Solemn League and Covenant
Covenant redirects here, not to be confused with the Scottish Covenant. The Solemn League and Covenant was an agreement between the Scottish Covenanters and the leaders of the English Parliamentarians in 1643 during the First English Civil War. On 17 August 1643 the Church of Scotland accepted it and on 25 September 1643 so did the English Parliament, general assent was obtained for the Solemn League and Covenant throughout Scotland and England by allowing the populace to sign it. The Protestant leaders of the embattled English parliament, faced with the threat of Irish Catholic troops joining with the Royalist army, the Presbyterian Covenanters promised their aid against the papists, on condition that the Scottish system of church government was adopted in England. This was acceptable to the majority of the English Long Parliament, as many MPs were presbyterians, after some haggling a document called The Solemn League and Covenant was drawn up. It was subscribed to by many in England and Ireland, approved by the English Long Parliament, the agreement meant that the Covenanters sent another army south to England to fight on the Parliamentarian side in the First English Civil War.
Its object was the management of peace overtures to, or making war on, the Scots withdrew from the Committee after the end of the First Civil War, although it continued to sit and from on was known as the Derby House Committee. In 1648 the Royalists and the Covenanters were defeated at the Battle of Preston, protestation Returns of 1641–1642 List of treaties EB editors. London, Elder & Co. pp. 243–250, dunbar Martyrs 1650 The Solemn League and Covenant British Civil Wars website
Battle of Drumclog
The Battle of Drumclog was fought on 1 June 1679, between a group of Covenanters and the forces of John Graham of Claverhouse, at Drumclog, in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. Following the assassination of Archbishop James Sharp on Magus Muir, and the Declaration of Rutherglen, a large conventicle was planned to take place at Loudoun Hill, on the boundary of Ayrshire and Lanarkshire, in defiance of government persecution of the Covenanters. Claverhouse, better known to his enemies as Bluidy Clavers, had recently appointed captain. A group of around 200 armed Covenanters moved east, to a moor near the farm of Drumclog. With about 40 mounted men, and armed with muskets and pitchforks, commanded by Robert Hamilton, the army took up a strong position behind a bog, or stank. Claverhouses force arrived, but were unable to engage the enemy due to the ground conditions. For some time groups of skirmishers exchanged fire across the stank, however, he was still unable to get his troops close to the Covenanters without becoming bogged down.
At this point, the Covenanters decided to press the attack, william Cleland led a force around the stank, and advanced rapidly. Despite heavy fire from the government troops, the attack was entirely successful, the line of Claverhouses force broke, and the dragoons were soon routed from the battlefield, leaving 36 dead. The victory was a success for the rebellious Covenanters, although euphoria was short lived. Just three weeks Claverhouse, under the leadership of the Duke of Monmouth, helped to crush the rebellion at the Battle of Bothwell Brig, a somewhat fanciful account of the battle, allegedly written by Thomas Brownlee of the Covenanter army, was published in 1822. Claverhouse himself left an account of the battle. A fictionalised version appears in Sir Walter Scotts novel Old Mortality, the battle is remembered in a Child Ballad Loudoun Hill, or Drumclog. The Battle of Drumclog is celebrated by some in Scotland as a victory for religious freedom over the policies of the government of the day.
In 1839 a monument was erected on the site of the battle, the battlefield has been inventoried and protected by Historic Scotland under the Scottish Historical Environment Policy of 2009. The Boston Church in Duns, in the Scottish Borders, had a bell named in memory of the battle, the church was demolished in the 1950s, but the bell is preserved on the site. In 1905 the Darvel and Strathaven Railway opened, with a station at Drumclog,1.2 mi south west of the battle site, by 1912 the village which had grown up here required a church, and the Drumclog Memorial Kirk was constructed. Inside the kirk, located on the A71 Edinburgh to Kilmarnock road, is a glass window depicting the Covenanters
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon
Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon was an English statesman who served as Lord Chancellor to King Charles II from 1658, two years before the Restoration of the Monarchy, until 1667. He was loyal to the king and built-up the royalist cause and he was one of the most important historians of England, as author of the most influential contemporary history of the Civil War, The History of the Rebellion. He was the grandfather of two monarchs, Queen Mary II and Queen Anne. Hyde was the son of Henry Hyde of Dinton and Purton. Henrys brother was Sir Lawrence Hyde, Attorney General, the family of Hyde was long established at Norbury in Cheshire. Hyde was fond of his mother and idolised his father, whom he called the best father, the best friend, and the wisest man I have known. He was educated at Gillingham School, and in 1622 entered Magdalen Hall, having been rejected by Magdalen College and graduated BA in 1626. Intended originally for holy orders in the Church of England, the death of two brothers made him his fathers heir, and in 1625 he entered the Middle Temple to study law.
