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In many traditions and statutes of civil or religious law, the consummation of a marriage called consummation, is the first act of sexual intercourse between two people, either following their marriage to each other or after a short or prolonged romantic/sexual attraction. The definition of consummation refers to penile-vaginal sexual penetration, but some religious doctrines hold that there is an additional requirement that there must not be any contraception used; the religious, cultural, or legal significance of consummation may arise from theories of marriage as having the purpose of producing recognized descendants of the partners, or of providing sanction to their sexual acts together, or both, its absence may amount to treating a marriage ceremony as falling short of completing the state of being married, or as creating a marriage which may be repudiated. Thus in some legal systems a marriage may be annulled. Consummation is relevant in the case of a common law marriage; the importance of consummation has led to the development of various bedding rituals.

In addition to these formal and literal usages, the term exists in informal and less precise usage to refer to a sexual landmark in relationships of varying intensity and duration. The relevance of consummation in a civil marriage varies by jurisdiction. For example, under section 12 of the Matrimonial Causes Act 1973, a refusal or inability to consummate a marriage is a ground of annulment in England and Wales, but this only applies to heterosexual marriage, because Paragraph 4 of schedule 4 of the Marriage Act 2013 excludes non-consummation as a ground for the annulment of a same-sex marriage. Other common law jurisdictions, such as Australia, have abolished the legal concept of consummation. In the case of common law marriage, consummation may be a required component in the creation of the marriage itself. A religious marriage without civil registration may or may not be binding. However, in some countries such as Palestine, Syria, Jordan, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Libya and Indonesia, religious marriage is the only binding marriage.

Consummation is in particular relevant in a Catholic marriage. Within the Catholic Church, if a matrimonial celebration takes place but the spouses have not yet engaged in intercourse the marriage is said to be a marriage ratum sed non consummatum; such a marriage, regardless of the reason for non-consummation, can be dissolved by the pope. Additionally, an inability or an intentional refusal to consummate the marriage is probable grounds for an annulment. Catholic canon law defines a marriage as consummated when the "spouses have performed between themselves in a human fashion a conjugal act, suitable in itself for the procreation of offspring, to which marriage is ordered by its nature and by which the spouses become one flesh." Thus some theologians, such as Fr. John A. Hardon, S. J. state. Traditionally, in many cultures, for example in Middle Eastern and South Asian cultures, consummation was an important act because it was the act which proved the bride's virginity. In the family law defining civil marriage in some jurisdictions those where the civil marriage laws remain influenced by religion non-consummation of a marriage may be a ground for annulment.

This stipulation has been in recent years criticized on a wide variety of grounds, ranging from the mixing of religious doctrine into secular law, to being degrading to women given its negative historical connotations of ownership of the wife. It has been argued that the purpose of this ground is not clear: it is neither procreation, neither is it the expectation of sexual satisfaction in marriage. Andrew Bainham argues that this law is outdated and must be abolished "in a modern society committed to equality and human rights in personal relationships". In a 2001 report, the Law Society’s Law Reform Committee of Ireland advocated abolishing the concept of a voidable marriage altogether and criticized the consummation ground, writing the following: The rationale behind this ground is not apparent, it is not concerned with the capacity of either or both parties to procreate, still less with the ability of the parties to satisfy each other sexually during the marriage. It remains a rather curious anomaly in the law, a relic of medieval times, when the first act of intercourse was thought to'mark' a new bride as the'property' of her husband.

Whatever its origins, it is not clear what modern purpose this ground serves and it is suggested that it should be dispensed with. Another concern is sexual violence since in most countries the criminalization of marital rape is recent, having occurred from the 1970s onwards.

Supermarket Sweep (British game show)

Supermarket Sweep is a British game show, based on the original American version. Hosted by Dale Winton, it ran for 8 years from 6 September 1993 to 6 September 2001 and revived from 12 February to 31 August 2007 on ITV, it was revived again, but this time on ITV2 with Rylan Clark-Neal as host since 9 September 2019. On 13 October 2017, it was announced that FremantleMedia had acquired the global rights to the format and confirmed that the series will return. A Fremantle representative stated that "the time is ripe to bring back this all-time favourite game show which has travelled with such success over the years." The company stated that the new incarnation of the show would incorporate "modern technology" into the program which reflects 21st century shopping habits. On 9 July 2019, it was confirmed that Rylan Clark-Neal would host a new revival of the show on ITV2 that year; the game consists of three teams of two, each with a clock. The teams attempt to add as much time as possible to their clock by answering questions and riddles posed by the host.

