A poet laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, who is often expected to compose poems for special events and occasions. The Italians Albertino Mussato and Francesco Petrarca were the first to be crowned poets laureate after the classical age, in Britain, the term dates from the appointment of Bernard André by Henry VII of England. In modern times, the title may be conferred by an organization such as the Poetry Foundation, over a dozen national governments continue the poet laureate tradition. In ancient Greece, the laurel was used to form a crown or wreath of honour for poets and heroes. This custom, first revived in Padua for Albertino Mussato, was followed by Petrarchs own crowning ceremony in the hall of the medieval senatorial palazzo on the Campidoglio on 8 April 1341. As the concept of the laureate has spread, the term laureate has come in English to signify recognition for preeminence or superlative achievement. As a royal degree in rhetoric, poet laureate was awarded at European universities in the Middle Ages, the term might refer to the holder of such a degree, which recognized skill in rhetoric and language.
The Canadian Parliamentary Poet Laureate is appointed as an officer of the Library of Parliament, the position alternates between an English and French speaking laureate. Candidates must be able to write in both English and French, have a publication history displaying literary excellence and have written work reflecting Canada. The first laureate was George Bowering, in 2002, in 2004, the title was transferred to Pauline Michel, in 2006 to John Steffler until December 3,2008, to Pierre DesRuisseaux on April 28,2009, and to Fred Wah in December 2011. Michel Pleau was installed in January,2014, Poets Laureate of Dominican Republic include, Pedro Mir. Poets Laureate of Ethiopia include, Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin, Poets Laureate of Nazi Germany include, Hanns Johst from 1935 to 1946. Sripada Krishnamurty Sastry was the first poet laureate of Andhra Pradesh, kannadasan was the poet laureate of Tamil Nadu at the time of his death. Malek o-Shoarā Bahār was the laureate of Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar. He was born in Mashhad in 1884 and was a figure among the modernists.
The closest equivalent is the title Saoi held by up to seven members at a time of Aosdána, a body of those engaged in fine arts, literature. Poets awarded the title include Máire Mhac an tSaoi, Anthony Cronin, the unofficial Poet Laureate of Netherlands is Ester Naomi Perquin as Dichter des Vaderlands. The previous laureate was Anne Vegter, gerrit Komrij was the first Dichter des Vaderlands
Sintra is a town and a municipality in the Grande Lisboa subregion of Portugal, considered part of the Portuguese Riviera. The municipality contains two cities and Agualva-Cacém, the population in 2011 was 377,835, in an area of 319.23 square kilometres. Sintra is known for its many 19th-century Romantic architectural monuments, which has resulted in its classification as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and it has become a major tourist centre, visited by many day-trippers who travel from the capital Lisbon. The earliest remnants of human occupation were discovered in Penha Verde, relatively close by, in Santa Eufémia da Serra, is an Iron Age settlement where artifacts from indigenous tribes and peoples of Mediterranean origins were discovered. These date from the early 4th century, prior to the Romanization of the peninsula, marcus Terentius Varro and Cadizian Lucio Junio Moderato Columela designated the place the sacred mountain and Ptolemy referred to it as the mountains of the moon. During the Roman occupation of the peninsula, the region of Sintra was part of the vast Civitas Olisiponense which Caesar or more likely Octavius granted the status of Municipium Civium Romanorum.
A roadway along the southeast part of the Sintra Mountains and connected to the road to Olissipo dates from this period. This via followed the route of the current Rua da Ferraria, the Calçada dos Clérigos, following the Roman custom of siting tombs along their roads and near their homes, there is evidence of inscriptions pertaining to Roman funeral monuments, dating mainly to the 2nd century. It was during the Moorish occupation of Sintra that Greco-Latin writers wrote of the occupation of the area of the town centre. During the Reconquista, its centre and castle were isolated by Christian armies. Following the fall of the Caliphate of Córdoba, the King of Léon, Alfonso VI received in the spring of 1093, the cities of Santarém, Lisbon and the Castle of Sintra. Afonso took the cities and the castle of Sintra between 30 April and 8 May 1093, but shortly after their transfer Sintra and Lisbon were conquered by the Almoravid. Santarém was saved by Henry, who Afonso VI nominated Count of Portugal in 1096, in July 1109, Count Henry reconquered the Castle of Sintra.
