Vickers VC.1 Viking
The Vickers VC.1 Viking is a British twin-engine short-range airliner derived from the Vickers Wellington bomber and built by Vickers-Armstrongs Limited at Brooklands near Weybridge in Surrey. After the Second World War, the Viking was an important airliner with British airlines, pending the development of turboprop aircraft like the Viscount. An experimental airframe was fitted with Rolls-Royce Nene turbojets and first flown in 1948 as the world's first pure jet transport aircraft. Military developments were the Vickers Varsity; the Ministry of Aircraft Production ordered three prototype Wellington Transport Aircraft to Air Ministry Specification 17/44 from Vickers-Armstrongs Limited. The specification was for a peacetime requirement for a short-medium haul passenger aircraft. To speed development the aircraft used the wing and undercarriage design from the Wellington but the fuselage was new. Although the original contract referred to Wellington Transport Aircraft, on completion, the name Viking was chosen.
The first prototype was built by the Vickers Experimental Department at its wartime Foxwarren dispersal site and was first flown by'Mutt' Summers at Wisley Airfield on 22 June 1945. This aircraft crashed on 23 April 1946 due to a double engine failure. Following successful trials of the three prototypes the British Overseas Airways Corporation ordered 19 aircraft; the first BOAC aircraft flew on 23 March 1946. The prototypes were used for trials with the Royal Air Force which led to orders for military versions; the initial 19 production aircraft carried 21 passengers, they had metal fuselages and - except for the wing inboard of the nacelles - fabric-clad geodetic wings and tail units. Following feedback from customers, the next 14 examples, known as the Viking 1, featured stressed-metal wings and tail units; the next variant, the Viking 1B, was 28 in longer, carrying 24 passengers with up-rated Bristol Hercules piston engines, achieved a production run of 115. One of this batch was changed during production to so that it could be fitted with two Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet engines, with its first flight on 6 April 1948.
In 1948, on the 39th anniversary of Blériot's crossing of the English Channel, the Type 618 Nene-Viking flew Heathrow–Paris in the morning carrying letters to Bleriot's widow and son, who met it at the airport. The flight of 222 miles took only 34 minutes, it flew back to London in the afternoon. It averaged 394 mph. In 1954 it was bought from the Ministry of Supply and underwent the substantial conversion to Hercules 634 piston engines by Eagle Aviation to join their fleet. Production finished in 1948, including 16 for the RAF of which 4 were for the King's Flight, but in 1952 BEA adapted some to a 38-passenger layout, taking the maximum payload up from 5,500–7,200 lb. All Vikings featured a tailwheel undercarriage; the 58th Viking became the prototype of the military Valetta, of which 262 were produced for the RAF. When production of this strengthened but externally similar type ended in 1952, a flying classroom version with tricycle undercarriage was being delivered to the Royal Air Force, called the Varsity.
All but one of those entered the other example going to the Swedish Air Force. The production of 161 Varsities kept the Hurn works busy until January 1954, they enjoyed a long service life. Examples are preserved at Brooklands Museum, the Imperial War Museum Duxford and the Newark Air Museum; the first Viking was flown from Vickers' flight test airfield at Wisley, Surrey, by chief test pilot Joseph "Mutt" Summers on 22 June 1945 and the third aircraft built was delivered to BOAC at Hurn near Bournemouth on 20 April 1946. Upon the delivery of nine examples to BOAC for development flying, including the two remaining prototypes, British European Airways was established on 1 August 1946 to operate airliners within Europe and these first VC.1 Vikings were transferred to the new airline. After a trial flight from Northolt to Oslo on 20 August 1946 by the newly formed BEA, the first regular Viking scheduled service commenced between Northolt and Copenhagen Airport on 1 September 1946. In all 163 Vikings were built.
The initials "VC" stood for Vickers Commercial, echoing the "VC" precedent set by the earlier Vimy Commercial of 1919. Vickers soon ceased to use the'VC' letters, instead using type numbers in the 49x and 600 series, which indicated the specific customer airline. BEA operated their large fleet of Vikings on many UK trunk routes for eight years. From 1951, the remaining fleet was modified with 36, instead of 27 seats, named the "Admiral Class". BEA operated the Viking until late 1954, when the last was displaced by the more modern and pressurised Airspeed Ambassador and Vickers Viscount. BEA sold their Vikings to several UK independent airlines for use on their growing scheduled and charter route networks; some were sold to other European operators. An ex-BEA Viking 1B was fitted out as a VIP aircraft for the Arab Legion Air Force for the use of the King of Jordan. Most Vikings had been retired from service by the mid-1960s and the sole surviving example in the UK is owned by Brooklands Museum where it is under long term restoration.
