Nashville International Airport
Nashville International Airport is a joint public and military use airport in the southeastern section of Nashville in the U. S. state of Tennessee. It is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a primary commercial service airport. Established in 1937, its original name was Berry Field, from which its ICAO and IATA identifiers are derived; the current terminal was constructed in 1987, the airport took its current name in 1988. Nashville International Airport has four runways, the longest of, 11,030 feet long. BNA covers 3,900 acres of land; the airport is served by 20 airlines and offers 585 daily arriving and departing flights with nonstop flights to more than 70 markets in the US, Mexico, the Caribbean and Europe. The airport terminal complex includes an over 1,000,000-square-foot passenger terminal with 44 air carrier gates. BNA serves a trade area of 79 counties in Middle Tennessee, southern Kentucky, northern Alabama; the airport is a focus city for Southwest Airlines.
Berry Field Air National Guard Base is located at Nashville International Airport. The base is home to the 118th Airlift Wing and is the headquarters of the Tennessee Air National Guard. Nashville's first airport was Hampton Field, which operated until 1921, it was replaced by Blackwood Field in the Hermitage community, which operated between 1921 and 1928. The first airlines to serve Nashville, American Airlines and Eastern Air Lines, flew out of Sky Harbor Airport in nearby Rutherford County. By 1935 the need for an airport larger and closer to the city than Sky Harbor Airport was realized and a citizens' committee was organized by mayor Hilary Howse to choose a location. A 340-acre plot along Dixie Parkway composed of four farms was selected, construction began in 1936 as one of the first major Works Progress Administration projects in the area; the airport was dedicated on November 1, 1936, as Berry Field, named after Col. Harry S. Berry, the Tennessee administrator for the Works Progress Administration.
It opened in June 1937 with much fanfare, including parades, an air show, an aerial bombardment display by the 105th Aero Squadron, based at the field. Passenger service began in mid-July through American Airlines and Eastern Airlines, both of which operated Douglas DC-3 aircraft; the new airport had three asphalt runways, a three-story passenger terminal, a control tower, two hangars and a beacon, was constructed at a cost of $1.2 million. In its first year, Berry Field served 189,000 passengers. Bob Hoover, regarded as one of the greatest pilots to have lived, learned to fly at Berry Field. During World War II, the airfield was requisitioned by the United States Army Air Forces Air Transport Command as the headquarters for the 4th Ferrying Command for movement of new aircraft overseas. During this time, the Federal government expanded the airport to 1,500 acres. At the end of the war, the airport was returned to the control of the city, with a number of facilities remaining for support of the tenant unit of the Tennessee National Guard.
The airport had been enlarged by the military during World War II, but in 1958 the City Aviation Department started planning to expand and modernize the airport. Nashville gained its first scheduled jet service in 1961, the same year a new 145,000 square feet terminal opened off of Briley Parkway, west of runway 2L. For the first time more than half a million people passed through the airport when the six airlines that served Nashville carried 532,790 passengers; these renovations included expansion of an existing runway, with 2L/20R being extended by 600 feet, the construction of a new crosswind runway, 13/31. In 1962 Nashville became the first municipal airport in the United States with a public reading room when the Nashville Public Library opened a branch inside the terminal. By the 1970s the airport was again in need of modernization. In 1973 the newly created Metropolitan Nashville Airport Authority finalized a master plan to coordinate the long-term growth of the airport along projected increases in needed passenger capacity.
This plan included the building of a new terminal and a new parallel runway across Donelson Pike to handle increasing operations by reducing the time between consecutive takeoffs and landings. In the early 1980s the MNAA commissioned Robert Lamb Hart, in association with the firm of Gresham and Partners, to design a modern terminal, it had three main concourses and a smaller commuter concourse radiating from a distinctive three-story atrium. An international wing was built in Concourse A, it is now rare to see the "Berry Field" portion used, but the airport's IATA code is short for Berry Field Nashville, the military facilities at the airport are still known by this name. In 1989 a new parallel runway was opened for use. American Airlines announced in 1985 that it would establish a hub at Nashville, investing $115 million to develop a new 15-gate concourse and applying for $50 million in federal funds to build a new 10,000-foot runway; the hub was intended to compete with Delta Air Lines, Eastern Airlines and Piedmont Airlines for north–south traffic in the eastern United States.