This was preceded a year before by an attempt by Prince Sigurd the Crusader, son of Magnus III of Norway, sigurds forces disembarked at the mouth of the Colares River but failed to take the castle. It was only after the conquest of Lisbon, in October 1147, by Afonso Henriques and it was integrated into Christian dominions along with Almada and Palmela after their surrender. Afonso Henriques established the Church of São Pedro de Canaferrim within the walls of the Moorish Castle to mark his success, on 9 January 1154, Afonso Henriques signed a foral for the town of Sintra, with all its respective regalia. The early municipal seat, the town of Sintra, was the centre of a significant Sephardic community, with a synagogue and quarter. This community was not limited to Sintra town, enclaves are mentioned during the reign of King Denis in Colares, throughout the 12th and 13th centuries, owing to the fertility of the land, various convents and military orders constructed residences, water-mills and vineyards
Royal Hospital Chelsea
The Royal Hospital Chelsea is a retirement home and nursing home for some 300 veterans of the British Army. It is a 66-acre site located on Royal Hospital Road in Chelsea and it is an independent charity and relies partly upon donations to cover day-to-day running costs to provide care and accommodation for veterans. They must not, have any dependent spouse or family, King Charles II founded the Royal Hospital in 1682 as a retreat for veterans. The provision of a rather than the payment of pensions was inspired by Les Invalides in Paris. The site for the Royal Hospital was an area of Chelsea which held an incomplete building Chelsey College, the Royal Hospital opened its doors to the Chelsea Pensioners in 1692 for the relief and succour of veterans. Some of the first soldiers admitted included those injured at the Battle of Sedgemoor, Wren expanded his original design to add two additional quadrangles to the east and west of the central court, these were known respectively as the Light Horse Court and the College Court.
Due to mismanagement by Lord Ranelagh, the Hospital Treasurer, the building was not completed until 1692 and it was replaced by a modern infirmary which was located to the east of the main building and opened by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother in 1961. The 1960s infirmary was demolished to make way for the Margaret Thatcher Infirmary which was designed by Sir Quinlan Terry and was completed in 2008, the Mace was designed by Charles Webb and Aubrey Bowden and was made by Master Goldsmith Norman Bassant. The bowl of the Mace is decorated with acorns and is surmounted by the St Edwards Crown, in March 2009, the first women in the Hospitals 317-year history were admitted as In-Pensioners. Winifred Phillips and Dorothy Hughes were the first, Phillips trained as a nurse and joined the Auxiliary Territorial Service in 1948 before enlisting in the Womens Royal Army Corps in 1949 while serving in Egypt. After 22 years service she retired with the rank of Warrant Officer Class 2, Hughes had joined the British Army in 1941 aged 18, working as part of 450 Heavy Anti Aircraft Battery in the London Division.
In 1945 the Battery was deployed near Dover to defend against V1 flying bomb attacks and she retired with the rank of Sergeant. Chelsea Pensioners are entitled to come and go from the Royal Hospital as they please, within the hospital, and in the surrounding area, pensioners are encouraged to wear a blue uniform. If they travel farther from the Royal Hospital they should wear the distinctive scarlet coats instead of the blue uniform, the scarlet coats are worn for ceremonial occasions, accompanied by tricorne hats. In uniform, the pensioners wear their ribbons and the insignia of rank they reached while serving in the military. They may wear other insignia they earned during their service and many now wear parachute jump wings. The Royal Hospital Founders Day takes place close to 29 May each year – the birthday of Charles II, on Founders Day, in-pensioners of the Royal Hospital are reviewed by a member of the British Royal Family. The 76 statue of King Charles II which stands in the court of the Hospital was cast in copper alloy by Grinling Gibbons
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, FRS, commonly known simply as Lord Byron, was a British poet, politician, and a leading figure in the Romantic movement. Among his best-known works are the narrative poems, Don Juan and Childe Harolds Pilgrimage. Byron is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and remains widely read and influential and he travelled extensively across Europe, especially in Italy, where he lived for seven years with the struggling poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. Later in his life, Byron joined the Greek War of Independence fighting the Ottoman Empire. He died in 1824 at the age of 36 from a fever contracted while in Missolonghi, ethel Colburn Mayne states that George Gordon Byron was born on 22 January 1788 in a house on 24 Holles Street in London. However, Robert Charles Dallas in his Recollections states that Byron was born in Dover and he was the son of Captain John Mad Jack Byron and his second wife, the former Catherine Gordon, a descendant of Cardinal Beaton and heiress of the Gight estate in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
Byrons father had seduced the married Marchioness of Carmarthen and, after she divorced her husband. His treatment of her was described as brutal and vicious, in order to claim his second wifes estate in Scotland, Byrons father took the additional surname Gordon, becoming John Byron Gordon, and he was occasionally styled John Byron Gordon of Gight. Byron himself used this surname for a time and was registered at school in Aberdeen as George Byron Gordon, at the age of 10, he inherited the English Barony of Byron of Rochdale, becoming Lord Byron, and eventually dropped the double surname. Byrons paternal grandparents were Vice-Admiral the Hon. John Foulweather Jack Byron, vice Admiral John Byron had circumnavigated the globe, and was the younger brother of the 5th Baron Byron, known as the Wicked Lord. He was christened, at St Marylebone Parish Church, George Gordon Byron after his maternal grandfather George Gordon of Gight, a descendant of James I of Scotland, Mad Jack Byron married his second wife for the same reason that he married his first, her fortune.
