Contoocook Railroad Bridge
The Contoocook Railroad Bridge is a covered bridge on the former Contoocook Valley Railroad line spanning the Contoocook River in the center of the village of Contoocook, New Hampshire, United States. It is referred to in the National Register of Historic Places as the Hopkinton Railroad Covered Bridge, for the town of Hopkinton, New Hampshire, in which the village of Contoocook is located. Built in the 19th century, it is the oldest extant covered railroad bridge in the United States and served rail traffic until 1960, it was used as a warehouse until 1989 became public property, has been preserved by the state and volunteers, in association with the nearby historic railroad depot. Built in 1889 to replace a lighter covered railroad bridge constructed between 1849–50, having been built by the former Concord and Claremont Railroad, the bridge is the oldest of four surviving double-web Town lattice railroad bridges, is the oldest extant covered railroad bridge in the United States, it was designed by Boston & Maine Railroad engineer Jonathan Parker Snow and built by carpenter David Hazelton.
Under Snow, the Boston & Maine utilized wooden bridges on its branch lines longer than any other major railroad, the last of these constructed in 1916. The nearby Contoocook Railroad Depot was built in 1850 on the earlier Claremont Railroad; the bridge presents the clearest, most original structure of its type, as the others incorporate significant structural modifications. The main trusses are double Town lattice and are continuous over a central pier to form two spans of 71 feet each, it has been said they were built by the mile and cut off by the yard. The center pier is skewed to match the river flow; this is. The bridge was in use as a railroad bridge until 1962, survived a flood in 1936, a hurricane in 1938, was moved off its foundations twice during its lifespan and saved from being washed down river by the rail tracks running through it. Following its railroad service, it functioned as a warehouse between 1962 and 1990. Article published in The Old Stone Wall, Fall 2003, distributed by the State of New Hampshire, Division of Cultural Resources, Division of Historical Resources: Major work began in August on the state-owned Contoocook Covered Railroad Bridge.
The National Society for the Preservation of Covered Bridges has employed Tim Andrews, proprietor of Barns and Bridges of New England, to lift the four sagging corners of the bridge and replace decayed bed timbers. The Society is donating the cost of Andrews' work from its Eastman Thomas Fund; the span is under the administrative care of the Division of Historical Resources, which has no capital budget for its maintenance. Over the past decade, the National Society has donated repairs to the side sheathing and flat metal roof of the bridge, purchased fire retardant chemicals for the wooden span, provided countless hours of volunteer labor in maintaining the bridge. For the current building campaign, Tim Andrews has brought heavy steel I-beams from his last job, the award-winning restoration of the Bog Covered Bridge in Andover. Andrews hopes to straighten some of the kinks that the bridge acquired when it was tipped off its abutments in the flood of 1936 and again in the hurricane of 1938. Contoocook Bridge is one of three surviving covered bridges on the Claremont rail line.
Two others, in western Newport, are state-owned, but are administered as trail crossings by the Department of Resources and Economic Development. Together, the three remaining Concord and Claremont Branch bridges are among the most remarkable of the eight covered railroad bridges that survive in the world; the 1889 Contoocook Bridge is the oldest of the eight. Recognizing this rarity, the Historic American Engineering Record selected Contoocook Bridge and its sister span, Wright's Bridge, for detailed study and recordation this summer. After it ceased to serve rail traffic in 1960, the Contoocook Bridge was owned by a succession of private individuals; the bridge became the property of the Town of Hopkinton in 1989. Not wanting to own and maintain the span, Hopkinton offered the bridge to the State of New Hampshire. Governor Judd Gregg and the executive council accepted the gift in 1990. Under state law, the Division of Historical Resources becomes administratively responsible for any historic covered bridge, donated to the state by a municipality.
