Lancaster is a city located in South Central Pennsylvania which serves as the seat of Pennsylvania's Lancaster County and one of the oldest inland towns in the United States. With a population of 59,322, it ranks eighth in population among Pennsylvania's cities; the Lancaster metropolitan area population is 507,766, making it the 101st largest metropolitan area in the U. S. and second largest in the South Central Pennsylvania area. The city's primary industries include healthcare, public administration and both professional and semi-professional services. Lancaster hosts more electronic public CCTV outdoor cameras per capita than cities such as Boston or San Francisco, despite controversy among residents. Lancaster was home to James Buchanan, the nation's 15th president, to congressman and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens. Called Hickory Town, the city was renamed after the English city of Lancaster by native John Wright, its symbol, is from the House of Lancaster. Lancaster was part of the 1681 Penn's Woods Charter of William Penn, was laid out by James Hamilton in 1734.
It was incorporated as a borough in 1742 and incorporated as a city in 1818. During the American Revolution, Lancaster was the capital of the United States for one day, on September 27, 1777, after the Continental Congress fled Philadelphia, captured by the British; the revolutionary government moved still farther away to York, Pennsylvania. Lancaster was capital of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1812, after which the capital was moved to Harrisburg. In 1851, the current Lancaster County Prison was built in the city, styled after Lancaster Castle in England; the prison remains in use, was used for public hangings until 1912. It replaced a 1737 structure on a different site; the first paved road in the United States was the former Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, which makes up part of the present-day U. S. Route 30. Opened in 1795, the Turnpike connected the cities of Lancaster and Philadelphia, was designed by a Scottish engineer named John Loudon McAdam. Lancaster residents are known to use the word "macadam" in lieu of asphalt.
This name is a reference to the paving process named for McAdam. The city of Lancaster was home to several important figures in American history. Wheatland, the estate of James Buchanan, the fifteenth President of the United States, is one of Lancaster's most popular attractions. Thaddeus Stevens, considered among the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives, lived in Lancaster as an attorney. Stevens gained notoriety for his abolitionism; the Fulton Opera House in the city was named for Lancaster native Robert Fulton, a renaissance man who created the first functional steamboat. All of these individuals have had local schools named after them. After the American Revolution, the city of Lancaster became an iron-foundry center. Two of the most common products needed by pioneers to settle the Frontier were manufactured in Lancaster: the Conestoga wagon and the Pennsylvania long rifle; the Conestoga wagon was named after the Conestoga River. The innovative gunsmith William Henry lived in Lancaster and was a U.
S. congressman and leader during and after the American Revolution. In 1803, Meriwether Lewis visited Lancaster to be educated in survey methods by the well-known surveyor Andrew Ellicott. During his visit, Lewis learned to plot latitude and longitude as part of his overall training needed to lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition. In 1879, Franklin Winfield Woolworth opened his first successful "five and dime" store in the city of Lancaster, the F. W. Woolworth Company. Lancaster was one of the winning communities for the All-America City award in 2000. On October 13, 2011, Lancaster's City Council recognized September 27 as Capital Day, a holiday recognizing Lancaster's one day as capital of the United States in 1777. Lancaster is located at 40°02'23" North, 76°18'16" West, is 368 feet above sea level; the city is located about 34 miles southeast of Harrisburg, 70 miles west of Philadelphia, 55 miles north-northeast of Baltimore and 87 miles northeast of Washington, D. C; the nearest towns and boroughs are Millersville, Willow Street, East Petersburg, Landisville, Mountville and Leola.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles, of which, 7.4 square miles of it is land and 0.14% is water. Lancaster has a humid subtropical climate with hot or warm summers; as of the 2010 census, the city was 55.2% White, 16.3% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 3.0% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian, 5.8% were two or more races. 39.3 % of the population were of Latino ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 56,348 people, 20,933 households, 12,162 families residing in the city; the population density was 7,616.5 people per square mile. There were 23,024 housing units at an average density of 3,112.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 61.55% White, 14.09% African American, 0.44% Native American, 2.46% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 17.44% from other races, 3.94% from two or more races. 30.76 % of the population were Latino people of any race. The largest ethnic groups in Lancaster as of recent estimates are: Puerto Rican 29.2% German 21.2% African American 12.8% Irish 8.6% English 8.2% Italian 4.1% Dominican 3.2% Polish 2.0% Scottish 1.9% Mexican 1.8% Cuban 1.7% West Indian 1.0%In 2010, 29.2% of Lancaster residents were of P
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, he was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, never visited Hanover. His life and with it his reign, which were longer than those of any of his predecessors, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence.
Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. George III's eldest son, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent until his father's death, when he succeeded as George IV. Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them; until it was reassessed in the second half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square, he was the grandson of King George II, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford. One month he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker, his godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha and his great-aunt the Queen of Prussia. Prince George grew into a healthy but shy child; the family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight, he was the first British monarch to study science systematically. Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, French, history, geography, commerce and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing and riding, his religious education was wholly Anglican.
At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred." Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated". George's grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, George became heir apparent to the throne, he inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would serve as Prime Minister. George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values.
In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of the Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and must act contrary to my passions." Attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother. The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday; the search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight on 22 September both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress, the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage until his mental illness struck, they had 15 children -- six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House for use as a family retreat.
His other residences were Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for
Horatio Lloyd Gates was a retired British soldier who served as an American general during the Revolutionary War. He took credit for the American victory in the Battles of Saratoga – a matter of contemporary and historical controversy – and was blamed for the defeat at the Battle of Camden in 1780. Gates has been described as "one of the Revolution's most controversial military figures" because of his role in the Conway Cabal, which attempted to discredit and replace General George Washington. Born in the town of Maldon in Essex, Gates served in the British Army during the War of the Austrian Succession and the French and Indian War. Frustrated by his inability to advance in the army, Gates sold his commission and established a small plantation in Virginia. On Washington's recommendation, the Continental Congress made Gates the Adjutant General of the Continental Army in 1775, he was assigned command of Fort Ticonderoga in 1776 and command of the Northern Department in 1777. Shortly after Gates took charge of the Northern Department, the Continental Army defeated the British at the crucial Battles of Saratoga.
After the battle, some members of Congress considered replacing Washington with Gates, but Washington retained his position as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. Gates took command of the Southern Department in 1780, but was removed from command that year after the disastrous Battle of Camden. Gates's military reputation was destroyed by the battle and he did not hold another command for the remainder of the war. Gates retired to his Virginia estate after the war, but decided to free his slaves and move to New York, he was elected to a single term in the New York State Legislature and died in 1806. Horatio Gates was christened on April 30, 1727, in the Parish of St Nicholas, Greenwich borough, in the English county of Kent, his parents were Dorothea Gates. Evidence suggests that Dorothea was the granddaughter of John Hubbock, Sr. postmaster at Fulham, the daughter of John Hubbock, Jr. listed in 1687 sources as a vintner. She had a prior marriage, to Thomas Reeve, whose family was well situated in the royal Customs service.
Dorothea Reeve was housekeeper for the second Duke of Leeds, Peregrine Osborne, which in the social context of England at the time was a patronage plum. Marriage into the Reeve family opened the way for Robert Gates to get into and up through the Customs service. So too, Dorothea Gates's appointment circa 1729 to housekeeper for the third Duke of Bolton provided Horatio Gates with otherwise off-bounds opportunities for education and social advancement. Through Dorothea Gates's associations and energetic networking, young Horace Walpole was enlisted as Horatio's godfather and namesake. In 1745, Horatio Gates obtained a military commission with financial help from his parents, political support from the Duke of Bolton. Gates served with the 20th Foot in Germany during the War of the Austrian Succession, he arrived in Halifax, Nova Scotia under Edward Cornwallis and was promoted to captain in the 45th Foot the following year. He participated in several engagements against the Mi'kmaq and Acadians the Battle at Chignecto.