In a move to avoid his creditors, Catherine accompanied her husband to France in 1786. He was born on 22 January in lodgings at Holles Street in London, Catherine moved back to Aberdeenshire in 1790, where Byron spent his childhood. His father soon joined them in their lodgings in Queen Street, Catherine regularly experienced mood swings and bouts of melancholy, which could be partly explained by her husbands continuing to borrow money from her. As a result, she fell even further into debt to support his demands and it was one of these importunate loans that allowed him to travel to Valenciennes, where he died in 1791. When Byrons great-uncle, the wicked Lord Byron, died on 21 May 1798, described as a woman without judgment or self-command, Catherine either spoiled and indulged her son or vexed him with her capricious stubbornness. Her drinking disgusted him, and he often mocked her for being short and corpulent and she once retaliated and, in a fit of temper, referred to him as a lame brat.
Langley-Moore questions the Galt claim that she over-indulged in alcohol, upon the death of Byrons mother-in-law Judith Noel, the Hon
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
His defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 put him in the top rank of Britains military heroes. Wellesley was born in Dublin, belonging to the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland and he was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787, serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland. He was elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons and he was a colonel by 1796, and saw action in the Netherlands and in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799 and, as a newly appointed major-general, following Napoleons exile in 1814, he served as the ambassador to France and was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the army which defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Wellesleys battle record is exemplary, he participated in some 60 battles during the course of his military career. Wellington is famous for his defensive style of warfare, resulting in several victories against numerically superior forces while minimising his own losses.
He is regarded as one of the greatest defensive commanders of all time, after ending his active military career, Wellington returned to politics. He was twice British prime minister as part of the Tory party, from 1828 to 1830 and he oversaw the passage of the Catholic Relief Act 1829, but opposed the Reform Act 1832. He continued as one of the figures in the House of Lords until his retirement. As such, he belonged to the Protestant Ascendancy and his biographers mostly follow the contemporary newspaper evidence in saying that he was born 1 May 1769, the day that he was baptised. He was most likely born at his parents townhouse,24 Upper Merrion Street, but his mother Anne, Countess of Mornington, recalled in 1815 that he had been born at 6 Merrion Street, Dublin. He spent most of his childhood at his familys two homes, the first a house in Dublin and the second Dangan Castle,3 miles north of Summerhill on the Trim Road in County Meath. In 1781, Arthurs father died and his eldest brother Richard inherited his fathers earldom and he went to the diocesan school in Trim when at Dangan, Mr Whytes Academy when in Dublin, and Browns School in Chelsea when in London.
