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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Consumer

A consumer is a person or organization that uses or consumes economic services or commodities. A consumer is one; the consumer is an individual who pays some amount of money for the thing required to consume goods and services. As such, consumers play a vital role in the economic system of a nation. Without consumer demand, producers would lack one of the key motivations to produce: to sell to consumers; the consumer forms part of the chain of distribution. In marketing instead of marketers generating broad demographic profiles and Fisio-graphic profiles of market segments, marketers have started to engage in personalised marketing, permission marketing, mass customisation. Due to the rise of the Internet, consumers are shifting more and more towards becoming prosumer, consumers who are producers, influence the products created participate in the production process, or use interactive products; the law uses a notion of the consumer in relation to consumer protection laws, the definition of consumer is restricted to living persons and excludes commercial users.

A typical legal rationale for protecting the consumer is based on the notion of policing market failures and inefficiencies, such as inequalities of bargaining power between a consumer and a business. As all potential voters are consumers, consumer protection has a clear political significance. Concern over the interests of consumers has spawned consumer activism, where organized activists do research and advocacy to improve the offer of products and services. Consumer education has been incorporated into some school curricula. There are various non-profit publications, such as Which?, Consumer Reports and Choice magazine, dedicated to assist in consumer education and decision making. In India, the Consumer Protection Act 1986 differentiates the consummation of a commodity or service for personal use or to earn a livelihood. Only consumers are protected per this act and any person, entity or organization purchasing a commodity for commercial reasons are exempted from any benefits of this act.

U. S. Government National Consumer Protection Week

PIC microcontrollers

PIC is a family of microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1650 developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division. The name PIC referred to Peripheral Interface Controller, is expanded as Programmable Intelligent Computer; the first parts of the family were available in 1976. Early models of PIC had read-only memory or field-programmable EPROM for program storage, some with provision for erasing memory. All current models use flash memory for program storage, newer models allow the PIC to reprogram itself. Program memory and data memory are separated. Data memory is 16-bit, and, in latest models, 32-bit wide. Program instructions vary in bit-count by family of PIC, may be 12, 14, 16, or 24 bits long; the instruction set varies by model, with more powerful chips adding instructions for digital signal processing functions. The hardware capabilities of PIC devices range from 6-pin SMD, 8-pin DIP chips up to 144-pin SMD chips, with discrete I/O pins, ADC and DAC modules, communications ports such as UART, I2C, CAN, USB.

Low-power and high-speed variations exist for many types. The manufacturer supplies computer software for development known as MPLAB X, assemblers and C/C++ compilers, programmer/debugger hardware under the MPLAB and PICKit series. Third party and some open-source tools are available; some parts have in-circuit programming capability. PIC devices are popular with both industrial developers and hobbyists due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, availability of low cost or free development tools, serial programming, re-programmable flash-memory capability; the original PIC was intended to be used with General Instrument's new CP1600 16-bit central processing unit. The CP1600 was a powerful processor for its era, implementing most of the PDP-11 minicomputer's instruction set architecture in a microcomputer package. Whilst most people considered the CP1600 a good CPU, it had one significant problem. For CPUs that had separate I/O channels, like the Intel 8008, this would not have been a problem, but the 1600 used the PDP-11's memory mapped input/output concept.

This meant that communicating with a device required the device to watch for key memory locations being accessed on one machine cycle, read the data on the next. This made I/O on the machine slower as the bus alternated between address and data modes, more expensive to implement as the devices had to latch inputs over multiple cycles. All of this complexity was repeated on the CPU side in the corresponding device driver. To address this shortcoming of the 1600, the 8-bit PIC was developed in 1975; the idea was that a system would have one or more of the low-cost PICs performing the actual I/O with the devices, sending that data to the CPU. The PIC used simple microcode stored in ROM to perform its tasks, although the term RISC was not used at the time, it shares some common features with RISC designs. In 1985, General Instrument sold their microelectronics division and the new owners cancelled everything which by this time was out-of-date; the PIC, was upgraded with an internal EPROM to produce a programmable channel controller.