Of the most excellent men in their several kinds that lived in that age and these included Ben Jonson, John Selden, Edmund Waller, John Hales and especially Lord Falkland, who became his best friend. From their influence and the reading in which he indulged, he doubtless drew the solid learning. The diarist Samuel Pepys wrote thirty years that he never knew anyone who could speak as well as Hyde and he was one of the most prominent members of the famous Great Tew Circle, a group of intellectuals who gathered at Lord Falklands country house Great Tew, Oxfordshire. In 1633 he was called to the bar, and obtained quickly a good position and practice, both his marriages gained him influential friends, and in December 1634 he was made keeper of the writs and rolls of the Court of Common Pleas. In April 1640, Hyde was elected Member of Parliament for both Shaftesbury and Wootton Bassett in the Short Parliament and chose to sit for Wootton Bassett. Hyde opposed legislation restricting the power of the King to appoint his own advisors, viewing it unnecessary and he gradually moved over towards the royalist side, championing the Church of England and opposing the execution of the Earl of Strafford, Charless primary advisor.
Following the Grand Remonstrance of 1641, Hyde became an advisor to the King. He left London about 20 May 1642, and rejoined the king at York, in February 1643, Hyde was knighted and was officially appointed to the Privy Council, the following month he was made Chancellor of the Exchequer. Despite his own opposition to the King he found it hard to forgive anyone, even a close friend, who fought for Parliament. His view of the conflict and of his opponents was undoubtedly coloured by the death of his best friend Lord Falkland at the First Battle of Newbury in September 1643
New Model Army
The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration. Its soldiers became full-time professionals, rather than part-time militia, to establish a professional officer corps, the armys leaders were prohibited from having seats in either the House of Lords or House of Commons. This was to encourage their separation from the political or religious factions among the Parliamentarians, many of its common soldiers therefore held Dissenting or radical views unique among English armies. Ultimately, the Armys Generals could rely both on the Armys internal discipline and its religious zeal and innate support for the Good Old Cause to maintain an essentially dictatorial rule. The New Model Army was formed as a result of dissatisfaction among Parliamentarians with the conduct of the Civil War in 1644, there was increasing dissension among Parliaments generals in the field. Parliament suspected that many of its officers, who were mainly Presbyterians, were inclined to favour peace with King Charles.
The Earl of Manchester was one of the prominent members favouring peace and Cromwell clashed publicly over this issue several times. Parliaments senior commander, the Earl of Essex, was suspected of lack of determination and was on poor terms with his subordinates. The tensions among the Parliamentarian generals became a public argument after the Second Battle of Newbury. Some of them believed that King Charless army had escaped encirclement after the battle through inaction on the part of some commanders. In response, Parliament directed the Committee of Both Kingdoms, the body that oversaw the conduct of the War. On 19 December, the House of Commons passed the Self-denying Ordinance, originally a separate matter from the establishment of the New Model Army, it soon became intimately linked with it. Once the Self-denying Ordinance became Law, the Earls of Manchester and Essex, on 6 January 1645, the Committee of Both Kingdoms established the New Model Army, appointing Sir Thomas Fairfax as its Captain-General and Sir Philip Skippon as Sergeant-Major General of the Foot.