He enrolled at Eton, where he studied from 1781 to 1784, Eton had no playing fields at the time. In 1785, a lack of success at Eton, combined with a shortage of funds due to his fathers death, forced the young Wellesley. Until his early twenties, Arthur showed little sign of distinction and his mother grew concerned at his idleness, stating. A year later, Arthur enrolled in the French Royal Academy of Equitation in Angers, where he progressed significantly, becoming a good horseman and learning French, upon returning to England in late 1786, he astonished his mother with his improvement
John Moore (British Army officer)
Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore, KB, was a British soldier and General, known as Moore of Corunna. He is best known for his training reforms and for his death at the Battle of Corunna. John Moore was born in Glasgow, the son of John Moore, a doctor and writer, and the older brother of Admiral Sir Graham Moore. He attended Glasgow High School, but at the age of eleven joined his father and Douglas and this included a two-year stay in Geneva, where Moores education continued. He joined the British Army in 1776 as an ensign in the 51st Regiment of Foot based in Minorca. He first saw action in 1778 during the American War of Independence as a lieutenant in the 82nd Regiment of Foot, from 1779-1781 he was garrisoned at Halifax, Nova Scotia. After the war, in 1783, he returned to Britain and in 1784 was elected to Parliament as the Member for Lanark Burghs, in 1787, he was made Major and joined the 60th briefly before returning to the 51st. In 1791 his unit was assigned to the Mediterranean and he was involved in campaigning in Corsica and was wounded at Calvi and he was given a Colonelcy and became Adjutant-General to Sir Charles Stuart.
Friction between Moore and the new British viceroy of Corsica led to his recall and posting to the West Indies under Sir Ralph Abercromby in 1796 and he participated in British efforts to repress the slave rebels until falling ill of yellow fever, upon which he returned to Britain. In 1798, he was made Major-General and served in the suppression of the republican rebellion raging in Ireland, although the rebellion was crushed with great brutality, Moore stood out from most other commanders for his humanity and refusal to perpetrate atrocities. In 1799, he commanded a brigade in the Helder Expedition and he recovered to lead the 52nd regiment during the British campaign in Egypt against the French, having become colonel of that regiment in 1801 on the death of General Cyrus Trapaud. Sir John Moore Barracks at Winchester, home of the Army Training Regiment, is called after him, when it became clear that Napoleon was planning an invasion of Britain, Moore was put in charge of the defence of the coast from Dover to Dungeness.
In 1804 Moore was knighted and promoted to Lieutenant-General, in 1806 he returned to active duty in the Mediterranean and in 1808 in the Baltic to assist the Swedish. Disagreements with Gustavus IV led to his being sent home where he was ordered to Portugal. When Napoleon arrived in Spain with 200,000 men, Moore drew the French northwards while retreating to his embarkation ports of A Coruña and he remained conscious, and composed, throughout the several hours. Like Lord Nelson he was wounded in battle, surviving long enough to be assured that he had gained a victory. He said to his old friend Colonel Anderson You know I always wished to die this way, I hope my country will do me justice. He asked Colonel Anderson to speak to his friends and mother but became too emotional to continue and he asked if his staff were safe and was assured that they were, and where his will could be found
William Wordsworth was a major English Romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their joint publication Lyrical Ballads. Wordsworths magnum opus is generally considered to be The Prelude, a poem of his early years that he revised and expanded a number of times. It was posthumously titled and published, before which it was known as the poem to Coleridge. Wordsworth was Britains Poet Laureate from 1843 until his death from pleurisy on 23 April 1850 and his sister, the poet and diarist Dorothy Wordsworth, to whom he was close all his life, was born the following year, and the two were baptised together. Wordsworths father was a representative of James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale and, through his connections. He was frequently away from home on business, so the young William and his siblings had little involvement with him and remained distant from him until his death in 1783. However, he did encourage William in his reading, and in particular set him to commit to memory large portions of verse, including works by Milton, William was allowed to use his fathers library.
William spent time at his mothers house in Penrith, where he was exposed to the moors, but did not get along with his grandparents or his uncle. His hostile interactions with them distressed him to the point of contemplating suicide, Wordsworth was taught both the Bible and the Spectator, but little else. It was at the school in Penrith that he met the Hutchinsons, including Mary, after the death of his mother, in 1778, Wordsworths father sent him to Hawkshead Grammar School in Lancashire and sent Dorothy to live with relatives in Yorkshire. She and William did not meet again for nine years. Wordsworth made his debut as a writer in 1787 when he published a sonnet in The European Magazine and that same year he began attending St Johns College, Cambridge. He received his BA degree in 1791 and he returned to Hawkshead for the first two summers of his time at Cambridge, and often spent holidays on walking tours, visiting places famous for the beauty of their landscape. In 1790 he went on a tour of Europe, during which he toured the Alps extensively, and visited nearby areas of France, Switzerland.