American and its regional affiliate American Eagle opened their hub in Nashville in April 1986. Besides providing nonstop flights to many cities in the U. S. and Canada, American operated a transatlantic flight from Nashville to London (flying in
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a south-facing section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Santa Barbara's climate is described as Mediterranean, the city has been promoted as the "American Riviera"; as of 2014, the city had an estimated population of 91,196, up from 88,410 in 2010, making it the second most populous city in the county after Santa Maria. The contiguous urban area, which includes the cities of Goleta and Carpinteria, along with the unincorporated regions of Isla Vista, Mission Canyon, Hope Ranch and others, has an approximate population of 220,000; the population of the entire county in 2010 was 423,895. In addition to being a popular tourist and resort destination, the city economy includes a large service sector, technology, health care, agriculture and local government. In 2004, the service sector accounted for 35% of local employment.
Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of higher learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, Santa Barbara Aviation provides jet charter aircraft and train service is provided by Amtrak the Pacific Surfliner which runs from San Diego to San Luis Obispo). U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, which contains several remote wilderness areas. Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence includes a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara County coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man, found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s. An estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area. The present-day area of Santa Barbara City College was the village of Mispu. Portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name "Santa Barbara" to the channel and to one of the Channel Islands. A land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited around 1769, Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town "Laguna de la Concepcion". Cabrillo's earlier name, however, is the one; the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other powers such as England and Russia, to convert the natives to Christianity. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio of Santa Barbara.
The Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4, 1786. It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans, it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the slow work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity, building a village for them on the Mission grounds; the Chumash laborers built a connection between the canyon creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam and an aqueduct. During the following decades, many of the natives died of diseases such as smallpox, against which they had no natural immunity; the most dramatic event of the Spanish period was the powerful 1812 earthquake, tsunami, with an estimated magnitude of 7.1, which destroyed the Mission as well as the rest of the town. The Mission was rebuilt by 1820 after the earthquake. Following the earthquake, the Mission fathers chose to rebuild in a grander manner, it is this construction that survives to the present day, the best-preserved of the California Missions, still functioning as an active church by the Franciscans.
After the Mexican government secularized the missions in the 1830s, the baptismal and burial records of other missions were transferred to Santa Barbara, now found in the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library. C-SPAN has produced a program on the mission archive-library; the Spanish period ended in 1822 with the end of the Mexican War of Independence, which terminated 300 years of colonial rule. The flag of Mexico went up the flagpole at the Presidio, but only for 24 years. Santa Barbara street names reflect this time period as well; the names de le Guerra and Carrillo come from citizens of the town of this time. They were instrumental in building up the town, so they were honored by having streets after them. After the forced secularization of the Missions in 1833
Mississippi is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Mississippi is the 32nd most 34th most populous of the 50 United States, it is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Alabama to the east, the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana to the south, Arkansas and Louisiana to the west. The state's western boundary is defined by the Mississippi River. Jackson, with a population of 167,000 people, is both the state's capital and largest city; the state is forested outside the Mississippi Delta area, the area between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. Before the American Civil War, most development in the state was along riverfronts, as the waterways were critical for transportation. Large gangs of slaves were used to work on cotton plantations. After the war, freedmen began to clear the bottomlands to the interior, in the process selling off timber and buying property. By the end of the 19th century, African Americans made up two-thirds of the Delta's property owners, but timber and railroad companies acquired much of the land after the financial crisis, which occurred when blacks were facing increasing racial discrimination and disfranchisement in the state.
Clearing of the land for plantations altered the Delta's ecology, increasing the severity of flooding along the Mississippi by taking out trees and bushes that had absorbed excess waters. Much land is now held by agribusinesses. A rural state with agricultural areas dominated by industrial farms, Mississippi is ranked low or last among the states in such measures as health, educational attainment, median household income; the state's catfish aquaculture farms produce the majority of farm-raised catfish consumed in the United States. Since the 1930s and the Great Migration of African Americans to the North and West, the majority of Mississippi's population has been white, although the state still has the highest percentage of black residents of any U. S. state. From the early 19th century to the 1930s, its residents were majority black, before the American Civil War that population was composed of African-American slaves. Democratic Party whites retained political power through disfranchisement and Jim Crow laws.