He married his wife Elizabeth at St. Paul's Church in 1754. Leaving Nova Scotia, he sold his commission in 1754 and purchased a captaincy in one of the New York Independent Companies. One of his mentors in his early years was Edward Cornwallis, the uncle of Charles Cornwallis, against whom the Americans would fight. Gates served under Cornwallis when the latter was governor of Nova Scotia, developed a relationship with the lieutenant governor, Robert Monckton. During the French and Indian War, Gates served General Edward Braddock in America. In 1755 he accompanied the ill-fated Braddock Expedition in its attempt to control access to the Ohio Valley; this force included other future Revolutionary War leaders such as Thomas Gage, Charles Lee, Daniel Morgan, George Washington. Gates didn't see significant combat, since he was injured early in the action, his experience in the early years of the war was limited to commanding small companies, but he became quite good at military administration. In 1759 he was made brigade major to Brigadier General John Stanwix, a position he continued when General Robert Monckton took over Stanwix's command in 1760.
Gates served under Monckton in the capture of Martinique in 1762. Monckton bestowed on him the honor of bringing news of the success to England, which brought him a promotion to major; the end of the war brought an end to Gates' prospects for advancement, as the army was demobilized and he did not have the financial wherewithal to purchase commissions for higher ranks. In November 1755, Gates married Elizabeth Phillips and had a son, Robert, in 1758. Gates' military career stalled, as advancement in the British army required influence. Frustrated by the British class hierarchy, he sold his major's commission in 1769, came to North America. In 1772 he reestablished contact with George Washington, purchased a modest plantation in Virginia the following year; when the word reached Gates of the outbreak of war in late May 1775, he rushed to Mount Vernon and offered his services to Washington. In June, the Continental Congress began organizing the Continental Army. In accepting command, Washington urged the appointment of Gates as adjutant of the army.
On June 17, 1775, Congress commissioned Gates as a Brigadier General and Adjutant General of the Continental Army. He is considered to be the first Adjutant General of the United States Army. Gates's previou
Charlottesville, colloquially known as C'ville and named the City of Charlottesville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is the county seat of Albemarle County, which surrounds the city, though the two are separate legal entities; this means a resident will list city on official paperwork. It is named after the British Queen consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who as the wife of George III was Virginia's last Queen. In 2016, an estimated 46,912 people lived within the city limits; the Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Charlottesville with Albemarle County for statistical purposes, bringing its population to 150,000. Charlottesville is the heart of the Charlottesville metropolitan area, which includes Albemarle, Fluvanna and Nelson counties. Charlottesville was the home of Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe. During their terms as Governor of Virginia, they lived in Charlottesville, traveled to and from Richmond, along the 71-mile historic Three Notch'd Road.
Orange, located 26 miles northeast of the city, was the hometown of President James Madison. The University of Virginia, founded by Jefferson and one of the original Public Ivies, straddles the city's southwestern border. Monticello, 3 miles southeast of the city, is, along with the University of Virginia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, attracting thousands of tourists every year. At the time of European encounter, part of the area that became Charlottesville was occupied by a Monacan village called Monasukapanough. An Act of the Assembly of Albemarle County established Charlottesville in 1762. Thomas Walker was named its first trustee, it was situated along a trade route called Three Notched Road, which led from Richmond to the Great Valley. The town took its name from Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who became queen consort of Great Britain when she married King George III in 1761. During the American Revolutionary War, Congress imprisoned the Convention Army in Charlottesville at the Albemarle Barracks between 1779 and 1781.
