Ohad Naharin is an Israeli contemporary dancer and choreographer. He served as artistic director of Batsheva Dance Company from 1990. Ohad Naharin was born in 1952 in Kibbutz Mizra. Raised in an artistic home, he wrote stories, composed music, painted as a child, his father was a psychologist specializing in psychodrama and an actor who performed with Habima and the Haifa Theater. His mother was a Feldenkrais instructor and dancer. Naharin did not start dancing until age 22. During his first year with the Batsheva Dance Company, Martha Graham visited Israel and invited Naharin to join her dance company in New York. After dancing for Martha Graham, he attended the School of American Ballet. In 1978, he married a native New Yorker and an Alvin Ailey dancer. In 2001, she died of cancer at age 50, he is now married to a Batsheva dancer with whom he has a daughter. Naharin is the House Choreographer of Batsheva Dance Company, he served as Artistic Director as well until 2018. In 1990, Naharin was appointed Artistic Director.
The company is international in nature, made up of individually unique dancers from Israel and other countries. Dancers are encouraged to affirm their distinct creative gifts, as creators on their own. Naharin’s signature style and technique has developed during his time with Batsheva, his style is “distinguished by stunningly flexible limbs and spines grounded movement, explosive bursts and a vitality that grabs a viewer by the collar.” His dancers do not rehearse in front of a mirror as this enables them to move away from self-critique and allows them to feel the movement from within. Naharin is known to be a reserved and private person, this is apparent in the studio as well, he comments constructively and calmly. Since he has been musically trained, Naharin sometimes collaborates on the compositions used in his pieces. During his time directing and teaching the Batsheva Company, Naharin developed Gaga, a movement language and pedagogy that has defined the company's training and continues to characterize Israeli contemporary dance.
A practice that resists codification and emphasizes the practitioner's somatic experience, Gaga is labeled a movement language rather than a movement "technique". Gaga classes consist of a teacher leading dancers through an improvisational practice based on a series of images described by the teacher. Naharin explains that such a practice is meant to provide a framework or a "safety net" for the dancers to use to "move beyond familiar limits"; the descriptions that are used to guide the dancers through the improvisation are intended to help the dancer initiate and express movement in unique ways from parts of the body that tend to be ignored in other dance techniques. One example is the image of "Luna", which refers to the fleshy, semi-circular regions between fingers and toes; as part of the ideological insistence on moving through sensing and imagining, mirrors are discouraged in a Gaga rehearsal space. Naharin's works have been commissioned by the Frankfurt Ballet, Opéra National de Paris, Grand Théâtre de Genève, Sydney Dance Company, Lyon Opera Ballet, Les Grands Ballets Canadiens, Rambert Dance Company, Compañia Nacional de Danza, Cullberg Ballet, Finnish National Ballet, Ballet Gulbenkian, Balé da Cidade de São Paulo, Bavarian State Ballet, Cedar Lake Contemporary Ballet, Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre, Hubbard Street Dance Chicago and Royal Danish Ballet.
He seeks to create movement, universal yet personal. He always has a clear social and political conscience in his works, but his dances are not meant to be political, he finds storytelling of suffering and the world’s problems boring in comparison to a person’s ability to use texture and multi-layered movement. He contrasts physical explosiveness with stillness, taking an interest in contrasts and extremes, which creates vital distance and space in dances, his philosophy, shared with many who devote their lives to choreography, is that everyone should dance. Deca Dance highlights many excerpts from his previous works. Naharin says himself, “Deca Dance is not a new work, it is more about reconstruction: I like to take pieces or sections of existing works and rework it, reorganize it and create the possibility to look at it from a new angle. It always teaches me something new about my composition. In Deca Dance I took sections from different works, it was like I was telling only either the beginning, middle or ending of many stories but when I organized it the result become as coherent as the original if not more.”In Max, "Mr. Naharin’s theatrical ingredients are space and light."