In the first half of the 20th century, nearly 400,000 rural blacks left the state for work and opportunities in northern and midwestern cities, with another wave of migration around World War II to West Coast cities. In the early 1960s, Mississippi was the poorest state in the nation, with 86% of its non-whites living below the poverty level. In 2010, 37% of Mississippians were African Americans, the highest percentage of African Americans in any U. S. state. Since regaining enforcement of their voting rights in the late 1960s, most African Americans have supported Democratic candidates in local and national elections. Conservative whites have shifted to the Republican Party. African Americans are a majority in many counties of the Mississippi-Yazoo Delta, an area of historic slave settlement during the plantation era; the state's name is derived from the Mississippi River. Settlers named it after the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi. Mississippi is bordered to the north by Tennessee, to the east by Alabama, to the south by Louisiana and a narrow coast on the Gulf of Mexico.
In addition to its namesake, major rivers in Mississippi include the Big Black River, the Pearl River, the Yazoo River, the Pascagoula River, the Tombigbee River. Major lakes include Ross Barnett Reservoir, Arkabutla Lake, Sardis Lake, Grenada Lake with the largest lake being Sardis Lake. Mississippi is composed of lowlands, the highest point being Woodall Mountain, in the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, 807 feet above sea level; the lowest point is sea level at the Gulf Coast. The state's mean elevation is 300 feet above sea level. Most of Mississippi is part of the East Gulf Coastal Plain; the coastal plain is composed of low hills, such as the Pine Hills in the south and the North Central Hills. The Pontotoc Ridge and the Fall Line Hills in the northeast have somewhat higher elevations. Yellow-brown loess soil is found in the western parts of the state; the northeast is a region of fertile black earth. The coastline includes large bays at Bay St. Louis and Pascagoula, it is separated from the Gulf of Mexico proper by the shallow Mississippi Sound, sheltered by Petit Bois Island, Horn Island and West Ship Islands, Deer Island, Round Island, Cat Island.
The northwest remainder of the state consists of the Mississippi Delta, a section of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain. The plain widens north of Vicksburg; the region has rich soil made up of silt, deposited by the flood waters of the Mississippi River. Areas under the management of the National Park Service include: Brices Cross Roads National Battlefield Site near Baldwyn Gulf Islands National Seashore Natchez National Historical Park in Natchez Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail in Tupelo Natchez Trace Parkway Tupelo National Battlefield in Tupelo Vicksburg National Military Park and Cemetery in Vicksburg Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 20,000 but fewer than 50,000: Mississippi City Population Rankings of at least 10,000 but fewer than 20,000: Mississippi has a humid
Crescent City, California
Crescent City is the county seat of, only incorporated city in, Del Norte County, California. Named for the crescent-shaped stretch of sandy beach south of the city, Crescent City had a total population of 7,643 in the 2010 census, up from 4,006 in the 2000 census; the population includes inmates at Pelican Bay State Prison within the city limits, the former census-designated place Crescent City North annexed to the city. The city is the site of the Redwood National Park headquarters, as well as the historic Battery Point Light. Due to the richness of the local Pacific Ocean waters and the related catch, ease of access, Crescent City Harbor serves as home port for numerous commercial fishing vessels; the city is located on the Pacific coast in the upper northwestern part of California, about 20 miles south of the Oregon border. Crescent City's offshore geography makes it unusually susceptible to tsunamis. Much of the city was destroyed by four tsunami waves generated by the Good Friday earthquake off Anchorage, Alaska in 1964.
More the city's harbor suffered extensive damage and destruction due to tsunamis generated by the March 11, 2011 earthquake off Sendai, Japan. Several dozen vessels and many of the docks they were moored to were destroyed as wave cycles related to the tsunamis exceeded 8 feet, its climate is very moderate, with cool summers for its latitude as a result of intense maritime moderation. Nearby inland areas behind the mountains have warmer summers; the area, now known as Del Norte County was and still is inhabited by the Yurok and Tolowa Nations of indigenous peoples. The first European American to explore this land was pioneer Jedediah Smith in the early 19th century, he was the first European American to reach the area overland on foot in a time before the European Americans knew anything about such a distant territory. For him it was "Land's End" — where the American continent ended at the Pacific Ocean. In 1855 Congress authorized the building of a lighthouse at "the battery point", still functioning as a historical landmark.