Without a capital budget, DHR has depended entirely on the National Society for the Preservation of Covered Bridges for financial help in maintaining the bridge. DHR has partnered with the Contoocook Riverway Association, which owns the nearby Contoocook Railroad Depot. Together, the Association and DHR have won a Transportation Enhancement grant for restoration of the bridge and the railroad station. Once the bridge is securely underpinned, DHR will combine Transportation Enhancement grant funds and Conservation License Plate revenues to install a fire sprinkler system in the bridge, paint the exterior using an authentic Boston and Maine Railroad paint formula, install interpretive signage and interior security lighting. – James L. Garvi
Artichoke River (Massachusetts)
The Artichoke River, is a tributary of the Merrimack River in Massachusetts in the United States. It is in Essex County and flows north, marking the boundary between West Newbury and Newburyport; the Upper and Lower Artichoke reservoirs are impoundments of the river that acts as a water source for nearby towns. Despite the short length of the river, there are three dams along its course, the Emory Lane Dam, the Lower Artichoke Dam and the Upper Artichoke Dam; the river is named for the Jerusalem Artichoke, harvested nearby by Native Americans and early settlers. List of rivers of Massachusetts
Nelson, New Hampshire
Nelson is a town in Cheshire County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 729 at the 2010 census. Nelson includes the village of Munsonville. Named Monadnock No. 6, the town was granted in 1752 by Governor Benning Wentworth. It was first settled in 1767 by Breed Batchelder. On February 22, 1774, the town was incorporated by Governor John Wentworth as Packersfield, after a major proprietor, Thomas Packer, the sheriff at Portsmouth; the name was changed in 1814 to Nelson in honor of Viscount Horatio Nelson, British admiral and naval hero. Located on the height of land separating the watersheds of the Connecticut and Merrimack rivers, Nelson became an agricultural community; the uneven surface proved good for grazing. But with streams rising from four ponds to provide water power, it developed industry; the village of Munsonville, situated on the stage line at the outlet of Granite Lake, manufactured cotton cloth and chairs. The L. J. Colony Chair Co. produced between 25,000 and 30,000 chairs annually, hiring women and children from local farms to weave the rattan seats and backs.
At one time, Munsonville had 10 school districts. The mills have since closed, Munsonville is today a resort of summer homes. Nelson is the home of a popular Monday night contradance. Similar dances have been held for over 200 years in Nelson's town hall. Many make the claim that this is the longest running public contradance in the world, though there have been no attempts to document this as an "official" record; the Apple Hill Center for Chamber Music, a classical chamber music group which attempts to bring members of cultures in conflict closer together through music, is in Nelson. Nelson is located in southwestern New Hampshire, its eastern border is the Hillsborough County line. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 23.2 square miles, of which 21.9 sq mi is land and 1.4 sq mi is water, comprising 5.94% of the town. The eastern part of the town drains towards the Contoocook River, a tributary of the Merrimack River and part of the Gulf of Maine watershed, while the western part of the town feeds tributaries of the Ashuelot River, part of the Connecticut River watershed draining to Long Island Sound.
Spoonwood Pond and part of Nubanusit Lake are in the east. Part of Silver Lake is in the south, part of Granite Lake is in the north; the village of Munsonville is located at the outlet of Granite Lake. The highest point in Nelson is the summit of Osgood Hill, with an elevation of 2,253 feet above sea level; the town is crossed by the Monadnock-Sunapee Greenway, a 50-mile hiking trail that traverses the highlands of southern New Hampshire from Mount Monadnock in Jaffrey to Mount Sunapee in Newbury. The trail passes directly through the center of Nelson; the town is crossed by New Hampshire Route 9. As of the census of 2010, there were 729 people, 303 households, 208 families residing in the town; the population density was 33.3 people per square mile. There were 460 housing units, of which 157, or 34.1%, were vacant. 144 of the vacant units were for seasonal or recreational use. The racial makeup of the town was 97.7% White, 0.0% African American, 0.0% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 1.8% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.4% of the population. Of the 303 households in the town, 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were headed by married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.4% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.6% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41, the average family size was 220.127.116.11% of the town population were under the age of 18, 9.1% were from 18 to 24, 20.1% were from 25 to 44, 35.3% were from 45 to 64, 16.3% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.1 males. For the period 2013-17, the estimated median annual income for a household in the town was $71,500, the median income for a family was $90,313. Male full-time workers had a median income of $48,000 versus $48,542 for females; the per capita income for the town was $38,514.