The Governor and legislators had to temporarily abandon the capitol and on June 4, 1781, Jack Jouett warned the Virginia Legislature meeting at Monticello of an intended raid by Colonel Banastre Tarleton, allowing a narrow escape. Unlike much of Virginia, Charlottesville was spared the brunt of the American Civil War; the only battle to take place in Charlottesville was the skirmish at Rio Hill, an encounter in which George Armstrong Custer engaged local Confederate Home Guards before retreating. The mayor surrendered the city to Custer's men to keep the town from being burned; the Charlottesville Factory, founded c. 1820–30, was accidentally burnt during General Sheridan's 1865 raid through the Shenandoah Valley. The factory had been taken over by the Confederacy and used to manufacture woolen clothing for the soldiers, it caught fire when some coals taken by Union troops to burn the nearby railroad bridge dropped on the floor. The factory was rebuilt and was known as the Woolen Mills until its liquidation in 1962.
After the Civil War, emancipated enslaved persons who stayed in Charlottesville established communities in neighborhoods such as Vinegar Hill. In 1943, there were at least three theaters in Charlottesville: Paramount, La Fayette. In July 1957, the first real estate firm owned and operated by African Americans, opened for business; the company, named Ideal Realty Company, was owned and operated by James N. Fleming, Roy C. Preston, Vassar Tarry, it was located in the Preston Building, 115 Fourth Street, N. W. James Fleming was a graduate of Jefferson High School. After Reconstruction ended, Charlottesville's black population suffered under Jim Crow laws that segregated public places and limited opportunity. Schools were segregated by race and blacks were not served in many local businesses. Public parks were planned separately for the white and black populations: four for the whites, one, built on the site of a former dump, for blacks; the Ku Klux Klan had chapters in the Charlottesville area beginning at least in the early twentieth century, events such as lynchings and cross burnings occurred in the Charlottesville area.
In 1898, Charlottesville resident John Henry James was lynched in the nearby town of Ivy. In August 1950, three white men were observed burning a cross on Cherry Avenue, a street in a African-American neighborhood in Charlottesville, it was speculated that the cross burning might be a reaction to "a white man had been known to socialize with one of the young Negro women in that vicinity." In 1956, crosses were burned outside a progressive church and the home of white integration activist Sarah Patton Boyle. In the fall of 1958, Charlottesville closed its segregated white schools as part of Virginia's strategy of massive resistance to federal court orders requiring integration as part of the implementation of the Supreme Court of the United States decision Brown v. Board of Education; the closures were required by a series of state laws collectively known as the Stanley plan. Negro schools remained open, however; the first African American member of the Charlotteville School Board was Raymond Bell in 1963.
In 1963 than many southern cities, civil rights activists in Charlottesville began protesting segregated restaurants with sit-ins, such as one that occurred at Buddy's Restaurant near the University of Virginia. In the summer of 1940 the first Field Day event was held in Washington Park. In 1947 Charlottesville organized a local NAACP branch. In 2001, the Charlottesville and Albemarle Branches of the NAACP merged to form the Albemarle-Charlottesvi
Siege of Boston
The Siege of Boston was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War. New England militiamen prevented the movement by land of the British Army, garrisoned in what was the peninsular city of Boston, Massachusetts Bay. Both sides had to deal with resource supply and personnel issues over the course of the siege. British resupply and reinforcement activities were limited to sea access. After eleven months of the siege, the British abandoned Boston by sailing to Nova Scotia; the siege began on April 19 after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, when the militia from surrounding Massachusetts communities blocked land access to Boston. The Continental Congress formed the Continental Army from the militia, with George Washington as its Commander in Chief. In June 1775, the British seized Bunker and Breed's Hills, from which the Continentals were preparing to bombard the city, but their casualties were heavy and their gains were insufficient to break the Continental Army's hold on land access to Boston.
The Americans laid siege to the British-occupied city. Military actions during the remainder of the siege were limited to occasional raids, minor skirmishes, sniper fire. In November 1775, Washington sent the 25-year-old bookseller-turned-soldier Henry Knox to bring to Boston the heavy artillery, captured at Fort Ticonderoga. In a technically complex and demanding operation, Knox brought many cannons to the Boston area by January 1776. In March 1776, these artillery fortified Dorchester Heights, thereby threatening the British supply lifeline; the British commander William Howe saw the British position as indefensible and withdrew the British forces in Boston to the British stronghold at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on March 17. Prior to 1775, the British had imposed taxes and import duties on the American colonies, to which the inhabitants objected since they lacked British Parliamentary representation. In response to the Boston Tea Party and other acts of protest, 4,000 British troops under the command of General Thomas Gage were sent to occupy Boston and to pacify the restive Province of Massachusetts Bay.