Viking Prototypes with two 1,675 hp Bristol Hercules 130 engines, three built. Viking 1A Initial production version with geodetic wings and two 1,690 hp Bristol Hercules 630 engines. Viking 1 Production aircraft with stressed skin mainplanes
The AgustaWestland Apache is a licence-built version of the Boeing AH-64D Apache Longbow attack helicopter for the British Army Air Corps. The first eight helicopters were built by Boeing. Changes from the AH-64D include Rolls-Royce Turbomeca engines, a new electronic defensive aids suite and a folding blade mechanism allowing the British version to operate from ships; the helicopter was designated WAH-64 by Westland Helicopters and was given the designation Apache AH Mk 1 by the Ministry of Defence. The Apache was a valued form of close air support in the conflict in Afghanistan, being deployed to the region in 2006; the Apache has been an object of controversy over the fitting of some weapons, such as cluster munitions. Naval trials and temporary deployments at sea have proven the aircraft as an able platform to operate from the decks of ships, a unique application of the Apache amongst its operators. British Apaches have served in the NATO 2011 military intervention in Libya operating from Royal Navy ships.
The requirement for a new attack helicopter was identified by the British government in the early 1990s. In 1993, invitations to bid were issued. Bids received included the Eurocopter Tiger, a modernised Bell AH-1 SuperCobra, the AH-64 Apache, the Boeing/Sikorsky RAH-66 Comanche, the Agusta A129 Mangusta. Both the Tiger and Cobra variant were derided for requiring development, thus risk, while the Apache was combat proven, though its performance in the First Gulf War was criticised by competitors. Westland and the Apache was selected in July 1995, a contract for 67 helicopters was signed in 1996. In September 1998, Westland produced the first prototype WAH-64 Apache under licence from Boeing; the first nine Apache AH1s were authorised for service by the director of British Army Aviation on 16 January 2001. The 67th and final Apache was handed over to the British Army in July 2004; the helicopter fleet's cost was around £3.1 billion, with a total acquisition cost of £4.1 billion. Reliability had been questioned by US Apache operations, the entire fleet in the Balkans had been grounded due to serious tail rotor failures in 1999.
In 1998, the Longbow radar's development ran into problems regarding its weight, impact upon overall agility, data transfer abilities. These problems with key aircraft components, fleet's high cost, led to calls for its cancellation in 1999; when the requirement for the Apache had been formalised in the early 1990s, military doctrine assumed that a large conventional armoured assault from the Eastern Bloc was Britain's main threat. Following the collapse and break-up of the Soviet Union, the concepts of flexibility and rapid response took precedence; the UK's Strategic Defence Review called for Apaches to undertake amphibious attack missions, operating from the helicopter carrier HMS Ocean, the Invincible class aircraft carriers and their successors, the Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers, the amphibious assault vessels HMS Bulwark and Albion. Each squadron equipped with the Apache should have eight operational aircraft; the Westland Apache experienced delays in entering service due to complications with the modifications made for British service.
Prior to the Apache entering service in 2004, several development problems were noted, including a lack of the ability to securely communicate with other helicopters and a risk of damage to the tail rotor and airframe from firing its Hellfire missiles. The problem with using the Hellfire was debris generated by the firing of missiles, both the Hellfire and CRV7 rockets, could strike the body of the aircraft and cause damage; these problems were corrected prior to entering service, a secure communications suite was installed and Hellfire missiles are fired by Apaches. In 2002, government sources stated that full operational capability was set to be achieved by 2010. In 2005, an out-of-service date for the Apache was forecast at 2030, but the Army is looking at a capability sustainment programme that will extend their life to 2040, it was thought that updates would be necessary by 2017 because the US Army is to withdraw support for the AH-64D Block I on which the British Apaches are based, but US budget problems pushed this back to 2019 or 2020.
Britain was to select from the Block III upgrades of the AH-64E by 2014. In August 2015, the UK requested through a Foreign Military Sale, the upgrade of 50 of its Apaches to AH-64E standard. In July 2016, the UK ordered 50 AH-64Es through the US Foreign Military Sales programme instead of upgrading their AgustaWestland-built AH-64s. Leonardo Helicopters will continue to lead the support the existing Apache AH1s until they are retired from service in 2023–24. Several deviations were made to the standard Apache design used by the US and those exported to other countries. One major difference is the use of a pair of Rolls-Royce Turbomeca RTM322 01/12 engines, replacing the original General Electric T700-GE-701C engines; the Rolls-Royce engine produces 1,565 kW vs. 1,410 kW for the GE T700C engine. Compared to many helicopters used by coalition forces in Afghanistan, the Apache required less modification to serve in the region due to special filters incorporated into the engine design. Another change is the folding blade mechanism to stow the helicopters in confined spaces.