About 12.4% of families and 13.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.0% of those under age 18. Charles Eastman, Native American physician and writer Ursula Newell Emerson, missionary in Hawaii Alfred B. Kittredge, US senator from South Dakota May Sarton and writer Town of Nelson official website Olivia Rodham Memorial Library Apple Hill Center for Chamber Music Moving In Step: A Community Project New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile
Greenfield, New Hampshire
Greenfield is a town in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,749 at the 2010 census. Greenfield is home to the Crotched Mountain Rehabilitation Center, to Greenfield State Park, to part of the Wapack Trail. Known as "Lyndeborough Addition", the area was first settled by the Lynde family in 1753. Separated from the nearest church and school by the Monadnock hills, the residents petitioned to form a new town in 1791, using the name "Greenfield" to highlight the area's level, fertile ground. In 1953, the Crotched Mountain Rehabilitation Center began operation in Greenfield. Established by Harry Gregg, the facility on Crotched Mountain treated for polio, cerebral palsy, spina bifida and other physical and neurological disabilities. A center for adult rehabilitation would open in 1961, a rehabilitation center for adults with brain injuries in 1986; the complex today provides service to adults. In 2004, it unveiled the first wheelchair-accessible treehouse in New Hampshire.
Greenfield is home to the Yankee Siege, considered the most powerful trebuchet in the world, which has participated in the annual World Championship Punkin' Chunkin' Contest in Sussex County, Delaware since 2004. The farthest official toss is 1,897 feet as of 2008, although there are unofficial reports of 2,000-to-2,300-foot throws as of 2009. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 26.6 square miles, of which 26.1 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water, comprising 2.09% of the town. Greenfield is drained by Otter Brook and the Contoocook River. North Pack Monadnock Mountain, elevation 2,276 feet above sea level, is the northernmost summit of the Wapack Range and the highest point in Greenfield; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,657 people, 563 households, 405 families residing in the town. The population density was 65.1 people per square mile. There were 640 housing units at an average density of 25.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.28% White, 0.72% African American, 0.84% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.48% from other races, 0.42% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.60% of the population. There were 563 households out of which 38.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.0% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families. 19.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.12. In the town, the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, 7.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $48,833, the median income for a family was $56,250. Males had a median income of $36,250 versus $24,438 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,895. About 2.4% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.9% of those under age 18 and 8.5% of those age 65 or over.
Town of Greenfield official website Crotched Mountain Rehabilitation Center Friends of the Wapack Trail Greenfield State Park New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau Profile
Henniker, New Hampshire
Henniker is a town in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 4,836. Henniker is home to Pats Peak Ski Area. Henniker is a college resort area, featuring both skiing and white-water kayaking; the main village of the town, where 1,747 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Henniker census-designated place, is located along the Contoocook River at the junction of New Hampshire Route 114 with Old Concord Road. The town includes the village of West Henniker, it was first known as "Number Six" in a line of settlements running between the Merrimack and Connecticut rivers. In 1752, the Masonian Proprietors granted the land to Andrew Todd, who called it "Todd's Town". Settled in 1761 by James Peter, it was dubbed "New Marlborough" by others from Marlboro, Massachusetts. Incorporated in 1768 by Governor John Wentworth, the town was named for Sir John Henniker, a London merchant of leather and fur, with shipping interests in Boston and Portsmouth.
In the 19th century Henniker had a high rate of congenital deafness, its own sign language, which may have played a significant role in the emergence of American Sign Language. Farmers found the town's surface even, with fertile soil. Various mills operated by water power including a woolen factory. By 1859, the population was 1,688, but mills in Henniker were closed in 1959 by the Hopkinton-Everett Lakes Flood Control Project. The Edna Dean Proctor Bridge, a stone double-arch bridge spanning the Contoocook, was built in 1835. A building for Henniker Academy was constructed of split granite in 1836. Beginning in the late 1800s, the river's scenic beauty attracted tourism; the game of paintball originated in Henniker in 1981. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 116.1 square kilometres, of which 114.3 square kilometres is land and 1.8 square kilometres is water, comprising 1.52% of the town. The village of Henniker, or census-designated place, has a total area of 3.6 square kilometres, all land.
