one silver, five individual medals: two gold, one silver, two bronze. Among players who have played in the open section of four or more Olympiads, Kashdan's winning percentage is the fourth best in history, behind only World Champions Mikhail Tal, Anatoly Karpov, Tigran Petrosian. In Frankfurt in 1930, Kashdan won in Stockholm, he won at Győr 1930 with 8.5/9. In 1930, he defeated Lajos Steiner in a match in Győr, lost a match against Gösta Stoltz, in Stockholm. Kashdan defeated Charles Jaffe by 3-0 in a match at New York 1930. At New York City 1931, Kashdan took second place behind José Raúl Capablanca. At Bled 1931, Kashdan scored 13.5/26 to tie for 4-7th places, as Alekhine scored an undefeated 20.5 points. In 1931/32, at Hastings, Kashdan took second place, behind Salo Flohr, with 7.5/9.
In 1932 in Mexico City, he tied for first place with Alekhine with 8.5/9, took second place behind Alekhine at Pasadena with 7.5/11. At London 1932, Kashdan tied 3rd-4th places with 7.5/11, with Alekhine winning. At Syracuse 1934, Kashdan finished 2nd with 10.5 / 14. In the U. S. Open Chess Championship / Western Open, Chicago 1934, Kashdan scored 4.5/9 in the finals, to tie for 5th-6th places, with Reshevsky and Reuben Fine sharing the title. In the U. S. Open Chess Championship, Milwaukee 1935, Kashdan placed 3rd with 6.5/10, as Fine won. Kashdan was U. S. Open Champion in 1938 at Boston, in 1947 at Corpus Christi. Kashdan tied 2nd-4th places in the U. S. Open at Baltimore 1948 with 9/12, half a point behind Weaver Adams, but Kashdan never won the U. S. Championship. Arnold Denker and Larry Parr note this as the central failure of his chess life, had he been able to win it, this might have provided him with the financial resources to pursue chess full-time. Denker and Parr state that "from 1928 onwards, Kashdan was the best player in the United States, but the aging Frank Marshall was attached to his title."
Kashdan "bargained and haggled with Frank for years until Marshall voluntarily relinquished the crown. The result: the first modern U. S. Championship tournament in 1936, but by this time and Samuel Reshevsky had surpassed" Kashdan. In U. S. Championships, Kashdan 1) placed 5th in 1936 at New York with 10/15, with Reshevsky winning 2) placed 3rd in 1938 at New York with Reshevsky repeating. Kashdan would have been U. S. champion in 1942, but lost out to Reshevsky when the Tournament Director, L. Walter Stephens, scored Reshevsky's time-forfeit loss to Denker as a win instead. Kashdan drew 5-5 in a match against Horowitz at New York City 1938. With the arrival of World War II in 1939, competitive chess was reduced. Kashdan won at Havana 1940 with 7.5/9. Kashdan tied 2nd-4th in the New York State Championship, Hamilton 1941, with 7/10, with Fine winning. Kashdan lost both of his games against Alexander Kotov in the 1945 radio match against the USSR, a match which marked the definitive shift in world chess power to the Soviet Union.
At Hollywood 1945, Kashdan placed 5th with 7/12. The American team traveled to Moscow in 1946 for a rematch against the Soviet team, Kashdan avenged his result against Kotov from the previous year, winning 1.5-0.5. In a Master event organized by the Manhattan Chess Club in 1948, Kashdan scored 5.5/7 to place 2nd behind George Kramer. But in the 1948 New York International, Kashdan made just 4/9 for a tied 7-8th place, with Fine winning. In the U. S. Open Chess Championship, Fort Worth 1951, Kashdan scored 8/11, with Larry Evans winning. At Hollywood 1952, Kashdan scored 4/9 with Svetozar Gligorić winning. Kashdan's final competitive event