In 2001, Microchip introduced Flash programmable devices, with full production commencing in 2002. Today, a huge variety of PICs are available with various on-board peripherals and program memory from 256 words to 64K words and more. PIC and PICmicro are registered trademarks of Microchip Technology, it is thought that PIC stands for Peripheral Interface Controller, although General Instruments' original acronym for the initial PIC1640 and PIC1650 devices was "Programmable Interface Controller". The acronym was replaced with "Programmable Intelligent Computer"; the Microchip 16C84, introduced in 1993, was the first Microchip CPU with on-chip EEPROM memory. By 2013, Microchip was shipping over one billion PIC microcontrollers every year. PIC micro chips are designed with a Harvard architecture, are offered in various device families; the baseline and mid-range families use 8-bit wide data memory, the high-end families use 16-bit data memory. The latest series, PIC32MZ is a 32-bit MIPS-based microcontroller.

Instruction words are in sizes of 14-bit and 24-bit. The binary representations of the machine instructions vary by family and are shown in PIC instruction listings. Within these families, devices may be designated PICnnFxxx. "C" devices are classified as "Not suitable for new development". The program memory of "C" devices is variously described as OTP, ROM, or EEPROM; as of October 2016, the only OTP product classified as "In production" is the pic16HV540. "C" devices with quartz windows, are in general no longer available. These devices feature a 12-bit wide code memory, a 32-byte register file, a tiny two level deep call stack, they are represented by the PIC10 series, as well as by some PIC16 devices. Baseline devices are available in 6-pin to 40-pin packages; the first 7 to 9 bytes of the register file are special-purpose registe

Mahmut Makal

Mahmut Makal was a Turkish writer and teacher who initiated the "Village Literature" movement in 1950 with the publication of his book ‘Bizim Köy’. Makal was born in the hamlet of Demirci in the Gülağaç district of Aksaray in 1930. In 1943, he began studying poetry at the Ivriz Village Institute, his poems were first published in 1945 in the magazine "Türk'e Doğru" and in 1946 in the "Köy Enstitüsü" magazine, he attracted wider notice with his Village Notes in Varlık magazine. After graduating from the Ivriz Village Institute in 1947, he worked as a village teacher for 6 years. In 1950, his observations from these years of teaching were published in a book called ‘Bizim Köy’, the first work of the village literature movement, it aroused strong reactions across Turkey, led to Makal being arrested and held in prison for a while. He enrolled at the Ankara Gazi Institute in 1953 and visited France to undertake research at the European Sociology Center. In the 1965 elections he was a candidate in Istanbul for the Workers Party of Turkey.

He worked as an inlet or of primary schools in Antalya and Adana regions. In 1971, he taught Turkish at the İstanbul School for the Deaf and Dumb. Between 1971 and 1972 he managed Bizim Köy Publishing and in 1972 he taught Turkish Language and Literature at the University of Venice. In 1976 he retired from his position at the Karadeniz Copper Works. Fakir Baykurt Mevlüt Kaplan BBC programmes from the 1960s created by Makal

PREMature

PREMature is a British television drama miniseries produced by Liger Films that first aired on the Community Channel. It was crowdfunded through Kickstarter and is the first drama series for the Community Channel, consisting of 6 episodes. Prem Mehta is a high school teenager who experiences the loss of his grandmother during his summer holidays followed by the separation of his parents, he is forced to take a lonely path during the aftermath of these events as he forms new friendships with the unlikeliest of people. Throughout his journey, Prem experiences an array of revelations in sometimes surreal circumstances as he builds towards his growth as a young man. Prem Mehta, played by Karanvir Bhupal, is a teenager struggling with his grandmother's death and his parent's separation. Will Brown, played by Daniel Costello, is a new student befriended by Prem. Neelam Mehta, played by Meera Ganatra, is Prem's mother who's suffering from the loss of her mother and marital problems. Parthav Mehta, played by Manish Patel, is Prem's father who's been unfaithful to his wife and feels responsible for the family discord.