European explorers first visited the area now known as Crescent City by ship in the late-1820s. Europeans began moving to the area in the 1850s. Crescent City was incorporated as a city in 1854. Crescent City was the name of a 113-ton schooner built in 1848 by Joshua T. Foster of Medford, MA; the Brother Jonathan, a paddle steamer, crashed on an uncharted rock near Point St. George, off the coast of Crescent City, California, on 30 July 1865. A 1906 ship named Crescent City was the former Jim Butler, a 701-ton steam schooner built by Lindstrom Shipbuilding Company in Aberdeen, that wrecked in the Channel Islands, off Santa Cruz Island, in 1927; the SS Emidio was a 6912-ton tanker of the General Petroleum Corporation, which became the first casualty of the Imperial Japanese Navy's submarine force action on California's Pacific Coast. The abandoned tanker broke up on the rocks off Crescent City; the remaining pieces of the ship are now California Historical Landmark #497. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.415 square miles, of which 1.963 square miles is land and 0.452 square miles is water.
Fishing and crabbing and timber are the major sources of income in the city, as well as the County of Del Norte. The mouth of Elk Creek, where it flows into the Pacific Ocean, is in Crescent City, its nearest Californian place of any size to its interior is Happy Camp separated by 42 miles by air, but due to the unsuitable terrain it is much farther away by road. The nearest city is fellow coastal city Brookings, around 20 miles to its north; the Humboldt Bay area encompassing Eureka and Arcata is more than 60 miles to its south. Crescent City is as far north in latitude as Chicago as well as New England on the Atlantic side and is as much as nine degrees latitude north of San Diego at the southern tip of the state. Crescent City has a cool-summer mediterranean climate, with moderation similar to an oceanic climate, it is one of the wettest places in California: the annual rainfall is 71.24 inches or 1,810 millimetres. The wettest months are from October to March; the average high and low temperatures in January are 54 °F or 12.2 °C and 41 °F or 5 °C.
The average high and low temperatures in August are 66 °F or 18.9 °C and 51 °F or 11 °C. On average, fifteen mornings each winter fall below 32 °F or 0 °C; the highest temperature recorded in Crescent City was 93 °F, observed on September 24, 1964, June 1, 1970, October 10, 1991. The lowest temperature on record was 19 °F on December 21, 1990; the maximum monthly precipitation was 31.25 inches in November 1973, while the wettest “rain year” has been from July 1937 to June 1938 when 107.74 inches fell, the driest certainly that from July 1976 to June 1977 with less than 40 inches. The maximum 24-hour precipitation was 7.73 inches on January 9, 1995. The highest snowfall recorded for any period in 24 hours was 6.0 inches occurring on January 6, 1972. The topography of the sea floor surrounding Crescent City has the effect of focusing tsunamis. According to researchers at Humboldt State University and the University of Southern California, the city experienced tsunami conditions 31 times between the years 1933 and 2008.
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of Arizona, with 1,626,000 people. It is the fifth most populous city in the United States, the most populous American state capital, the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents. Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley; the metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with 4.73 million people as of 2017. Phoenix is the seat of Maricopa County and the largest city in the state at 517.9 square miles, more than twice the size of Tucson and one of the largest cities in the United States. Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881, it became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. It has a hot desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settler's crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton and hay.
Cotton, citrus and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable; the city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, has rebounded slowly. Phoenix is the cultural center of the state of Arizona; the Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, they carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. It is believed that periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.
After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O'odham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the Hohokam; the Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area and lived in small villages, with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the entire Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. Their crops included corn and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were cultivated, they banded together with the Maricopa for protection against incursions by the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; the Tohono O'odham lived in the region, as well, but their main concentration was to the south and stretched all the way to the Mexican border. The O'odham lived in small settlements as seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains, rather than the large-scale irrigation of the Akimel.
They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, lentils, sugar cane, melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, mesquite candy. They hunted local game such as deer and javelina for meat; the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, residents of that region became U. S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated; the Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Indian uprisings. The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, the first settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Other nearby settlements merged to become the city of Tempe; the history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War.
He saw a potential for farming. He formed a small community that same year about four miles east of the city. Lord Darrell Duppa was one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, he suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization; the Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, the first post office was established the following month with Swilling as the postmaster. On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County; the first election for county office was held in 1871. He ran unopposed; the town grew during the 1870s, President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office
Oakland International Airport
Oakland International Airport is an international airport in Oakland, United States. It is located 10 miles south of Downtown Oakland and across from San Francisco, situated on the other side of the San Francisco Bay, it is owned by the Port of Oakland and features passenger services to cities in the United States and Europe with additional cargo destinations in China and Japan. In 2018, 13,594,251 people traveled through OAK. Oakland is a focus city for Allegiant Air; as of August 2015 Southwest has 120 daily departures on peak-travel days of the week making it Southwest’s largest operation in California. Alaska Airlines combined with sister-carrier Horizon Air has been the second-busiest carrier at the airport through 2013. In January 2014, Delta overtook Alaska as the airport's No. 2 carrier. The city of Oakland looked into the construction of an airport starting in 1925. In 1927 the announcement of the Dole prize for a flight from California to Hawaii provided the incentive to purchase 680 acres in April 1927 for the airport.