A critic comments, "In this tremendously potent work, there are few obvious displays of emotion, yet Max is full of imagery that slips between real life and dance in fleeting flashes."Anaphase, a work for 22 dancers and two musicians, combines elements of theater, opera and rock music as well as dance. According to Naharin, it "deals with small sculptures in a big space" and explores the abilities of the human body. Other pieces he has choreographed include Three, Tabula Rasa, Pas de Pepsi, Haru No Umi, In Common, Sixty a Minute, Black Milk, Mamootot, yag, sabotage baby, Passo Mezzo, plastelina, Naharin's Virus, Sadeh21, The Hole. In 2015, a documentary about Naharin called; this documentary's title is a reference to the movement language created by Gaga. The documentary explores how Naharin and his movement style have influenced Batsheva Dance Company and the modern dance world. Gaga mov
In ballet, turnout is rotation of the leg at the hips which causes the feet to turn outward, away from the front of the body. This rotation allows for greater extension of the leg when raising it to the side and rear. Turnout is an essential part of classical ballet technique. Turnout is measured in terms of the angle between the center lines of the feet when heels are touching, as in first position. Complete turnout is attainable without conditioning. Various exercises are used to improve turnout by increasing hip flexibility, strengthening buttocks muscles, or both. In properly executed turnout, the legs must rotate at the hips. If turnout is achieved via lateral rotation in the knee joint, the knee will still face forward; this can cause knee injury. Some dancers will use an anterior pelvic tilt because hip flexion reduces the tension on the ligament and allows lateral hip rotation to occur more easily; this will however, affect the dancer's posture, since it requires the back to hyper-extend to remain upright.
The extent to which an individual can rotate their legs is predetermined. The degree of turnout attainable is determined by the shape of the femoral neck and the angle at which the femoral head is inserted into the hip socket, the orientation of the hip socket, the elasticity of the iliofemoral ligament, the flexibility of the hip and thigh muscles. However, the structure of the bone may be influenced by ballet exercises before a certain period of bone development attained around the age of eleven. Health risks of professional dance Sources
Nederlands Dans Theater
Nederlands Dans Theater is a Dutch contemporary dance company. NDT is headquartered at the Lucent Danstheater in The Hague. In addition to the Lucent Danstheater, NDT performs at other venues in the Netherlands, including Amsterdam's Het Muziektheater and Nijmegen's Stadsschouwburg. NDT was founded in 1959 by Benjamin Harkarvy, Aart Verstegen and Carel Birnie together with a group of 18 members of the Dutch National Ballet, their intention was to break away from the more traditionally oriented Dutch National Ballet. NDT focused onto new ideas and experimentation with the exploration of new forms and techniques of dance. In 1961 the Nederlands Dans Theater got subsidy from the government. In the 1960s the NDTs repertoire comprised classical dance with a strong influence by American modern dance; the NDT got unprecedented recognition and success with the guidance of different persons like Hans van Manen and Jiří Kylián as artistic directors. In the first years of the 1970s there was no clear policy because of various conflicts within the board of the NDT.
That changed. The Nederlands Dans Theater is based in the Lucent Danstheater at the Spui in The Hague since 1987. Many of the founding NDT dancers have made their mark on Dutch ballet and dance: Gérard Lemaître was knighted Order of Orange-Nassau by Queen Beatrix, he retired in 1982 but returned as dancer of the NDT III company till 2006. Charles Czarny, Martinette Janmaat and Mabel Alter became well known ballet teachers at the conservatoires and dance academies in Rotterdam and Amsterdam Martinette Janmaat was artistic director for the Contemporary dance department at the Nationale Ballet Academy in Amsterdam and teacher at Rambert Dance Company Mabel Alter founded the Mabel Alter Balletschool in 1970 which became home of Summerschool Den Haag, international school for dance with a.o. teachers from NDT. The first group of dancers included: Benjamin Harkarvy as choreographer and artistic co-director, he went on to be the co-director of the Dutch National Ballet and from 1992 he became the director of the Dance Division of The Juilliard School in New York.