The Self-denying Ordinance took time to pass the House of Lords, although Oliver Cromwell handed over his command of the Armys cavalry when the Ordinance was enacted, Fairfax requested his services when another officer wished to emigrate. Cromwell was commissioned Colonel of Vermuydens former regiment of horse, and was appointed Lieutenant General of the Horse in June and his son-in-law Henry Ireton were two of the only four exceptions to the Self-denying Ordinance, the other two being local commanders in Cheshire and North Wales. They were allowed to serve under a series of temporary commissions that were continually extended. They were intended to reduce the remaining Royalist garrisons in their areas, some of their regiments were reorganised and incorporated into the New Model Army during and after the Second English Civil War. Although the cavalry regiments were well up to strength and there was no shortage of volunteers
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. There are strict and detailed requirements in Sunni jurisprudence for a place of worship to be considered a mosque, many mosques have elaborate domes and prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture. Mosques originated on the Arabian Peninsula, but are now found in all inhabited continents, the mosque serves as a place where Muslims can come together for salat as well as a center for information, social welfare, and dispute settlement. The imam leads the congregation in prayer, the first mosque in the world is often considered to be the area around the Kaaba in Mecca now known as the Masjid al-Haram. Others regard the first mosque in history to be the Quba Mosque in present-day Medina since it was the first structure built by Muhammad upon his emigration from Mecca in 622. The Islamic Prophet Muhammad went on to another mosque in Medina. Built on the site of his home, Muhammad participated in the construction of the mosque himself and helped pioneer the concept of the mosque as the focal point of the Islamic city.
The Masjid al-Nabawi introduced some of the still common in todays mosques, including the niche at the front of the prayer space known as the mihrab. The Masjid al-Nabawi was constructed with a courtyard, a motif common among mosques built since then. Mosques had been built in Iraq and North Africa by the end of the 7th century, the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala is reportedly one of the oldest mosques in Iraq, although its present form – typical of Persian architecture – only goes back to the 11th century. The shrine, while operating as a mosque, remains one of the holiest sites for Shia Muslims, as it honors the death of the third Shia imam. The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As was reportedly the first mosque in Egypt, serving as a religious, like the Imam Husayn Shrine, nothing of its original structure remains. With the Shia Fatimid Caliphate, mosques throughout Egypt evolved to include schools, hospitals and it was the first to incorporate a square minaret and includes naves akin to a basilica. Those features can be found in Andalusian mosques, including the Grand Mosque of Cordoba, some elements of Visigothic architecture, like horseshoe arches, were infused into the mosque architecture of Spain and the Maghreb.
The first mosque in East Asia was reportedly established in the 8th century in Xian, the Great Mosque of Xian, whose current building dates from the 18th century, does not replicate the features often associated with mosques elsewhere. Indeed, minarets were initially prohibited by the state, mosques in western China were more likely to incorporate elements, like domes and minarets, traditionally seen in mosques elsewhere. In turn, the Javanese style influenced the styles of mosques in Indonesias Austronesian neighbors—Malaysia, Muslim empires were instrumental in the evolution and spread of mosques. Although mosques were first established in India during the 7th century, reflecting their Timurid origins, Mughal-style mosques included onion domes, pointed arches, and elaborate circular minarets, features common in the Persian and Central Asian styles
Conventicle Act 1664
This law was a part of the Clarendon Code, named after Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, which aimed to discourage nonconformism and to strengthen the position of the Established Church. However the Clarendon Code was not actually the work of Clarendon himself and these prohibitions led many, such as the Covenanters, to vacate their parishes rather than submit to the new Episcopal authorities. Just as the left so too did the congregations, following their old pastors to sermons on the hillside. From small beginnings these field assemblies-or conventicles-were to grow into major problems of order for the government. The Conventicle Act was repealed in 1689, charles II,1664, An Act to prevent and suppresse seditious Conventicles. Statutes of the Realm, volume 5, 1628-80, pp. 516–20
William III of England
It is a coincidence that his regnal number was the same for both Orange and England. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II and he is informally known by sections of the population in Northern Ireland and Scotland as King Billy. William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II and his mother Mary, Princess Royal, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, he married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, Mary, a Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith, in 1685, his Catholic father-in-law, Duke of York, became king of England and Scotland. Jamess reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham, James was deposed and William and Mary became joint sovereigns in his place.