In November 1791, Wordsworth visited Revolutionary France and became enchanted with the Republican movement and he fell in love with a French woman, Annette Vallon, who in 1792 gave birth to their daughter Caroline. Financial problems and Britains tense relations with France forced him to return to England alone the following year. The circumstances of his return and his subsequent behaviour raised doubts as to his wish to marry Annette. With the Peace of Amiens again allowing travel to France, in 1802 Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy visited Annette, the purpose of the visit was to prepare Annette for the fact of his forthcoming marriage to Mary Hutchinson
Childe Harold's Pilgrimage
Childe Harolds Pilgrimage is a lengthy narrative poem in four parts written by Lord Byron. It was published between 1812 and 1818 and is dedicated to Ianthe, the poem describes the travels and reflections of a world-weary young man who, disillusioned with a life of pleasure and revelry, looks for distraction in foreign lands. In a wider sense, it is an expression of the melancholy and disillusionment felt by a generation weary of the wars of the post-Revolutionary, the title comes from the term childe, a medieval title for a young man who was a candidate for knighthood. The Ianthe of the dedication was the term of endearment he used for Lady Charlotte Harley, Charlotte Bacon née Harley was the second daughter of 5th Earl of Oxford and Lady Oxford, Jane Elizabeth Scott. Byron wrote, I awoke one morning and found myself famous, the first two cantos in John Murrays edition were illustrated by Richard Westall, well-known painter and illustrator who was commissioned to paint portraits of Byron.
The work provided the first example of the Byronic hero, the idea of the Byronic hero is one that consists of many different characteristics. The hero must have a high level of intelligence and perception as well as be able to easily adapt to new situations. It is clear from this description that this hero is well-educated, aside from the obvious charm and attractiveness that this automatically creates, he struggles with his integrity, being prone to mood swings. Generally, the hero has a disrespect for certain figures of authority, the hero has a tendency to be arrogant and cynical, indulging in self-destructive behaviour which leads to the need to seduce men or women. Although his sexual attraction through being mysterious is rather helpful, it gets the hero into trouble. Characters with the qualities of the Byronic hero have appeared in novels, the poem has four cantos written in Spenserian stanzas, which consist of eight iambic pentameter lines followed by one alexandrine, and has rhyme pattern ABABBCBCC.
The poems protagonist is referenced several times in description of the hero in Alexander Pushkins Eugene Onegin. Parts of it have been quoted towards the end of Asterix in Belgium, hector Berlioz drew inspiration from this poem in the creation of his second symphony, a programmatic and arguably semi-autobiographical work called Harold en Italie. In Anthony Trollopes third book of his Palliser novels, The Eustace Diamonds, C. S. Lewis, in The Screwtape Letters, uses Childe Harold as an example of a soul who would have been damned by his self-pity for imaginary distresses. Roman festivals Don Juan Quotations related to Childe Harolds Pilgrimage at Wikiquote Childe Harolds Pilgrimage at Internet Archive Childe Harolds Pilgrimage at Project Gutenberg
Sir Harry Burrard, 1st Baronet, of Lymington
General Sir Harry Burrard, 1st Baronet was a British soldier who fought in the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary Wars and in the Peninsular War. Burrard became an ensign in the Coldstream Guards in 1772 and he was promoted lieutenant and captain in 1773, and in 1777 exchanged into the 60th Foot, in order to see service in the American War of Independence. With his regiment he served under Sir William Howe in 1778 and he led the 2nd Brigade during the 1799 Anglo-Russian campaign in Holland, fighting at the battles of Bergen and Castricum. In 1780 returned to England on being elected M. P. for Lymington through the influence of his uncle Sir Harry and he served under Lord Cornwallis in America in 1781 and 1782. After peace had been declared he returned to the guards in 1786 as lieutenant and captain in the grenadier guards, with the guards he served in Flanders from 1793 to 1795, and was promoted colonel in 1795, and major-general in 1798. In 1804 he became lieutenant-colonel commanding the 1st Foot Guards, in 1807 he received his first command in the expedition to Copenhagen under Lord Cathcart, when he commanded the 1st Division, and as senior general under Cathcart acted as second in command.