Hans van Manen He was connected to the NDT from 1960 till 1971 as a dancer and after that as a choreographer and artistic leader. He was a freelancer at the Nationaal Ballet, as a choreographer, he came back in 1988 as house choreographer at the Nederlands Dans Theater. His repertoire comprises more than 110 ballets. Jaap Flier became the new artistic director. For this job he stopped dancing but once in a. Hans Knill has worked together for 2 years as artistic director with Jiří Kylián. Jiří Kylián, the second artistic director, brought unprecedented recognition and success to NDT, his time as artistic director was from 1975 to 1999 – after he stepped down as artistic director, he remained with NDT as chief choreographer and artistic adviser. Marian Sarstädt has been a dancer and a staffmember of the artistic council as adjunct-director and she made a great contribution to the NDT. Anders Hellström trained at the Royal Swedish Ballet School and danced with the Royal Swedish Ballet and the Hamburg Ballet.
He danced with William Forsythe's Ballett Frankfurt from 1993-1999 before taking over as Artistic Director of Sweden's Goteburg Ballet. Jim Vincent He danced for the NDT from 1978 till 1990. After that he went to Spain where he was the adjunct-director. After this he worked in Disneyland Resort Paris. In 2000 he became artistic director of the Hubbard Street Dance Chicago, and in 2009 he became the artistic director of the NDT. Paul Lightfoot, who danced with NDT since 1985, and, resident choreographer since 2002, has been appointed artistic director as of January 2012. Jiří Kylián, Paul Lightfoot and Sol León; the Nederlands Dans Theater collaborates a lot with guest choreographers. For example: Hans van Manen, Johan Inger, Crystal Pite, Lukáš Timulak, Cayetano Soto, Marco Goecke, Medhi Walerski, Ohad Naharin, Tero Saarinen, Wayne McGregor and William Forsythe. Nederland Dans Theater I was founded in 1959; the dancers all are not divided into categories. Besides works of Jiří Kylián and Lightfoot León the repertoire of Nederland Dans Theater I comprises a large number of works by choreographers such as Nacho Duato, Mats Ek, William Forsythe and Ohad Naharin.
Nederlands Dans Theater II was founded in 1978 for dancers between 17 and 22, original name was'De Springplank'. Alongside ballets by Hans van Manen and Jiří Kylián, much work by young choreographic talent is performed. By initiative of Jiří Kylián a new group was set up in 1991 for dancers of 40 years and older; this group became legendary in the dance world. But because there was not enough structural subsidy to keep up the activities of Nederlands Dans Theater III as a permanent part of the company, the management and Board of Nederlands Dans Theater decided in 2006 to discontinue Nederlands Dans Theater III in its current form. Plans to continue the group and realize new projects are being investigated. Besides works of Jiří Kylián and Lightfoot León the NDT performs works choreographed by Jacopo Godani, Ohad Naharin, Mats Ek, William Forsythe, Crystal Pite. Both NDT I and II tour in the Netherlands and abroad with
New York City Ballet
New York City Ballet is a ballet company founded in 1948 by choreographer George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein. Balanchine and Jerome Robbins are considered the founding choreographers of the company. Léon Barzin was the company's first music director. City Ballet grew out of earlier troupes: the Producing Company of the School of American Ballet, 1934. In a 1946 letter, Kirstein stated, "The only justification I have is to enable Balanchine to do what he wants to do in the way he wants to do it." He served as the company's General Director from 1946 to 1989, developing and sustaining it by his organizational and fundraising abilities. The company was named New York City Ballet in 1948 when it became resident at City Center of Music and Drama, its success was marked by its move to the New York State Theater, now David H. Koch Theater, designed by Philip Johnson to Balanchine's specifications. City Ballet went on to become the first ballet company in the United States to have two permanent venue engagements: one at Lincoln Center's David H. Koch Theater on 63rd Street in Manhattan, another at the Saratoga Performing Arts Center, in Saratoga Springs, New York.