They reigned together until her death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch, Williams reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take the British crowns when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. Williams victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by the Orange Order and his reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. William III was born in The Hague in the Dutch Republic on 4 November 1650, baptised William Henry, he was the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange, and Mary, Princess Royal. Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Ireland, eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox, thus William was the Sovereign Prince of Orange from the moment of his birth. Immediately, a conflict ensued between his mother the Princess Royal and William IIs mother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant.
Mary wanted to name him Charles after her brother, but her mother-in-law insisted on giving him the name William or Willem to bolster his prospects of becoming stadtholder. William II had appointed his wife as his sons guardian in his will, Williams mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, and had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. Williams education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, some of English descent, including Walburg Howard, from April 1656, the prince received daily instruction in the Reformed religion from the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the Contra-Remonstrant theologian Gisbertus Voetius. The ideal education for William was described in Discours sur la nourriture de S. H. Monseigneur le Prince dOrange, in these lessons, the prince was taught that he was predestined to become an instrument of Divine Providence, fulfilling the historical destiny of the House of Orange.
From early 1659, William spent seven years at the University of Leiden for a formal education, under the guidance of ethics professor Hendrik Bornius. While residing in the Prinsenhof at Delft, William had a personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, and a new governor, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein
Mary of Guise
Mary of Guise was Queen of Scots from 1538 to 1542 as the second wife of King James V. She was the mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, a native of Lorraine, she was a member of the powerful House of Guise, which played a prominent role in 16th-century French politics. Her main goal was an alliance between the powerful French Catholic nation and smaller Scotland, which she wanted to be Catholic. She failed, and at her death the Protestants took control of Scotland, among her 11 siblings were Francis, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale, Cardinal of Lorraine, and Louis I, Cardinal of Guise. Mary was tall and her mother mentioned in a letter that she suffered from bad colds, there is a story of Mary of Guise being born in a commoners home while en route to her supposed birthplace. Her name has stylized as Mary of Guise, Marie de Guise. When Mary was five, she was godmother to her younger sister Louise, not long after, she joined her grandmother Philippa of Guelders in the convent of the Poor Clares at Pont-à-Mousson.
Her uncle Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and her aunt Renée of Bourbon visited Philippa there when Mary was about fourteen, impressed by their nieces qualities and stature, they took her away from the convent and prepared her for life at the French court. In 1531, Mary made her first appearance there at the marriage between Francis I and Eleanor of Austria and she established a friendship with the kings daughters Madeleine, whom she would succeed as Queen of Scots, and Margaret. On 4 August 1534, at the age of 18, she became Duchess of Longueville by marrying Louis II dOrléans, Duke of Longueville and their union turned out to be happy, but brief. On 30 October 1535, Mary gave birth to her first son, for the rest of her life, Mary kept the last letter from her bon mari et ami Louis, which mentioned his illness and explained his absence at Rouen. It can still be seen at the National Library of Scotland, on 4 August, Mary gave birth to their second son, who was named Louis after his deceased father.
Louis died very young, but Francis wrote letters to his mother in Scotland, on 22 March 1545, he sent a piece of string to show how tall he was, and on 2 July 1546 he sent her his portrait. According to a 17th-century writer, James V had noticed the attractions of Mary when he went to France to meet Madeleine and Mary of Bourbon and it is known that Mary had attended the wedding of James and Madeleine. The recently widowed Henry VIII of England, in attempts to prevent this union, given Henrys marital history—banishing his first wife and beheading the second—Mary refused the offer. In December 1537, Henry VIII told Castillon, the French ambassador in London, biographer Antonia Fraser writing in 1969 said Mary replied, I may be a big woman, but I have a very little neck. King Francis I of France accepted Jamess proposal over Henrys and conveyed his wishes to Marys father, Francis had a marriage contract prepared that offered James a dowry as large as if Mary had been a princess. Marys mother found the contract marvellously strange, because the king had included Marys sons inheritance in the dowry
Dunkeld and Birnam
Birnam is a town in Perthshire, Scotland. The town originated from the Victorian era with the coming of the railway in 1856, although the place and name is well known because William Shakespeare mentioned Birnam Wood in Macbeth. Birnam lies on the bank of the River Tay, in Perthshire’s Big Tree Country and is located 12 miles north of Perth on the A9 road, Birnam is approximately one hour from Glasgow and Edinburgh airports, and two hours from Inverness by car. There is access by rail at Dunkeld and Birnam railway station, on the London to Inverness route, there are regular bus and coach services to Birnam and Dunkeld. In 1977 Birnam along with Dunkeld was bypassed by A9, there is an ancient tree, the Birnam Oak, standing a few hundred metres from the centre of Birnam on Murthly Estate. Traditionally, it was known as The Hangmans Tree, john Everett Millais, who painted many local landscapes, and Beatrix Potter, with her family, often visited Birnam. Birnam has The Beatrix Potter Exhibition and Garden, and The Birnam Arts and Conference Centre, the Birnam Highland Games is where the World Haggis Eating Championships are held.