Parliament authorized Gage, among other actions. It was reformed into the Provincial Congress, continued to meet; the Provincial Congress called for the organization of local militias and coordinated the accumulation of weapons and other military supplies. Under the terms of the Boston Port Act, Gage closed the Boston port, which caused much unemployment and discontent; when British forces were sent to seize military supplies from the town of Concord on April 19, 1775, militia companies from surrounding towns opposed them in the Battles of Lexington and Concord. At Concord, some of the British forces were routed in a confrontation at the North Bridge; the British troops, on their march back to Boston, were engaged in a running battle, suffering heavy casualties. All of the New England colonies raised militias in response to this alarm, sent them to Boston. After the battles of April 19, the Massachusetts militia, under the loose leadership of William Heath, superseded by General Artemas Ward late on the 20th, formed a siege line extending from Chelsea, around the peninsulas of Boston and Charlestown, to Roxbury surrounding Boston on three sides.
They blocked the Charlestown Neck, the Boston Neck, leaving only the harbor and sea access under British control. In the days following the creation of the siege line, the size of the colonial forces grew, as militias from New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut arrived on the scene. General Gage wrote of his surprise of the number of rebels surrounding the city: "The rebels are not the despicable rabble too many have supposed them to be.... In all their wars against the French they never showed such conduct and perseverance as they do now."General Gage turned his attention to fortifying defensible positions. In the south, at Roxbury, Gage ordered lines of defenses with 10 twenty-four pound guns. In Boston proper, four hills were fortified, they were to be the main defense of the city. Over time, each of these hills were strengthened. Gage decided to abandon Charlestown, removing the beleaguered forces to Boston; the town of Charlestown itself was vacant, the high lands of Charlestown were left undefended, as were the heights of Dorchester, which had a commanding view of the harbor and the city.
The British at first restricted movement in and out of the city, fearing infiltration of weapons. Besieged and besiegers reached an informal agreement allowing traffic on the Boston Neck, provided no firearms were carried. Residents of Boston turned in 2,000 muskets, most of the Patriot residents left the city. Many Loyalists who lived outside the city of Boston fled into the city. Most of them felt that it was not safe to live outside of the city, because the Patriots were now in control of the countryside; some of the men, after arriving in Boston, joined Loyalist regiments attached to the British army. Because the siege did not blockade the harbor, the city remained open for the Royal Navy, under Vice Admiral Samuel Graves, to bring in supplies from Nova Scotia and other places. Colonial forces could do little to stop these shipments due to the naval supremacy of the British fleet. American privateers were able to harass supply ships, food prices rose quickly. Soon the shortages
General John Burgoyne was a British army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1761 to 1792. He first saw action during the Seven Years' War when he participated in several battles, most notably during the Portugal Campaign of 1762. John Burgoyne is best known for his role in the American Revolutionary War, he designed an invasion scheme and was appointed to command a force moving south from Canada to split away New England and end the rebellion. Burgoyne advanced from Canada but his slow movement allowed the Americans to concentrate their forces. Instead of coming to his aid according to the overall plan, the British Army in New York City moved south to capture Philadelphia. Surrounded, Burgoyne fought two small battles near Saratoga to break out. Trapped by superior American forces, with no relief in sight, Burgoyne surrendered his entire army of 6,200 men on 17 October 1777, his surrender, says historian Edmund Morgan, "was a great turning point of the war, because it won for Americans the foreign assistance, the last element needed for victory".