Nina Mehta, played by Samantha Shellie, is Prem's sister. Jacob Pearce, played by Tom Carter, is a school teacher coping with personal problems while mentoring Prem through his. Suhina Qadri, played by Simi Dhillon, is an intelligent love interest of Prem's. Will's Mother, played by Sam Bonner, is Will's disabled mother who's addiction is destroying her relationship with her son. Darren Baisden, played by Leo Eaglewood, is Nina's boyfriend who provides perspective. Sunny Kanda, played by Mirza Hassan, is a school bully. Theo Clarke, played by Harold Addo, is Sunny's best friend who instigates Will's negative experiences at school. Baa, played by Surinder Powar, is Prem's deceased grandmother; the series idea was conceived in an attempt to bring an unconventional drama series format to a national television audience incorporating experimental techniques familiar in independent and art house films. A pilot episode was shot during 2013 on a budget of £1,000 funded by series creator, Rohith S. Katbamna and co-producer, Terry Mardi.

Casting for the pilot involved over 100 performers attending a two-day audition. Performers ranged from professional actors to those; the process aimed to find performers/people with similar qualities or had experienced certain situations as their on-screen characters. It was the director's intention to cast all unknowns; the title role of Prem Mehta was cast to purposefully go against the mainstream screen look of teenagers. Karanvir Bhupal earned the role of Prem Mehta for his distinctive appearance. After the pilot was completed, it was pitched as a six-part drama series to the Community Channel - a UK broadcaster known for factual content; the series was dubbed as an experimental drama and would contain influences ranging from avant-garde to social realism. Along with an acquisition fee from the Community Channel, a Kickstarter campaign to raise £35,000 between April - June 2014 took place; the campaign was successful raising £35,333, however this total was reduced to £31,893.77 after administration fees from Kickstarter were collected.

The score is composed by John Atterbury. The composition involved a process of fusing audio manipulation and live instrumentation, concurrently with tape loops, recordings in the field and programming to present the most organic and contemporary sound possible; this entire process concluded with a music score consisting of 97 tracks for all six episodes of PREMature, including the final song, "The Start", featuring vocals by London singer/musician, Donna Thompson. The theme for the UK trailers was composed by London-based musician Roly Witherow, who had heard about the series through Kickstarter and contacted the director; the series began airing on the Community Channel from 22 February 2015 at a post-watershed time slot due to mature content. This initial broadcast run was made available online to UK based users on two platforms where viewers are able to stream live television; the entire series was made available on YouTube in January 2018. With teenage characters at the helm of the story, PREMature delves into issues such as bullying in the form of physical, verbal and online.

Highlighted are teen anxiety, isolation, identity and relationships. The one constant is that Prem is forced to confront the divorce of his parents and his grandmother's death whilst his friend Will struggles in a single-parent home with his troubled mother. Throughout the relationship between Nina and Darren, existential discussions are heard questioning existence, social behaviour and the reluctance to accept happiness. Nina talks of cynicism and doubting her place in life whilst Darren attempts to counter these feelings with optimism. Death is a prominent theme that carries on throughout the series the effect of losing someone close and how certain characters are forced to confront and deal with this new absence from their lives; the way in which a teenager and an adult deal with this theme is examined through their respective paths takenAt times, the story shifts into moments of surreal and psychedelic sequences that exhibit the inner thoughts and subconscious state of minds of certain characters when found in specific situations of heightened tension or isolation.