The 7,020-foot-long runway was the longest in the world at the time, was built in just 21 days to meet the Dole race start. The airport was dedicated by Charles Lindbergh September 17. In its early days, because of its long runway enabling safe takeoff rolls for fuel-heavy aircraft, Oakland was the departing point of several historic flights, including Charles Kingsford Smith's historic US-Australia flight in 1928, Amelia Earhart's final flight in 1937. Earhart departed from this airport when she made her final, ill-fated voyage, intending to return there after circumnavigating the globe. Boeing Air Transport began scheduled flights to Oakland in December 1927, it was joined by Trans World Airlines in 1932. In 1929, Boeing opened the Boeing School of Aeronautics on the field, which expanded in 1939 as part of the Civilian Pilot Training Program. Thousands of pilots and mechanics were trained before the facility was changed into the United Air Lines training center in 1945. In 1943, the U. S. Armed Forces temporarily opened Naval Air Station Oakland.
It was transformed into an airlift base for military flights to the Pacific islands, ordering all scheduled service to move to San Francisco International Airport. After the war, airlines returned to Oakland; the airport's first Jet Age airline terminal was designed by John Carl Warnecke & Associates and opened in 1962, part of a $20 million expansion on bay fill that included the 10,000-foot runway 11/29. The May 1963 OAG showed 15 airline flights arriving in Oakland each day, including nine from San Francisco. During the Vietnam War, World Airways shuttled thousands of military passengers through Oakland to their bases in Southeast Asia, an international arrivals facility was built, allowing the airport to handle international flights for the first time. World Airways had broken ground on the World Airways Maintenance Center at Oakland International Airport; the maintenance hangar could store four Boeing 747's. It opened in May 1973. After the war Oakland's traffic slumped, but airline deregulation prompted several low-fare carriers to begin flights.
This increase prompted the airport to build a $16.3 million second terminal, the Lionel J. Wilson Terminal 2, with seven gates for PSA and AirCal service. In 1987 an Air France Concorde visited Oakland to provide supersonic two-hour flights to the Pacific halfway to Hawaii and back to Oakland. FedEx Express opened a cargo base at OAK in 1988, now one of the busiest air freight terminals in the United States. In the 1990s, Southwest Airlines opened a crew base in Oakland, expanded its flights to become the airport's dominant passenger carrier; the airport has international arrival facilities, including U. S. Customs and Border Protection officials. Mexicana Airlines flew between cities in Mexico for many years. In the past Corsairfly flew Orly Airport to OAK to Papeete, Martinair flew to Schiphol Airport and CityBird flew to Brussels Airport in Brussels. United Airlines vacated its 300,000 sq ft Oakland Maintenance Center in May 2003 and transferred work to its base across the bay at San Francisco International Airport.
Oakland International Airport began a $300 million expansion and renovation project in 2004, including adding five gates in Terminal 2. The new concourse opened in fall 2006, was opened by spring 2007, a new baggage claim in Terminal 2 opened in summer 2006; the former Terminal 2 baggage claim has been replaced by a renovated and expanded security screening area. As part of this program, airport roadways and parking lots were renovated by the end of 2008. In 2008 Oakland saw a series of cutbacks due to high fuel costs and airline bankruptcies, more than other Bay Area airports. In just a few days, Oakland's numerous non-stops to Hawaii were eliminated following the liquidation of ATA Airlines and Aloha Airlines, although Hawaiian Airlines started a daily flight to Honolulu a month later. Skybus Airlines stopped flying to Columbus, OH when it ended operations on April 5. American Airlines and Continental Airlines both dropped Oakland on September 3, United Airlines ended service to Los Angeles on November 2, TACA ended service to San Salvador on September 1.