Dunkeld and Birnam Tourist Association Dunkeld & Birnam at VisitScotland Perthshire
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luthers efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone and this is in contrast to the belief of the Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. In addition, Lutheranism accepts the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church, unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lords Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of Gods Law, the grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints.
Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism, with approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. The Lutheran World Federation, the largest communion of Lutheran churches, Other Lutheran organizations include the International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, as well as independent churches. The name Lutheran originated as a term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Catholics followed the practice of naming a heresy after its leader. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, the followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition began to use that term. To distinguish the two groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed.
As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped, Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church, Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway, through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen, under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers. During Fredericks reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark, at an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted, We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore.
Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway
James Sharp (bishop)
James Sharp was a Scottish minister, and Archbishop of St Andrews. James Sharp was born at Banff Castle on 4 May 1613 to William and Isabel Lesley Sharp and he graduated from Kings College in Aberdeen with a M. A. in 1637. T. F. Henderson mentions that he may have been expelled from the college in 1638 for refusing to take the covenant oath. He went to Oxford but returned due to illness, Sharp resigned his professorship to accept an appointment to a parish in Crail, where some parishioners considered him a Presbyterian minister holding Episcopalian principles. This group had split into two factions, the Resolutioners and the Protesters, who differed over how much power should be given to the King in the ordering of church affairs. In 1651 Sharp was captured by Parliamentarian forces and imprisoned in the Tower of London until June 1652 when he was permitted to return to Scotland, in 1657 he was sent to London to represent the interests of the Resolutioners. In 1659, Sharp was approached by George Monck who was planning the restoration of the monarchy, after meeting with Monck at Coldstream, Sharp returned to Edinburgh to consult with the leaders of the kirk.
In January 1660 he was sent to London with five other ministers of Edinburgh to represent the views of the Resolutioners. In May, Monck sent him to Breda to brief Charles II regarding both church and state in Scotland and his loyalties shifted from Presbyterianism to Anglicanism. In December 1661, he was appointed Archbishop of St Andrews, in Covenanter literature he is portrayed as the arch-enemy. When the celebrated covenanter John Blackadder preached to a crowd at Kinkell, near St. Andrews. The provost said he could not do so, since the militia had joined the worshipers, in 1668 James Mitchell, a veteran of Rullion Green, failed in his attempt to assassinate the archbishop as his coach passed through Blackfriars Wynd in Edinburgh. When he was finally caught five years later, he confessed and, Mitchell became a Presbyterian folk hero and Sharp became even less popular. After intercepting the coach and shooting the postillion, the nine assassins inflicted multiple fatal sword wounds on Sharp in full view of his daughter.
One of the group, James Russell, gave an account of the encounter in which he related that he had said to Sharp that he, in popular Scottish history Sharp is pictured as a turncoat in league with the Devil. Sharp was given a funeral and buried beneath an imposing black. However, when the tomb was opened in 1849 it was found to be empty and it has been alleged that the body was removed when the tomb was raided in 1725. Five Covenanters captured at Bothwell Bridge were hanged on 25 December 1679 for refusing to divulge information to identify the perpetrators