He had very little to do in the expedition, yet on his return he was created a baronet, in 1808 he was selected to supersede Sir Arthur Wellesley. He arrived on the coast of Portugal on 19 August, the very next day Sir Hew Dalrymple assumed the chief command, and made the Convention of Cintra, with the full concurrence of both Burrard and Wellesley. All three generals were recalled, and a court of inquiry was appointed to examine their conduct, Burrard succinctly declared the reasons for his course of action on 21 August. The result of the inquiry was to absolve the generals. Burrard never applied for another command, but in 1810 as senior lieutenant-colonel he assumed the command of the Brigade of Guards in London and he died at Calshot Castle near Fawley, Hampshire, on 17 October 1813. He was buried in Lymington churchyard and he was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Charles, an officer who rose to the rank of admiral in the Royal Navy and on whose death in 1870 the baronetcy became extinct.
On 20 February 1789 he married Hannah, the daughter of Harry Darby, all the sons served in the army or the navy. Two sons were killed in 1809 one of whom was acting as aide-de-camp to Sir John Moore at the battle of Corunna and he lost a third at the siege of San Sebastian which is said to have caused him to die of a broken heart. He was nicknamed Betty by his troops, the Burrard Inlet was named after his cousin, named Sir Harry Burrard, by George Vancouver in June 1792. One of Burrards sons was killed at the Battle of Corunna and he appears in Naomi Noviks fifth Temeraire novel, Victory of Eagles. Massie, Alastair W. Burrard, Sir Harry, first baronet, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Henry Morse. London, Elder & Co. p.440, napiers History of the Peninsular War, vol. i. book ii. Memorial written by Sir Hew Dalrymple
The Peninsular War was a military conflict between Napoleons empire and the allied powers of Spain and Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war started when French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, the Peninsular War overlaps with what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española, which began with the Dos de Mayo Uprising on 2 May 1808 and ended on 17 April 1814. The French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincial juntas, the British Army, under the Lt. Gen. Arthur Wellesley, guarded Portugal and campaigned against the French in Spain alongside the reformed Portuguese army. The demoralised Portuguese army was reorganised and refitted under the command of Gen, in the following year Wellington scored a decisive victory over King Josephs army at Vitoria. The years of fighting in Spain were a burden on Frances Grande Armée. The Spanish armies were beaten and driven to the peripheries.
This drain on French resources led Napoleon, who had provoked a total war. War and revolution against Napoleons occupation led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812, the burden of war destroyed the social and economic fabric of Portugal and Spain, and ushered in an era of social turbulence, political instability and economic stagnation. Devastating civil wars between liberal and absolutist factions, led by officers trained in the Peninsular War, persisted in Iberia until 1850. The cumulative crises and disruptions of invasion and restoration led to the independence of most of Spains American colonies, the Treaties of Tilsit, negotiated during a meeting in July 1807 between Emperors Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon, concluded the War of the Fourth Coalition. With Prussia shattered, and Russia allied with France, Napoleon expressed irritation that Portugal was open to trade with the United Kingdom, Prince John of Braganza, regent for his insane mother Queen Maria I, had declined to join the emperors Continental System against British trade.
After a few days, a large force started concentrating at Bayonne, meanwhile the Portuguese governments resolve was stiffening, and shortly afterward Napoleon was once again told that Portugal would not go beyond its original agreements. After he received the Portuguese answer, he ordered Junots corps to cross the frontier into Spain, while all this was going on, the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau had been signed between France and Spain. The document was drawn up by Napoleons marshal of the palace Géraud Duroc and Eugenio Izquierdo, the treaty proposed to carve up Portugal into three entities. Porto and the part was to become the Kingdom of Northern Lusitania. The southern portion, as the Principality of the Algarves, would fall to Godoy, the rump of the country, centered on Lisbon, was to be administered by the French. According to the Treaty of Fontainebleau, Junots invasion force was to be supported by 25,500 men in three Spanish columns, Gen. Taranco and 6,500 troops were ordered to march from Vigo to seize Porto in the north.
Capt. Gen. Solano would advance from Badajoz with 9,500 soldiers to capture Elvas, Gen. Caraffa and 9,500 men were instructed to assemble at Salamanca and Ciudad Rodrigo, and cooperate with Junots main force