The Europa XS and Europa Classic are a family of British composite two-place low-wing monoplane kit aircraft. Designed by Ivan Shaw, the Europa was introduced in the early 1990s. Europas are supplied as kits for amateur construction. More than 450 Europas have been completed; the Europa was conceived as a modern kit aircraft for personal use within Europe. Its design aims were: high speed, low cost, able to be built and stored at home transportable on a trailer, using Mogas fuel, able to be rigged for flight in under five minutes, carrying two people in comfort, providing sufficient baggage for extended touring. Apart from "low cost", these objectives were met. Ivan Shaw's design work on the Europa, as it was named, began in January 1990; the first prototype, G-YURO, first flew on 12 September 1992 and Popular Flying Association certification was gained in May 1993. Most Europas have been sold in kit form, although five factory-assembled aircraft were produced between 1994 and 1996; the first kit-built aircraft to be completed flew on 14 October 1995.
By the autumn of 2007 450 Europas of all types were flying. The basic design was developed by Ivan Shaw into a United States FAR certified aircraft, built by Liberty Aerospace in the USA as the Liberty XL2; the Europa is classified as a homebuilt in its home country of the UK and qualifies for a Permit to Fly. This limits it to VFR flight. Previous restrictions of flying over built up areas were removed during 2008. In Canada the Europa is an amateur-built aircraft and qualifies for a Special Certificate of Airworthiness. In 1997 UK Prime Minister Tony Blair launched the Millennium Products competition to promote British industry in the 21st Century; this culminated in 1999 with a winners list of their products. One of these was the Europa XS, described as "A light aircraft which offers speed and performance and can be stored on a trailer in your garage."Europas are flown in Europe in the light aircraft category. In the United States the Europa XS is awaiting light-sport aircraft certification and as of April 2017 the design does not appear on the Federal Aviation Administration's list of approved special light-sport aircraft.
The streamlined composite design and the low canopy give the Europa both high cruise speeds and high fuel efficiency due to its low drag. The Europa can be fitted with Rotax 912UL of 80 hp, the 100 hp Rotax 912ULS or the turbocharged 115 hp Rotax 914 engine. Europas first became available with a tailwheel; the wings had small castors on outriggers. Shaw chose the monowheel configuration for its perceived advantages of reduced weight and improved performance over a tricycle configuration. In practise, the monowheel Europa proved tricky in inexperienced hands and could be prone to prop-strikes and groundlooping so the company developed a tricycle undercarriage which has become the more popular version as any performance disadvantage has been slight. Europas can be fitted with either normal wings made out of fiberglass, with 102 sq ft wing area and 13.43 lb/ft2 wing loading at MTOW, or motorglider wings, made from carbon fiber with a greater span. Since the fuselage is common to both motorglider and tourer with both sets of wings the same fuselage can be configured as a tourer and a motorglider alternately.
The wings can be removed for storage in five minutes. The Europa touring wing uses a unique Dykins 12% thickness/chord ratio airfoil designed by Don Dykins, deputy Chief Aerodynamicist at Hawker Siddeley Aviation, technical director of British Aerospace and chief aerodynamicist on the European Airbus; the motorglider wing uses a different wing section designed by Dykins, with its center of pressure coincident with that of the smaller wing to ensure that the rudder and tailplane are effective with either. Wingspan is increased to 42 feet bringing the wing area to 135 sq ft; the motorglider wings are fitted with airbrakes rather than flaps. Development is under way for wings suitable for a light-sport aircraft variant of Europa XS; the fuel tanks are located in the fuselage and have a capacity of 18 U. S. gallons standard and 28 U. S. gallons optional. This gives 1,256 mi extended at economy cruise setting; the plane can use MOGAS depending on engine requirements and national regulations. It is possible to upgrade fuel capacity with the addition of extra fuel tanks.