The School of American Ballet, which Balanchine founded, is the training school of City Ballet. After the company's move to the State Theater, Balanchine's creativity as a choreographer flourished, he created works that were the basis of the company's repertory until his death in 1983. His vision influenced dance both in Europe, he worked with choreographer Jerome Robbins, who resumed his connection with the company in 1969 after having produced works for Broadway. NYCB still has the largest repertoire by far of any American ballet company, it stages 60 ballets or more in its winter and spring seasons at Lincoln Center each year, 20 or more in its summer season in Saratoga Springs. City Ballet has performed The Nutcracker and Juliet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, many more. City Ballet has developed many great dancers since its formation. Many dancers with developed reputations have joined the ballet as principal dancers. In 1960, Balanchine mounted City Ballet's Salute to Italy with premieres of Monumentum pro Gesualdo and Variations from Don Sebastian, as well as performances of his La Sonnambula and Lew Christensen's Con Amore.
The performance was repeated in 1968. In 1972, Balanchine offered an eight-day tribute to the composer, his great collaborator, who had died the year before, his programs included twenty-two new works of his own dances, plus works by choreographers Todd Bolender, John Clifford, Lorca Massine, Jerome Robbins, Richard Tanner, John Taras, as well as repertory ballets by Balanchine and Robbins. Balanchine created Symphony in Three Movements, Duo Concertant, Violin Concerto for the occasion, he and Robbins performed in Pulcinella. Balanchine had produced an earlier Stravinsky festival in 1937 as balletmaster of the American Ballet while engaged by the Metropolitan Opera; the composer conducted the April 27th premiere of Card Party. In 1975, Balanchine paid his respects to the French composer Maurice Ravel with a two-week Hommage à Ravel. Balanchine, Jacques d'Amboise, Taras made sixteen new ballets for the occasion. Repertory ballets were performed as well. High points included Robbins' Mother Goose.
In 1981, Balanchine planned a two-week NYCB festival honoring the Russian composer Peter Ilyitch Tschaikovsky. Balanchine, Joseph Duell, d'Amboise, Peter Martins and Taras created twelve new dances. In addition to presenting these and repertory ballets, Balanchine re-choreographed his Mozartiana from 1933. Philip Johnson and John Burgee's stage setting of translucent tubing was designed to be hung and lit in different architectural configurations throughout the entire festival. In 1982, Balanchine organized a centennial celebration in honor of his long-time collaborator Igor Stravinsky, during which the City Ballet performed twenty-five ballets set to the composer’s music. Balanchine made three new ballets, Tango, Élégie, Persephone, a new version of Variations; the choreographer died the following year. Balanchine’s 50th Anniversary Celebration was held by the company in 2002. On April 26, 1984, NYCB celebrated the 20th anniversary of the New York State Theater; the program started with Igor Stravinsky's Fanfare for a New Theater, followed by Stravinsky's arrangement of The Star-Spangled Banner.