New air traffic control tower A groundbreaking ceremony for a new control tower took place October 15, 2010. A grant awarded to the Federal A
San Luis Obispo, California
San Luis Obispo, or SLO for short, is a city in the U. S. state of California, located midway between Los Angeles and San Francisco on the Central Coast of Southern California. The population was 45,119 at the 2010 census; the population of San Luis Obispo County was 269,637 in 2010. Founded in 1772 by Spanish Franciscan Junípero Serra, San Luis Obispo is one of California's oldest communities. Serra's original mission was named after bishop Louis of Toulouse; the city, locally referred to as San Luis, SLO, or SLO Town is the county seat of San Luis Obispo County and is adjacent to California Polytechnic State University. The earliest human inhabitants of the local area were the Chumash people. One of the earliest villages lies south of San Luis Obispo and reflects the landscape of the early Holocene when estuaries came farther inland; the Chumash people used marine resources of the inlets and bays along the Central Coast and inhabited a network of villages, including sites at Los Osos and Morro Creek.
During the Spanish Empire expansion throughout the world in 1769, Franciscan Junípero Serra received orders from Spain to bring the Catholic faith to the natives of. Mission San Diego was the first Spanish mission founded in Alta California that same year. On September 7, 1769, an expedition led by Gaspar de Portolá entered the San Luis Obispo area from coastal areas around today's Pismo Beach. One of the expedition's three diarists, padre Juan Crespí, recorded the name given to this area by the soldiers as Cañada de Los Osos; the party traveled north along San Luis Obispo Creek, turned west through Los Osos Valley, reached Morro Bay on September 9. In 1770, Portola established the Presidio of Monterey and Junípero Serra founded the second mission, San Carlos Borromeo, in Monterey; the mission was moved to Carmel the following year. As supplies dwindled in 1772 at the mission and Presidio, the people faced starvation. Remembering the Valley of the Bears, Presidio of Monterey commander Pedro Fages led a hunting expedition to bring back food.
Over twenty-five mule loads of dried bear meat and seed were sent north to relieve the missionaries and neophytes. The natives were impressed at the ease by which the Spaniards could take down the huge grizzlies with their weapons; some of the bear meat was traded with the local people in exchange for edible seed. It was after this that Junípero Serra decided that La Cañada de Los Osos would be an ideal place for the fifth mission; the area had abundant supplies of food and water, the climate was very mild, the local Chumash were friendly. With soldiers and pack animals carrying mission supplies, Junípero Serra set out from Carmel to reach the Valley of the Bears. On September 1, 1772, Junípero Serra celebrated the first Mass with a cross erected near San Luis Creek; the next day, he departed for San Diego leaving Fr. José Cavaller, with the difficult task of building the mission. Fr. José Cavaller, five soldiers and two neophytes began building Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, which would become the town of San Luis Obispo.
The first mission structures were built with. More permanent buildings were constructed with adobe walls, wood timber roof beams and tile roofs; the completed mission compound included: the church, the priests' residence, the convento, storerooms and visitor residences, soldiers' barracks and other structures. The mission had a grist mill, water supply system, land for farming and pastures for livestock; the whole community of priests and soldiers needed to produce goods for their own livelihood. When the Mexican War of Independence from Spain broke out in 1810, all California missions had to become self-sufficient, receiving few funds or supplies from Spanish sources. Beginning soon after Mexico won her independence from Spain in 1821, anti-Spanish feelings led to calls for expulsion of the Spanish Franciscans and secularization of the missions; because the fledgling Mexican government had many more important problems to deal with than far-off California, actual secularization didn't happen until the mid-1830s.
After 1834, the mission became an ordinary parish, most of its huge land holdings were broken up into land grants called ranchos. The ranchos were given by Mexican land grant from 1837–1846, with the mission itself being granted in the final year; the central community, remained in the same location and formed the nucleus of today's city of San Luis Obispo. After the Mexican–American War annexed California to the United States, San Luis Obispo was the first town incorporated in the newly formed San Luis Obispo County, it remained the center of the county to the present. Early in the American period, the region was well known for lawlessness, it gained a reputation as "Barrio del Tigre" because of the endemic problem. Robberies and murders that left no witnesses were carried out on along the El Camino Real and elsewhere around San Luis Obispo for several years. A gang of eight men committed a robbery with three murders and a kidnapping at the Rancho San Juan Capistrano del Camote in May 1858, that uncharacteristically left two witnesses alive.
This brought about the formation of a vigilance committee in the County that killed one, the suspected leader of the gang Pio Linares, lynched six others, a total of seven men suspected of such