The time they accumulate determines how long they have in the'Big Sweep' round to run around a studio mock-up of a supermarket, collecting shopping items. The team with the shopping trolley filled with items of the most value wins the chance to enter the final'Super Sweep' prize round. Within the game there were a number of rounds; the Mini Sweep is a question round. On answering a question they have 10 seconds added to their clock; the winning contestants are given a clue as to. The contestants have to find the item with a "Supermarket Sweep" logo on within the supermarket and return to the start with it within 30 seconds for a bonus of £25 to their sub total. In the 2019 revival, a spot prize is won if the contestants find the item with the "Supermarket Sweep" logo within 30 seconds. There are a variety of possible games each week; each answered question or riddle is rewarded with 5 or 10 seconds added to the contestants' clock. Some games offer a bonus 30 seconds if all contestants agree on an answer and that answer is correct.

Original games were: Counting Calories, Rhyme Time, In Betweens, Memory Game, Higher or Lower?, Pick a Pair, Random Reveal, Reverse Reveal, Scrambled Letters, Dale's Bluff. These games were introduced in the series: Wordsearch, Alphabet Soup, Odd One Out. Games introduced in the 2019 version, which feature guest appearances by other ITV-associated celebrities, include: Stars and their Buys, Shop till you Drop and Rylan's Rummage In the 2019 revival, one member of each team has 45 seconds to find all the items on Rylan's shopping list which have a "Supermarket Sweep" logo and put them into their basket; each item is worth 5 seconds apart from one, worth 10 seconds. If a team answer a question it wins 10 seconds, right or wrong, contestants switch with their partners tasked with answering the next question; the categories can be: TV, Music, or Hot Gossip. In the 2019 revival, each correct answer wins the teams 5 seconds for their clocks and there were "Supermarket Steal" questions in which if answered allows a team to steal 5 seconds from an opposing team.

This is the round where the contestants enter the aisles, starting with the team with the most time on their clocks and followed by the other two teams according to their times. The aim of this round is to gain as much value in their trolleys as possible in order to go on to the £3,000 Super Sweep game, at the end of this round the value of the shopping is calculated. Contestants however, were not allowed to take more than three of any one item when loading their trollies, however, in the 2019 revival, it was revealed that items in the host's Shopping List were made an exception to this rule, for example if Rylan had requested six Oranges or six bottles of Tonic Water. Various bonuses are available to boost their totals and there are penalties for dropped or broken items; the lowest total was recorded in a 1997 episode and constituted a "sub-total" of £0. They did, manage some shopping; this resulted in a grand total of £56. Pick'n' Mix: Introduced in series two. Players weigh 500g of five different varieties of sweets worth £50 on their subtotal.

Free range: Fill up a carton of eggs for a £50 bonus. Pricing gun: Players price up 12 cans for a £50 bonus. Dale's Display: Stacking up a set of cans for a £50 bonus. Manager's Special/Dale's Sale: Introduced in series 3; the teams must find a tin marked with their own team colour for a bonus worth £50. Shopping List: A shopping list of 3 items is given to the contestants to find. All three must be collected for a bonus of £100. No partial credit can be given. Inflatable bonuses: They are worth £25, £50, £75, or £100. Contestants are only allowed to collect one per team and do not know its value until after the sweep is complete; as discovered in the 2019 revival, the bonus value is rendered void if it has deflated. Every episode featured a shopping inflatable bonuses as standard. By series 3, two of the other aforementioned bonuses would be featured on each episode. However, in the revived version, the bonuses were just Pick-n-Mix, Managers Special, the shopping list and inflatables. Inflatables included a Wine Bottle, Bunch of Bananas, Single Banana, Burger