The ballets included three of Balanchine's works, Stravinsky Violin Concerto, Sonatine. The performers included Maria Calegari, Kyra Nichols, Heather Watts, Leonid Kozlov, Afshin Mofid, Patricia McBride, Helgi Tomasson, Karin von Aroldingen, Lourdes Lopez, Bart Cook, Joseph Duell. After Balanchine's death in 1983, Peter Martins was selected as balletmaster of the company. After 30 years, Martins was judged to have maintained the New York City Ballet's financial security and the musicality and performance level of the dancers, but he has not emphasized the Balanchine style to the extent that many observers expected he would. Martins retired from his position in 2018. For the company's 40th anniversary, Martins held an American Music Festival, having commissioned dances from choreographers Laura Dean, Eliot Feld, William Forsythe, Lar Lubovitch, Paul Taylor, he presented ballets by George Balanchine and Robbins. The programs included world premieres of more than twenty dances. Martins contributed Barber Violin Concerto and White, The Chairman Dances, A Fool
The Joffrey Ballet is a professional dance company resident in Chicago, Illinois, USA. The company performs both classical ballets, including Romeo & Juliet and The Nutcracker, modern dance pieces. Many choreographers have worked with the Joffrey, including Paul Taylor, Twyla Tharp, George Balanchine, founders Gerald Arpino and Robert Joffrey. Founded as a touring company in 1956, it was based in New York City until 1995 when it moved to Chicago; the company's headquarters and dance academy are in Joffrey Tower, it performs its September–May season at the Auditorium Theatre. In 2020 the company will move its presentation venue to the Civic Opera House through an arrangement with the Lyric Opera of Chicago. In 1956, a time during which most touring companies performed only reduced versions of ballet classics, Robert Joffrey and Gerald Arpino formed a six-dancer ensemble that toured the country in a station wagon pulling a U-Haul trailer, performing original ballets created by Joffrey. While Joffrey stayed in New York City to teach ballet classes and earn money to pay the dancers' salaries, Arpino led the troupe.
The ensemble first performed in a major city in Chicago in 1957. The Joffrey Ballet settled down in New York City, under the name the Robert Joffrey Theatre Ballet. In 1962 modern choreographer Alvin Ailey was invited to make a work for the company. Rebekah Harkness was an important early benefactor and she made international touring possible, but in 1964 she and Joffrey parted ways. Joffrey started again. Following a successful season at the New York City Center in 1966, it was invited to become City Center's resident ballet company with Joffrey as artistic director and Arpino as chief choreographer. Arpino's 1970 rock ballet Trinity was well received. In 1973 Joffrey asked Twyla Tharp to create her first commissioned Deuce Coupe; the company continued as City Center Joffrey Ballet until 1977. From 1977, it performed with a second home established in Los Angeles from. In 1995, the company left New York City for Chicago to establish a permanent residence there; the first few years in Chicago were financially arduous for the company, nearly causing it to close several times, but audiences became larger and younger.
In 2005 the Joffrey Ballet celebrated its 10th anniversary in Chicago and in 2007 concluded a two-season-long 50th anniversary celebration, including a "River to River" tour of free, outdoor performances across Iowa, sponsored by Hancher Auditorium at the University of Iowa. The Joffrey Ballet’s was the first dance company to perform at the White House at Jacqueline Kennedy’s invitation, the first to appear on American television, the first classical dance company to use multi-media, the first to create a ballet set to rock music, the first to appear on the cover of TIME magazine, the first company to have had a major motion picture based on it, Robert Altman’s The Company. In Robert Altman's penultimate film, The Company, Malcolm McDowell played the ballet company's artistic director, a character based on Gerald Arpino; the film is composed of stories gathered from the actual dancers and staff of the Joffrey Ballet. Most of the roles are played by actual company members; the Joffrey Ballet appeared in the motion picture Save the Last Dance, when the two protagonists of the story saw the company perform Sea Shadow and Les Présages in Chicago.
In the Glee, character Mike Chang is given a scholarship to attend the Joffrey Academy of Dance in Chicago. In fall 1987 the Joffrey Ballet premiered a reconstructed version of Igor Stravinsky's seminal ballet The Rite of Spring in the city of Los Angeles; the original ballet debuted in 1913 in Paris and was choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky. Dance experts Millicent Hodson and Kenneth Archer spent eighteen years gathering research on the original ballet in order to properly reconstruct it. Eighty percent of the original costumes were located and reconstructed for the performance, Hodson and Archer were able to consult with Nijinsky's rehearsal assistant Marie Rambert on the original choreography, before her death in 1982; as of 2014 the company comprised 40 dancers, performs its regular September–May season at the Auditorium Theatre in Chicago, engages in several domestic and international tours throughout the year. Its repertoire consists of both classical and contemporary pieces, as well as annual December performances of The Nutcracker, presented in conjunction with the Chicago Philharmonic.
