click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Convention of Kanagawa

On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa or Kanagawa Treaty became the first treaty between the United States and the Tokugawa shogunate. Signed under threat of force, it meant the end of Japan's 220-year-old policy of national seclusion by opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American vessels, it ensured the safety of American castaways and established the position of an American consul in Japan. The treaty precipitated the signing of similar treaties establishing diplomatic relations with other Western powers. Since the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Tokugawa shogunate pursued a policy of isolating the country from outside influences. Foreign trade was maintained only with the Dutch and the Chinese and was conducted at Nagasaki under a strict government monopoly; this policy had two main objectives. One was the fear that trade with western powers and the spread of Christianity would serve as a pretext for the invasion of Japan by imperialist forces, as had been the case with most of the nations of Asia.

The second objective was fear that foreign trade and the wealth developed would lead to the rise of a daimyō powerful enough to overthrow the ruling Tokugawa clan. By the early nineteenth century, this policy of isolation was under challenge. In 1844, King William II of the Netherlands sent a letter urging Japan to end the isolation policy on its own before change would be forced from the outside. In 1846, an official American expedition led by Commodore James Biddle arrived in Japan asking for ports to be opened for trade, but was sent away. In 1853, United States Navy Commodore Matthew C. Perry was sent with a fleet of warships by US president Millard Fillmore to force the opening of Japanese ports to American trade, through the use of gunboat diplomacy if necessary; the growing commerce between America and China, the presence of American whalers in waters offshore Japan, the increasing monopolization of potential coaling stations by the British and French in Asia were all contributing factors.

The Americans were driven by concepts of Manifest Destiny and the desire to impose the benefits of western civilization on what they perceived as backward Asian nations. For the Japanese standpoint, increasing contacts with foreign warships and the increasing disparity between western military technology and the Japanese feudal armies created growing concern; the Japanese had been keeping abreast of world events via information gathered from Dutch traders in Dejima and had been forewarned by the Dutch of Perry's voyage. There was considerable internal debate in Japan on how best to meet this potential threat to Japan's economic and political sovereignty in light of events occurring in China with the Opium Wars. Perry arrived with four warships at Uraga, at the mouth of Edo Bay on July 8, 1853. After refusing Japanese demands that he proceed to Nagasaki, the designated port for foreign contact, after threatening to continue directly on to Edo, the nation's capital, to burn it to the ground if necessary, he was allowed to land at nearby Kurihama on July 14 and to deliver his letter.

Despite years of debate on the isolation policy, Perry's letter created great controversy within the highest levels of the Tokugawa shogunate. The shōgun himself, Tokugawa Ieyoshi, died days after Perry's departure, was succeeded by his sickly young son, Tokugawa Iesada, leaving effective administration in the hands of the Council of Elders led by Abe Masahiro. Abe felt that it was impossible for Japan to resist the American demands by military force, yet was reluctant to take any action on his own authority for such an unprecedented situation. Attempting to legitimize any decision taken, Abe polled all of the daimyō for their opinions; this was the first time that the Tokugawa shogunate had allowed its decision-making to be a matter of public debate, had the unforeseen consequence of portraying the shogunate as weak and indecisive. The results of the poll failed to provide Abe with an answer as, of the 61 known responses, 19 were in favor of accepting the American demands and 19 were opposed.

Of the remainder, 14 gave vague responses expressing concern of possible war, 7 suggested making temporary concessions and two advised that they would go along with whatever was decided. Perry returned again on February 13, 1854, with an larger force of eight warships and made it clear that he would not be leaving until a treaty was signed. Negotiations proceeded for around one month; the Japanese side gave in to all of Perry's demands, with the exception of a commercial agreement modeled after previous American treaties with China, which Perry agreed to defer to a time. The main controversy centered on the selection of the ports to open, with Perry adamantly rejecting Nagasaki; the treaty, written in English, Dutch and Japanese, was signed on March 31, 1854 at what is now known as Kaikō Hiroba Yokohama, a site adjacent to the current Yokohama Archives of History. The "Japan–US Treaty of Peace and Amity" has twelve articles: The final article, Article Twelve, stipulated that the terms of the treaty were to be ratified by the President of the United States and the "August Sovereign of Japan" within 18 months.

At the time, shōgun Tokugawa Iesada was the de facto ruler of Japan. Perry concluded the treaty with representatives of the shogun, led by plenipotentiary Hayashi Akira and the text was endorsed subsequently, albeit reluctantly, by Emperor Kōmei; the treaty was ratified on February 21, 1855. In the short

BAZ1B

Tyrosine-protein kinase, or Bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger domain, 1B is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BAZ1B gene. This gene encodes a member of the bromodomain protein family; the bromodomain is a structural motif characteristic of proteins involved in chromatin-dependent regulation of transcription. This gene is deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a developmental disorder caused by deletion of multiple genes at 7q11.23. BAZ1B has been found to affect the activity of 448 other genes and is important in the development of the neural crest and the face. Research suggests. Model organisms have been used in the study of BAZ1B function. A conditional knockout mouse line, called Baz1btm2aWtsi, was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium program — a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease to interested scientists — at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion.