He and his officers returned to England. Burgoyne came under sharp criticism when he returned to London, never held another active command. Burgoyne was an accomplished playwright known for his works such as The Maid of the Oaks and The Heiress, but his plays never reached the fame of his military career, he served as a member of the House of Commons for a number of years, sitting for the seats of Midhurst and Preston. John Burgoyne was born in Sutton, location of the Burgoyne baronets family home Sutton Manor, on 24 February 1722, his mother, Anna Maria Burgoyne, was the daughter of a wealthy Hackney merchant. His father was an army officer, Captain John Burgoyne, although there were rumours that he might be the illegitimate son of Lord Bingley, his godfather; when Bingley died in 1731 his will specified that Burgoyne was to inherit his estate if his daughters had no male issue. From the age of ten Burgoyne attended the prestigious Westminster School, as did many British army officers of the time such as Thomas Gage with whom Burgoyne would serve.
Burgoyne was athletic and outgoing and enjoyed life at the school where he made numerous important friends, in particular Lord James Strange. In August 1737 Burgoyne purchased a commission in a fashionable cavalry regiment, they were stationed in London and his duties were light, allowing him to cut a figure in high society. He soon acquired the nickname "Gentleman Johnny" and became well known for his stylish uniforms and general high living which saw him run up large debts. In 1741 Burgoyne sold his commission to settle gambling debts; the outbreak of the War of the Austrian Succession led to an expansion in the size of the British Army. In April 1745 Burgoyne joined the newly raised 1st Royal Dragoons as a cornet, a commission he did not have to pay for as it was newly created. In April 1745 he was promoted to lieutenant. In 1747 Burgoyne managed to scrape the money together to purchase a captaincy; the end of the war in 1748 cut off any prospect of further active service. Through his friendship with Lord Strange, Burgoyne came to know Strange's sister Lady Charlotte Stanley, the daughter of Lord Derby, one of Britain's leading politicians.
After Derby refused permission for Burgoyne to marry Charlotte, they eloped together and married without his permission in April 1751. An outraged Derby cut his daughter off without a penny. Unable to support his wife otherwise, Burgoyne again sold his commission, raising £2,600 which they lived off for the next few years. In October 1751, Burgoyne and his new wife went to live in continental Europe travelling through France and Italy. While in France, Burgoyne met and befriended the Duc de Choiseul who would become the Foreign Minister and directed French policy during the Seven Years War. While in Rome, Burgoyne had his portrait painted by the British artist Allan Ramsay. In late 1754, Burgoyne's wife gave birth to a daughter, Charlotte Elizabeth, to prove to be the couple's only child. In the hope that a granddaughter would soften Derby's opposition to their marriage, the Burgoynes returned to Britain in 1755. Lord Strange interceded on their behalf with Derby, who soon changed his mind and accepted them back into the family.
Burgoyne soon became a favourite of Derby. A month after the outbreak of the Seven Years' War Burgoyne bought a commission in the 11th Dragoons. In 1758 he became lieutenant-colonel in the Coldstream Guards. In 1758 he participated in several expeditions against the French coast. During this period he was instrumental in introducing light cavalry into the British Army; the two regiments formed were commanded by George Eliott and Burgoyne. This was a revolutionary step, Burgoyne was a pioneer in the early development of British light cavalry. Burgoyne admired independent thought amongst common soldiers, encouraged his men to use their own initiative, in stark contrast to the established system employed at the time by the British army. In 1761, he sat in parliament for Midhurst, in the following year he served as a brigadier-general in Portugal which had just entered the war. Burgoyne won particular distinction by leading his cavalry in the capture of Valencia de Alcántara and of Vila Velha de Ródão following the Battle of Valencia de Alcántara, compensating for the Portuguese loss of Almeida.