Tenorioconus is a synonym of Conus Mörch, 1852,: synonym of Conus Linnaeus, 1758. These are sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies; the following species are alternate representation: Tenorioconus monicae Petuch & Berschauer, 2015 Tenorioconus rosi Petuch & Berschauer, 2015 Tenorioconus archon: synonym of Conus archon Broderip, 1833 Tenorioconus aurantius: synonym of Conus aurantius Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 Tenorioconus caracanus: synonym of Conus cedonulli insularis Gmelin, 1791 Tenorioconus cedonulli: synonym of Conus cedonulli Linnaeus, 1767 Tenorioconus curassaviensis: synonym of Conus curassaviensis Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 Tenorioconus dominicanus: synonym of Conus cedonulli dominicanus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 Tenorioconus duffyi: synonym of Conus duffyi Petuch, 1992 Tenorioconus granarius: synonym of Conus mappa granarius Kiener, 1845 Tenorioconus harlandi: synonym of Conus harlandi Petuch, 1987 Tenorioconus insularis: synonym of Conus cedonulli insularis Gmelin, 1791 Tenorioconus julieandreae: synonym of Conus julieandreae Cargile, 1995 Tenorioconus mappa: synonym of Conus mappa Lightfoot, 1786 Tenorioconus panamicus: synonym of Conus mappa granarius Kiener, 1845 Tenorioconus pseudaurantius: synonym of Conus pseudaurantius Vink & Cosel, 1985 Tenorioconus sanguineus: synonym of Conus sanguineus Kiener, 1850 Tenorioconus solidus: synonym of Conus solidus Gmelin, 1791 Tenorioconus trinitarius: synonym of Conus mappa trinitarius Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 The species Protoconus hanshassi Lorenz & Barbier, 2012 is a cone from the Philippines, discovered in 2012 and improperly categorized under the invalid junior homonym Protoconus, hence it is more properly known as Tenorioconus hanshassi, synonym of Conus hanshassi.

Puillandre N. Duda T. F. Meyer C. Olivera B. M. & Bouchet P.. One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23 To World Register of Marine Species

Chen Zijie

Chen Zijie is a Chinese footballer who plays for Shenyang Urban in the China League Two. Chen Zijie began his football career when he played for Shaanxi Guoli's youth team and in 2007, he moved to Shaanxi Chanba's youth team after his previous club dissolved, he was loaned to China League Two club Shaanxi Star for one season. Chen was promoted to Shaanxi Chanba's first team squad by Cheng Yaodong in 2009, however, as Shaanxi struggled at the bottom of the league, he did not appear for the club in the 2009 league season. Chen was loaned to China League One club Shanghai East Asia for the 2011 season. Although he just made ten appearances in the league, Shanghai East Asia extended his loan deal for an additional year in 2012. On 8 April 2012, he scored his first goal for Shanghai East Asia in a 2–0 home victory against Yanbian Baekdu Tigers, he played 25 matches and scored three goals in the second tier that season as Shanghai East Asia won the 2012 China League One titles and were promoted to the top flight.

Chen returned to Guizhou after 2012 league season, but in July 2013, he was loaned to third-tier side Hebei Zhongji until 31 December 2013. On 16 February 2014, Chen made his debut for Guizhou in the 2014 Chinese FA Super Cup against Guangzhou Evergrande with 1–0 victory, coming on as a substitute for the injured Zlatan Muslimović in the 59th minute, his first tier debut came on 8 March 2014 in the first league match of the season in a goalless away draw against Jiangsu Sainty. On 15 March 2014, he scored his first goal for Guizhou in a 2–0 home win over Tianjin Teda. On 7 February 2015, Chen signed a four-year contract with China League One side Hunan Billows. In February 2017, he transferred to Super League side Henan Jianye after Hunan relegated to the third tier, he made his debut for Henan on 7 April 2017 in a 1–0 away defeat against Beijing Guoan, coming on as a substitute for Christian Bassogog in the 75th minute. On 3 May 2017, he scored his first goal for the club in a 5–1 away win against League Two club Shanghai Sunfan in the 2017 Chinese FA Cup.

Chen made his debut for the Chinese national team on 18 June 2014 in a 2-0 win against Macedonia. Statistics accurate as of match played 13 October 2018. Shanghai East AsiaChina League One: 2012Guizhou RenheChinese FA Super Cup: 2014

Christopher Merret

Christopher Merret FRS spelt Merrett, was an English physician and scientist. He was the first to document the deliberate addition of sugar for the production of sparkling wine, produced the first lists of British birds and butterflies. Merret was born in Gloucestershire on 16 February. In 1632 he went up to Oxford. Merret practised medicine in London, becoming a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in 1651. Three years he moved to the RCP's premises at Amen Corner near St Paul's Cathedral, as the first Harveian Librarian, for which he received room and board and a small stipend, but disaster struck in 1666 with the Great fire of London, which destroyed many of the rooms and most of the books. The college felt that he was no longer needed, but he felt that he had been appointed for life and fought them before the King's Bench twice, losing both times, he lost his Fellowship. He was a founding Fellow of the Royal Society, joining May 20, 1663, he became the chairman of the Royal Society's committee concerned with the history of trade and commerce, but was expelled in 1685.