Six significant phenotypes were reported: Fewer homozygous mutant mice survived to weaning than expected. Mutant mice had decreased body weights compared to wildtype control mice. Mutant mice showed increased activity, VO2 and energy expenditure, determined by indirect calorimetry. Radiography found teeth abnormalities. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry showed mutant female mice had a decrease in bone mineral density and content. Male heterozygous mice had higher bacterial counts after Salmonella infection. BAZ1B has been shown to interact with: CHAF1A, SMARCB1, SMARCC1, SMARCC2, SUPT16H TOP2B, VDR. BAZ1B+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings Human BAZ1B genome location and BAZ1B gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser; this article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain

Malmö Castle

Malmö Castle is a fortress located in Malmö, Sweden. It is managed by the State Property Agency. Malmöhus is part of Malmö Museum; the first castle was founded in 1434 by King Eric of Pomerania. This structure was demolished in early 16th century, a new one was built in its place in the 1530s by King Christian III of Denmark; this fortress was one of the most important strongholds of Denmark. The castle was for five years the prison of James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, third husband of Mary, Queen of Scots; the earl was taken into custody on the orders of the Protestant Danish king Frederick II of Denmark when his ship ran aground in Bergen, Norway during a storm. He was sent to Malmö Castle to be imprisoned, although he had been released from Tower of London for lack of evidence in the murder of Mary's second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley; as a bachelor, Frederick II was made a Knight of the Garter. Some sources suggest a second reason for the involvement in this matter by the Danish king.

However, the Earl of Bothwell died in 1578 in Dragsholm Castle, where he had been moved after the first five years in Danish captivity, without being the subject of Danish-Scottish negotiations for his release. Malmö Castle The Association of Castles and Museums around the Baltic Sea

Fayyaz Hashmi

Fayyaz Hashmi was a Pakistani poet and screenwriter who worked both in the Indian and Pakistani film industry. He penned some memorable songs such as the famous ghazal Aaj Jaane Ki Zid Na Karo and Tasveer teri dil mera behela nah sake gi; the latter made the singer Talat Mahmood famous in India back in 1941 and was instrumental in introducing him to the Calcutta film industry. A little known fact about him is that he wrote the famous'Na tum mere na dil mera', sung by Kamla Jharia, among many others. One of the couplets from this ghazal became popular that reads'aye bas naadaniyon par apni naaz karte hain abhi dekhi kahan hain aapne naadaniyan meri' He was born in Calcutta in 1920, his father, Muhammad Hussain Hashmi, was a poet with pen name'Dilgeer' as well as a writer of stage drama. Fayyaz Hashmi was employed as the resident lyricist by the British-owned Gramophone Company of India from 1943 to 1948. "Fayyaz Hashmi wrote his first verse,'Chaman mein ghuncha-o-gul ka tabassum dekhne walo - Kabhi tum ne haseen kalyon ka murjhana bhi dekha hai', when he was in 7th class."

He wrote his first full songs that Talat Mahmood sang in 1941 and the runaway hit Tasveer teri dil mera behla na sakay gi with music composed by Kamal Das Gupta. In 1951, he was transferred by his employer, Gramophone Company of India, to Lahore to organise the music scene in Pakistan. There he promoted many talented artists including Farida Khanum, Saeen Marna, Saeen Akhtar and Saeen Budha, he turned to writing of film songs in 1956. Kunwari Bewa was the first Pakistani film with his songs, he wrote more than 2000 songs for the Gramophone Recording Company in his lifetime. He wrote the stories and scripts of many hit films, received numerous awards during his career. Fayyaz Hashmi was awarded the'Graduate Award' 3 times Nigar Award for'Best Film Song Lyricist' in 1967 for Chalo Achha Hua Tum Bhool Gaye Fayyaz Hashmi worked as a film song lyricist for the following movies: Bara-Dari Kunwari Bewa Bedari Savera Saheli Raat Ke Rahi Aulad Paisey Eid Mubarak Sartaj Aashiana Lakhoon Mein Aik Diya Aur Toofan Ilzaam Deewane Tere Pyar Ke or Love Crazy He worked as a writer and director in the following movies: Hum Ek Hain - Director Pehchan - Writer All poems of Fayyaz Hashmi PoemHunter.com website Fayyaz Hashmi on IMDb

Independent Primary School Heads of Australia

The Independent Primary School Heads of Australia Junior School Heads Association of Australia, is an incorporated body representing the heads of independent primary schools in Australia. Established in September 1952, the Association is broken into state branches, with six offices across Australia; the organisation has a membership of nearly 380 Full Members, 60 Associate and Life Members and 23 Overseas Members. Combined, the member schools employ around 6,000 people, are responsible for educating about 100,000 primary aged children; the IPSHA evolved from informal gatherings of New South Wales headmasters, which called itself the Junior Schools' Conference. The Organisation was established in 1952, when a conference was held at Cranbrook School, where a constitution was agreed upon for the establishment of the Junior Schools' Conference of Australia; the organisation holds biennial conferences. At the biennial Conference in Perth in 1984, the Constitution was amended and the Heads of Independent Girls' Schools became eligible for membership of the IPSHA.