PREMature has received positive reviews from critics. Tasha Mathur of Asian Culture Vulture gave the series 4 out of 5 stars, stating that "the show takes itself out of the regular televisi

Jason Fischer (politician)

Jason Fischer is a member of the Florida House of Representatives, representing the 16th District, which includes southern Duval County, since 2016. He is a member of the Republican Party. Jason Fischer is a Jacksonville, Florida native who attended the University of North Florida, receiving a degree in electrical engineering. In addition to serving in the Florida House, Jason Fischer worked for Florida Power & Light and spent five years as a civilian engineer for the United States Navy Naval Facilities Engineering Command. Fischer is employed by HNTB, an infrastructure solutions firm, he is married to his wife and they have three children. They reside in a suburb of Jacksonville, Florida. Fischer’s career in politics began on the Duval County School Board, where he served from 2012-2016. Fischer represented District 7 on the School Board, garnering the most votes in the six-way primary in August 2012. Fischer ran for the School Board in part to expand choice offerings for families and improve the district’s academic performance.

He was well-known as an advocate for school choice while serving on the Board. During Fischer’s time on the board, the number of charter schools jumped from 9 to over 30. Additionally, the school district’s performance improved from “C” to “B.” Jason Fischer ran unopposed in the 2016 general election, having defeated his challenger, Dick Kravitz, 53-47% in the Republican primary. Fischer replaced Representative Charles McBurney, who served the maximum 8-year term in the Florida House. Fischer was reelected to the Florida House in 2018, garnering 59% of the vote against Democrat Ken Organes; as a state legislator, Fischer focused much of his time on issues pertaining to education and technology. In 2019, Fischer passed legislation to allow for more autonomous vehicle usage in Florida, making the state a leader in the emerging technology. Fischer sponsored legislation to reduce the Communications Services Tax and local taxes that Floridians pay on cable, cell phones, streaming bills. In 2017, Fischer sponsored and passed legislation creating a civil cause of action for a person injured or killed by an act of terrorism.

That year, Fischer passed legislation to expand access to the state’s Gardiner Scholarship Program for students with disabilities and the Florida Tax Credit Scholarship Program for low-income families. In addition, Fischer was the prime co-sponsor of legislation protecting Second Amendment rights that shifted the burden of proof in pretrial hearings to the State in cases involving Stand Your Ground immunity. During the 2018-2020 legislative term, Fischer serves on the following committees: • Joint Legislative Auditing Committee • Commerce Committee • Energy & Utilities Subcommittee • Business & Professions Subcommittee • Oversight, Transparency & Public Management Subcommittee • PreK-12 Innovation Subcommittee

Shehryar Khan Afridi

Shehryar Khan Afridi (Urdu: شہریار خان آفریدی‎. He has been a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan since August 2018, he was a member of the National Assembly from June 2013 to May 2018. He is serving as the Minister of State for States and Frontier Regions since 18 April 2019, he was given an additional charge of the Ministry of Narcotics Control after the death of Ali Mohammad Mahar He was born on 12 March 1971. He received a master's degree in International Relations from the University of Peshawar, he wanted to join the Civil Services of Pakistan but was not selected as he failed in the examination. Afridi ran for the seat of National Assembly of Pakistan as an independent candidate from Constituency NA-14 in 2002 Pakistani general election but was unsuccessful, he lost the seat to a candidate of Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal. Afridi was elected to the National Assembly as a candidate of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf from Constituency NA-14 in 2013 Pakistani general election, he defeated a candidate of Jamiat Ulema-e Islam.

He was re-elected to the National Assembly as a candidate of PTI from Constituency NA-32 in 2018 Pakistani general election. He received 82,248 votes and defeated Gohar Mohammad Khan Bangash, a candidate of Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal. On 28 August 2018, he was named by Imran Khan as Minister of State for Interior. On 31 August 2018, he was sworn in as Minister of State for Interior in the federal cabinet of Prime Minister Imran Khan. On 18 April 2019, he resigned as Minister of state for interior, was appointed as the minister of state for States and Frontier regions, he was given the additional portfolio of Ministry of Narcotics Control. In October 2018, Afridi was accused of using public funds worth millions of rupees to renovate and redecorate his new residence. Following which Prime Minister Imran Khan took notice of the issue and ordered Federal Investigation Agency to carry out the investigation