In 2007 Gerald Arpino retired from day-to-day operations, becoming artistic director emeritus until his death in 2009. In October 2007 former Joffrey dancer Ashley Wheater, assistant artistic director and ballet master for San Francisco Ballet, became the third artistic director. In 2019, the Joffery presented the world premiere of an new "story ballet" based on Anna Karenina. Choreographed by Yuri Possokhov, the Joffrey and The Australian Ballet commissioned from composer Ilya Demutsky a new full-length orchestral score, the first in the Joffrey's history; the Joffrey is located in Joffrey Tower, at 10 East Randolph Street in downtown Chicago. The company has an extensive touring schedule, an education program including the Joffrey Academy of Dance, Official School of The Joffrey Ballet, Community Engagement program, collaborations with other visual and performing arts organizations. In 2020, the Joffrey plan
In dance, floorwork refers to movements performed on the floor. Floorwork is used extensively in modern dance Graham technique and Hawkins technique, as well as in vernacular breakdancing; some dance training practices, notably Floor-Barre, consist of floorwork. Floorwork changes the body's relationship with gravity, requires dancers to navigate between higher and lower levels; these features are central to the use of floorwork in choreography, affect its role in technique classes. Executing floorwork smoothly requires flexible joints, a relaxed body, attention to the kinesthetic feedback provided by the floor; the "low" or floorwork level is one of three principal spatial levels dancers may occupy, along with the middle or bipedestrian and the high or aerial levels. The use of floorwork is one of the major differences between modern dance and previous Western concert dance genres. Isadora Duncan incorporated floorwork in dances as early as 1911, although credit for its introduction is more given to her successor Martha Graham.
The concept is associated with Graham technique, because of Graham's extensive use of floorwork and imitated innovations, as well as the technique's unique repertoire of falls. Doris Humphrey has been credited with floorwork innovations in a concert dance context. Movements derived from classical modern dance used floorwork extensively. Contemporary ballet uses the floor as an integral part of the choreography, rather than the occasional kneel or collapse to be found in older romantic ballet styles. Floorwork is essential in the postmodern genre of contact improvisation, in which the floor can be treated as a partner. Floorwork in b-boying includes floor-based footwork, or downrock, as well as certain more athletic power moves. Downrock is performed with the body supported on the feet, it allows the dancer to display their proficiency with foot speed and control by performing intricate footwork combinations. The foundational move of downrock is the 6-step; the hands and knees may be featured or support the body.
Downrock transitions into dramatic power moves, including floor-based moves such as windmills and flares. Downrock became common in the mid-1970s; the emergence of floorwork was an important development in breaking, marking the end of the early or "old-school" style. Floorwork is a feature of many kinds of belly dance involving the manipulation of a prop while lying on the floor and intended to showcase the dancer's control. Masha Archer, as part of an effort to change what she saw as the over-sexualized and exploitative features of belly dance, rejected floorwork because she did not want audiences to look down on her dancers. Further examples of floorwork Guest, A. H.. Floorwork, Basic Acrobatics. Advanced Labanotation. Dance Books. ISBN 978-1-85273-093-2
Arabesque (ballet position)
Arabesque in dance ballet, is a body position in which a dancer stands on one leg – the supporting leg – with the other leg – the working leg – turned out and extended behind the body, with both legs held straight. In classical ballet, an arabesque can be executed with the supporting leg en pointe or demi pointe or with foot flat on the floor; the working leg may be elevated. Common elevation angles of the raised leg are 45° – à demi hauteur – and 90° – à la hauteur; when the angle is much greater than 90° and the body trunk leans forward to counterbalance the working leg, the position is called arabesque penchée. The arms may be held in various positions. Arabesques are described from the perspective of the dancer, in terms of the stage reference points used by the training system. Galina Kekisheva, a former soloist of the Kirov Ballet who studied with Agrippina Vaganova at the Leningrad School of Dance has described the changes in Russian ballet technique over time: Now it seems unimportant in the school if the dancer stands on his or her leg properly pulled up, or sits back into the hip socket.