This played a major part in repulsing a large Spanish force bent on invading Portugal. In 1768, he was elected to the House of Commons for Preston, for the next few years he occupied himself chiefly with his parliamentary du
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County and part of the Boston metropolitan area. Situated directly north of Boston, across the Charles River, it was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are in Cambridge, as was Radcliffe College, a college for women until it merged with Harvard on October 1, 1999. According to the 2010 Census, the city's population was 105,162; as of July 2014, it was the fifth most populous city in the state, behind Boston, Worcester and Lowell. Cambridge was one of two seats of Middlesex County until the county government was abolished in Massachusetts in 1997. In December 1630, the site of what would become Cambridge was chosen because it was safely upriver from Boston Harbor, making it defensible from attacks by enemy ships. Thomas Dudley, his daughter Anne Bradstreet, her husband Simon were among the town's first settlers.
The first houses were built in the spring of 1631. The settlement was referred to as "the newe towne". Official Massachusetts records show the name rendered as Newe Towne by 1632, as Newtowne by 1638. Located at the first convenient Charles River crossing west of Boston, Newe Towne was one of a number of towns founded by the 700 original Puritan colonists of the Massachusetts Bay Colony under Governor John Winthrop, its first preacher was Thomas Hooker, who led many of its original inhabitants west in 1636 to found Hartford and the Connecticut Colony. The original village site is now within Harvard Square; the marketplace where farmers sold crops from surrounding towns at the edge of a salt marsh remains within a small park at the corner of John F. Kennedy and Winthrop Streets; the town comprised a much larger area than the present city, with various outlying parts becoming independent towns over the years: Cambridge Village in 1688, Cambridge Farms in 1712 or 1713, Little or South Cambridge and Menotomy or West Cambridge in 1807.
In the late 19th century, various schemes for annexing Cambridge to Boston were pursued and rejected. In 1636, the Newe College was founded by the colony to train ministers. According to Cotton Mather, Newe Towne was chosen for the site of the college by the Great and General Court for its proximity to the popular and respected Puritan preacher Thomas Shepard. In May 1638, The settlement's name was changed to Cambridge in honor of the university in Cambridge, England. Newtowne's ministers and Shepard, the college's first president, major benefactor, the first schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton were Cambridge alumni, as was the colony's governor John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. In 1650, Governor Thomas Dudley signed the charter creating the corporation that still governs Harvard College. Cambridge grew as an agricultural village eight miles by road from Boston, the colony's capital.
By the American Revolution, most residents lived near the Common and Harvard College, with most of the town comprising farms and estates. Most inhabitants were descendants of the original Puritan colonists, but there was a small elite of Anglican "worthies" who were not involved in village life, made their livings from estates and trade, lived in mansions along "the Road to Watertown". Coming north from Virginia, George Washington took command of the volunteer American soldiers camped on Cambridge Common on July 3, 1775, now reckoned the birthplace of the U. S. Army. Most of the Tory estates were confiscated after the Revolution. On January 24, 1776, Henry Knox arrived with artillery captured from Fort Ticonderoga, which enabled Washington to drive the British army out of Boston. Between 1790 and 1840, Cambridge grew with the construction of the West Boston Bridge in 1792 connecting Cambridge directly to Boston, so that it was no longer necessary to travel eight miles through the Boston Neck and Brookline to cross the Charles River.
A second bridge, the Canal Bridge, opened in 1809 alongside the new Middlesex Canal. The new bridges and roads made what were estates and marshland into prime industrial and residential districts. In the mid-19th century, Cambridge was the center of a literary revolution, it was home to some of the famous Fireside Poets—so called because their poems would be read aloud by families in front of their evening fires. The Fireside Poets—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, James Russell Lowell, Oliver Wendell Holmes—were popular and influential in their day. Soon after, turnpikes were built: the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike, the Middlesex Turnpike, what are today's Cambridge and Harvard Streets connected various areas of Cambridge to the bridges. In addition, the town was connected to the Boston & Maine Railroad, leading to the development of Porter Square as well as the creation of neighboring Somerville from the rural parts of Charlestown. Cambridge was incorporated as a city in 1846 despite persistent tensions between East Cambridge and Old Cambridge stemming from differences in culture, sources of income, the national origins of the resident