Craney Hill, elevation 1,402 feet above sea level and home of Pat's Peak ski area, is in the south. The highest point in Henniker is an unnamed summit near the town's northwest corner, with an elevation of 1,552 ft. Henniker is drained by the Contoocook River and Amey Brook. Henniker is crossed by U. S. Route 202, state routes 9 and 114; as of the census of 2010, there were 4,836 people, 1,780 households, 1,124 families residing in the town. There were 1,928 housing units, of which or 7.7 %, were vacant. The racial makeup of the town was 95.7% white, 1.2% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 0.5% some other race, 1.1% from two or more races. 1.7 % of the population were Latino of any race. Of the 1,780 households, 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.2% were headed by married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families. 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.1% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.41, the average family size was 2.91. 541 residents, or 11.3% of the population, lived in group quarters rather than households. In the town, 19.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 21.3% were from 18 to 24, 20.1% from 25 to 44, 30.5% from 45 to 64, 9.0% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.5 males. For the period 2011-2015, the estimated median annual income for a household was $67,197, the median income for a family was $80,845. Male full-time workers had a median income of $67,755 versus $49,677 for females; the per capita income for the town was $28,377. 10.3% of the population and 3.3% of families were below the poverty line. 12.8% of the population under the age of 18 and 5.5% of those 65 or older were living in poverty. In the New Hampshire Senate, Henniker is in the 15th District, represented by Democrat Dan Feltes. On the New Hampshire Executive Council, Henniker is in the 2nd District, represented by Democrat Andru Volinsky.
In the United States House of Representatives, Henniker is in New Hampshire's 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Ann McLane Kuster. Henniker is part of New Hampshire School Administrative Unit #24, which includes Weare and Stoddard, New Hampshire. Kindergarten and primary school students attend Henniker Community School, while secondary level students attend John Stark Regional High School in Weare. Henniker is home to New England College, a four-year private liberal arts college. Henniker has a free library for residents, two community centers, a Parent-Teacher Association. Henniker has a Congregational church, a Roman Catholic church, a Quaker meeting house, Community Christian Fellowship. Amy Beach and pianist Laurie D. Cox, landscape architect, lacrosse coach and college president Robert Goodenow, US congressman Rufus K. Goodenow, US congressman Ocean Born Mary, subject of a local ghost legend James W. Patterson, US congressman and senator Parker Pillsbury, minister.
The Pennacook known by the names Penacook and Pennacock, were a North American people of the Wabanaki Confederacy who inhabited the Merrimack River valley of present-day New Hampshire and Massachusetts, as well as portions of southern Maine. They are sometimes called the Pawtucket people or the Merrimack people. An Algonquian-speaking tribe, they were more related to the Abenaki tribes to the west and east, such as the Penobscot and Piguaket or Pawtucket, than to other Algonquian tribes to the south, such as the Massachusett or Wampanoag; this relationship was both cultural. But, during the time of early Anglo-European settlement, the Pennacook were a large confederacy, politically distinct and at odds with their northern Abenaki neighbors. One of the first tribes to encounter European colonists, the Pennacook were decimated by infectious diseases unwittingly carried by the newcomers. Suffering high mortality, they were in a weakened state and subject to raids by Mohawk of the Iroquois Confederacy from the west, Micmac tribes from the north, who took a toll of lives.
Chief Passaconaway had a military advantage over the New England colonists, but he decided to make peace with them rather than lose more of his people's lives through warfare. They were caught up in King Philip's War and lost more members. Although Wonalancet, the chief who succeeded Passaconaway, tried to maintain neutrality in the war, bands in western Massachusetts did not; the Pennacook fled north with their former enemies, or west with other tribes, where the English colonists hunted them down and killed them. Those that survived, joined other scattered tribespeople at present-day New York; those who fled northward merged with other displaced New England tribes and Abenaki. Although no longer a distinct tribe, many bands of Abenaki in New Hampshire and Canada, are descended from such Pennacook ancestors; the Pennacook women cultivated varieties of maize and squash along fertile river beds, processing them for food and seeds for the next seasons. The men hunted in the wooded, less fertile areas.
The name Pennacook translates as "at the bottom of the hill." William James Sidis hypothesized in his book The Tribes and the States that the Pennacook tribes influenced the democratic ideals which European settlers instituted in New England. But English settlers had a historical tradition to draw from; the name "Pennacook" has been adopted by the Boy Scouts of America's Spirit of Adventure Council for their Order of Arrow lodge. Passaconaway Penacook, New Hampshire Plausawa Wonalancet Johnson, M. and Hook, R. The Native Tribes of North America, Compendium Publishing, 1992. ISBN 1-872004-03-2 Pennacook History Sidis, William; the Tribes and the States, 1935 Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook Abenaki People Pennacook Lodge, Order of the Arrow Maps showing the approximate locations of areas occupied by members of the Wabanaki Confederacy