Along with this change, came eligibility for heads of co-educational junior schools to join, which provided a significant boost in membership. Australian Primary Principals Association. IPSHA has state and federal representatives on both the APPA Secretariat and National Executive Council; the IPSHA Federal President is a member of both these bodies. Principals Australia Institute; the IPSHA President-Elect is a member. Association of Heads of Independent Schools of Australia. Strong communication and liaison exists when addressing matters of mutual concern and benefit to our schools. Independent Schools Council of Australia Associations of Independent Schools in each state International Confederation of Principals – a global voice for school leaders. IPSHA is a member; the Association of Heads of the Independent Schools of New Zealand The Independent Association of Preparatory Schools in the United Kingdom The Elementary School Heads Association in the United States of America The IPSHA has branches in each of Australia's six states, New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia.

Each state has an elected representative. New South Wales - Judith Butcher Queensland - Bruce Winther South Australia - Robert Hoff Tasmania - Angela Dixon Victoria - Julian Carroll Western Australia - Lynda Fisher With over 120 members from city and regional primary and middle schools, the New South Wales Branch of IPSHA has a wide diversity of schools represented. Member schools range from stand alone primary schools to K-12 campuses in both single sex and coeducational settings. All are independent and many reflect a variety of faith based and philosophical missions, its term meetings are held at a variety of schools and include relevant professional development through keynote speakers, discussion groups and workshops. Students in member schools have access to a range of events. Performing Arts Festivals, Social Issues Expos, Travelling Art Exhibitions, a wide range of Saturday Sport activities; the Queensland branch of the IPSHA now has 80 members from independent schools across the state including single-sex, denominational, nondenominational and regional schools.

Members meet once per term at one of the member schools, for the purpose of Professional Development, a Branch Meeting and opportunities for networking. Over the last few years, annual State Branch Refresher weekends have been held, with the majority of them in North Queensland; the South Australian Branch comprises a range of schools in diverse settings in both metropolitan and rural areas. The SA Branch Executive is charged with ensuring the operations of the Branch are maintained throughout each year. One Branch meeting a term is scheduled, these are held at a school. Twelve members representing schools from both the north and south of the State make up the current membership; this includes both Primary and Middle School Heads and all are part of K-12 schools. Both coeducational and single sex schools are represented; the Tasmanian Branch of IPSHA meets each term, alternating between Launceston. Meetings include a professional learning topic or issue, together with an opportunity for sharing learning and leadership practices and for general collegiality The Victorian Branch of IPSHA consists of over one hundred members from Independent schools across Victoria, including single sex, co-educational, non-denominational and rural schools.

Many of its members' Schools are part of a K-12 structure, while some are stand alone Primary Schools. The main goal of the branch is to maintain the Independent Primary School Heads of Australia as a significant influence in primary education, by fostering the cause of primary education and maintaining links with other associations and official bodies involved in primary education. Providing collegial support for its colleagues and the staff at its schools, is a priority. By coming to its four Branch meetings annually and attending IPSHA events, members can take advantage of opportunities to network, develop leadership and recognise members' contributions to the wider educational community; the culture of the Victorian Branch of IPSHA is one of professionalism, sharing, mutual support and friendship. The Western Australian Branch of the IPSHA was formed in 1954, by Jeffrey G Hart, of Guildford Grammar School; the first formal gathering of Junior Sch

Pink Crustaceans and Good Vibrations

Pink Crustaceans and Good Vibrations is the fifth studio album from Pepper released on July 22, 2008. The title is taken from a fictional album recorded by "Coconut Pete" in the Broken Lizard film Club Dread; the album is produced by Paul Leary. Keyboards by Ronnie King. "Freeze" - 3:24 "Davey Jones Locker" - 3:39 "Things That You Love" - 3:45 "Wet Dreams" - 2:31 "Love 101" - 2:35 "Lucy" - 3:28 "Musical 69" - 2:53 "The Phoenix" - 3:47 "Do Something" - 2:36 "Slave" - 2:46 "Ambition" - 3:32 "Stand And Fall" - 3:00 "Blackout" - 2:20 "Drive" - 7:12 Producer - Paul Leary Engineer - Wyn Davis, Mike Sutherland Mixing - Wyn Davis Assistant Engineer - Adam Arnold Album - Billboard