He died at his home near the chapel in Hatton Garden, on 19 August 1695, was buried at St Andrew's, Holborn. Merret collected new plants, maintained a herb garden and compiled one of the first lists of the flora and minerals of England, the Pinax Rerum Naturalium Britannicarum; the Pinax is an alphabetical catalogue with no explanatory commentary. However it represents the first lists of British birds and butterflies, contains one of the first statements by an Englishman on the organic origin of fossils: …it is abundantly clear to me that many stones considered to be inorganic are fashioned out of animals or their parts through the action of some earthen fluid. In 1662 he translated Antonio Neri’s The Art of Glass and added 147 pages of his own, from other authors and his own observations, his descriptions of glassmaking indicate an intimate familiarity with the process, but his modern claim to fame lies in a passing mention to a different field altogether. On 17 December 1662 he presented Some Observations concerning the Ordering of Wines to the Royal Society.

In this paper, unearthed by wine writer Tom Stevenson, Merret describes winemakers adding quantities of sugar and molasses to make the wines drink brisk and sparkling. Today this would be called the méthode champenoise, the addition of liqueur de tirage in order to stimulate a secondary fermentation that produces the bubbles in sparkling wine. Spontaneous secondary fermentation had occurred in still wines since antiquity. Sir Robert Mansell obtained a monopoly on glass production in England in the early 17th century and industrialised the process; as a result, the English could deliberately induce a secondary fermentation in wine without the risk of blowing up the bottle, long before Dom Pérignon is traditionally considered to have invented sparkling wine in Champagne around 1697. Although Merret appears to have been more interested in making glass than in making wine, producers of English sparkling wine such as Ridgeview have been quick to use his name as a generic term to describe their wines.

The Art of Glass, wherein are shown the wayes to make and colour Glass, Enamels and other Curiosities. Written in Italian by Antonio Neri, translated into English, with some observations on the author. Printed by Octavian Pulleyn, at the Sign of the Rose in St. Paul's Church-yard, London, 1662. Pinax Rerum Naturalium Britannicarum, continens Vegetabilia, Animalia, et Fossilia. Londini: Impensis Cave Pulleyn ad insigne Rosae in Coemeterio Divi Pauli, typis F. & T. Warren, 1666; the following papers ascribed to Merret were published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, although the last two were published in the year of his death and attributed to "Mr. Merret, Surveyor of the Port of Boston", which may have been his son Christopher. Observations concerning the uniting of barks of trees cut, to the tree itself. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. II, 453–454. An experiment on Aloe Americana serrati-folia weighed. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. II, 455–457. An experiment of making cherry-trees, that have withered fruit, to bear full and good fruit.

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. II, 455 A relation of the tinn-mines, working of tinn in the county of Cornwal. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. XII, 949–952; the art of refining. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. XII, 1046–1052. A description of several kinds of granaries, as those of London, of Dantzick, in Muscovy. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. II, 464–467. An account of several observables in Lincolnshire, not taken notice of in Camden, or any other author. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. XIX, 343–353. A table of the washes in Lincolnshire. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. XIX, 392. Dodds, C. (195

Tooth-billed bowerbird

The tooth-billed bowerbird known as stagemaker bowerbird and tooth-billed catbird is a medium-sized 27 centimetres long, stocky olive-brown bowerbird with brown-streaked buffish white below, grey feet, brown iris and unique tooth-like bill. Both sexes are similar, however the female is smaller than the male, it is the only member in monotypic genus Scenopoeetes. An Australian endemic, the tooth-billed bowerbird is distributed to mountain forests of northeast Queensland, its diet consists of fruits and young leaves of forest trees. The male is polygamous and builds a display-court or "stage-type bower", decorated with fresh green leaves laid with pale underside uppermost; the leaves are collected by the male by chewing through the leaf stalk and old leaves are removed from the display-court. The display-court consists of a cleared area containing at least one tree trunk used by the male for perching. Upon the approach of a female the male drops to displays. A common species in its limited habitat range, the tooth-billed bowerbird is evaluated as least concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Pizzey, G and Knight, F.. "The Field Guide to Birds of Australia". Angus and Robertson. Sydney. BirdLife Species Factsheet