What is important to today's dancers is that the arabesque is higher than the head. There is no low arabesque that maintains a beautiful line, an arabesque from which, for example, you can do a turn; when you're sitting back on the leg, you can't go anywhere from there. Kekisheva, now a coach with the Mariinsky ballet, has said that "Vaganova's method is dissipating, working in the classical repertoire has become more difficult". In the Vaganova method there are four basic arabesque positions, they are described here for a dancer facing point 8. In class practice, the arms are always level with the shoulders – arabesque de classe, whereas in performance the arm in front may be raised above shoulder level – arabesque de scene; the elbows are always facing downwards. In the first arabesque, the dancer stands in effacé position – with the left foot in front – with the right leg raised in arabesque, the right arm extended to the side, to the audience, the left arm extended front, towards the corner.
The gaze follows the line of the arm extended en avant. In the second arabesque the legs are like in the first arabesque, but the right arm is extended en avant while the left arm is extended aligned with the dancer's shoulder; the dancer's face is turned toward point one. In the third arabesque the dancer stands in croisé position – with the right foot in front – with the left leg raised in arabesque, the right arm extended to the side and a little behind the shoulder, the left arm extended front; the gaze follows the line of the arm extended en avant. In the fourth arabesque position the dancer stands in croisé as for the third arabesque, but the right arm is extended front and the left arm is extended as far back as possible in line with the right arm; the shoulders are in strong épaulement and the dancer's focus is turned to the audience. In arabesque tendue or dégagé, the leg comes from the hip and does not affect aplomb as the back remains straight. Most dancers do not have absolute rotation through the supporting leg, therefore the working hip may open without lifting into the lower ribs, while the supporting hip lifts forward over the supporting foot, maintaining a spiral rotation through the legs.
When the leg is moved or held above 45° or so, the dancer curves the spine both laterally and vertically. The method is to: Anchor the shoulders and scapula downward without tension, keeping both shoulders "square" – aligned parallel with the direction the dancer is facing; the sternum must lift without hyper-extending the ribcage. Keep the supporting hip forward, as mentioned above; the spine curves to the anterior, keeping the head lifted to focus straight forward to diagonally up. The current standard height and degree for the Vaganova arabesque is 110°. Vaganova method maintains that, in classical ballet, both the supporting and the working legs must be turned out through the legs, not only from the hips in full arabesque. If the choreography requires the dancer to open her/his arms, the performer should rotate the shoulders around the spine, so the shoulders do not affect the position of the back and spine and/or shoulders. Note that allowing for the dancer to open the hips is distinctly different than some older methods, that require the hips to remain down.
Restraining the hips restricts range of motion, restricting the full curvature of the spine,. Opening the hip allows dancers with lesser mobile bodies to safely achieve greater range of motion in arabesque. Suki Schorer has described the Balanchine arabesque as "longer and bigger". Balanchine would instruct students to "reach for diamonds" in both directions so the dancer's hands are not relaxed—the dancer's line should be elongated, but the arms should not be stiff. Schorer says the arabesque pliée "is good to build strength in your legs to control the rate of descent to hold your body up when you land"; the dancer's bent knee is over the toe and the dancer should not penchée or tilt forward. In the RAD system, there are three main arabesques. Here they are described for a dancer facing point 6: First arabesque is taken standing en ouvert on the right leg with the left leg extended; the right arm is extended forwards at eye height, parallel with the right shoulder. The left arm is at the side behind and below the left shoulder.
Second arabesque has a more'square' feel to it. The dancer stands on their left l