Europa Classic Originally called "Europa", this version is now known as the Classic, kits are no longer in production. The laminar-flow wings have foam cores that are skinned with resin; some elements of the Europa XS can be incorporated into a Classic and vice versa. Europa builders invariably purchased the kit in stages, so some who had completed the fuselage were able to opt for the quick-build Europa XS wings. Europa XS Introduced in 1997, the Europa XS is available in two models – the Europa XS Monowheel and the Europa XS Trigear; the XS incorporates many incremental improvements over the Classic, including preformed hollow wings, a more streamlined cowling, extended tailwheel, enlarged baggage bay, a smaller spinner, easier to balance. These developments meant that Europa XS still fulfils the original design objectives, but now offers extra speed, baggage space and comfort, it was designed to reduce the build-time
Messerschmitt Me 262
The Messerschmitt Me 262, nicknamed Schwalbe in fighter versions, or Sturmvogel in fighter-bomber versions, was the world's first operational jet-powered fighter aircraft. Design work started before World War II began, but problems with engines and top-level interference kept the aircraft from operational status with the Luftwaffe until mid-1944; the Me 262 was faster and more armed than any Allied fighter, including the British jet-powered Gloster Meteor. One of the most advanced aviation designs in operational use during World War II, the Me 262's roles included light bomber and experimental night fighter versions. Me 262 pilots claimed a total of 542 Allied aircraft shot down, although higher claims are sometimes made; the Allies countered its effectiveness in the air by attacking the aircraft on the ground and during takeoff and landing. Strategic materials shortages and design compromises on the Junkers Jumo 004 axial-flow turbojet engines led to reliability problems. Attacks by Allied forces on fuel supplies during the deteriorating late-war situation reduced the effectiveness of the aircraft as a fighting force.
Armament production within Germany was focused on more manufactured aircraft. In the end, the Me 262 had a negligible impact on the course of the war as a result of its late introduction and the small numbers put in operational service. While German use of the aircraft ended with the close of World War II, a small number were operated by the Czechoslovak Air Force until 1951, it influenced several designs, like Sukhoi Su-9 and Nakajima Kikka. Captured Me 262s were studied and flight tested by the major powers, influenced the designs of post-war aircraft such as the North American F-86 Sabre, MiG-15 and Boeing B-47 Stratojet. Several aircraft survive on static display in museums, there are several built flying reproductions that use modern General Electric J85 engines. Several years before World War II, the Germans foresaw the great potential for aircraft that used the jet engine constructed by Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain in 1936. After the successful test flights of the world's first jet aircraft—the Heinkel He 178—within a week of the Invasion of Poland to start the war, they adopted the jet engine for an advanced fighter aircraft.
As a result, the Me 262 was under development as Projekt 1065 before the start of World War II. The project originated with a request by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium for a jet aircraft capable of one hour's endurance and a speed of at least 850 km/h. Dr Waldemar Voigt headed the design team, with Messerschmitt's chief of development, Robert Lusser, overseeing. Plans were first drawn up in April 1939, the original design was different from the aircraft that entered service, with wing root-mounted engines, rather than podded ones, when submitted in June 1939; the progression of the original design was delayed by technical issues involving the new jet engine. Because the engines were slow to arrive, Messerschmitt moved the engines from the wing roots to underwing pods, allowing them to be changed more if needed. Since the BMW 003 jets proved heavier than anticipated, the wing was swept by 18.5°, to accommodate a change in the center of gravity. Funding for the jet engine program was initially lacking as many high-ranking officials thought the war could be won with conventional aircraft.
Among those were Hermann Göring, head of the Luftwaffe, who cut the engine development program to just 35 engineers in February 1940. By that time, problems with engine development had slowed production of the aircraft considerably. One acute problem arose with the lack of an alloy with a melting point high enough to endure the high temperatures involved, a problem that by the end of the war had not been adequately resolved; the aircraft made its first successful flight on jet power on 18 July 1942, powered by a pair of Jumo 004 engines, after a November 1941 flight ended in a double flameout. The project aerodynamicist on the design of the Me 262 was Ludwig Bölkow, he designed the wing using NACA airfoils modified with an elliptical nose section. In the design process, these were changed to AVL derivatives of NACA airfoils, the NACA 00011-0.825-35 being used at the root and the NACA 00009-1.1-40 at the tip. The elliptical nose derivatives of the NACA airfoils were used on the horizontal and vertical tail surfaces.
Wings were of single-spar cantilever construction, with stressed skins, varying from 3 mm skin thickness at the root to 1 mm at the tip. To expedite construction, save weight and use less strategic materials, late in the war, wing interiors were not painted; the wings were fastened to the fuselage at four points, using a pair of 20 mm and forty-two 8 mm bolts. In mid-1943, Adolf Hitler envisioned the Me 262 as a ground-attack/bomber aircraft rather than a defensive interceptor; the configuration of a high-speed, light-payload Schnellbomber was intended to penetrate enemy airspace during the expected Allied invasion of France. His edict resulted in the development of the Sturmvogel variant, it is debatable to what extent Hitler's interference
A glider or sailplane is a type of glider aircraft used in the leisure activity and sport of gliding. This unpowered aircraft uses occurring currents of rising air in the atmosphere to remain airborne. Gliders are aerodynamically streamlined and are capable of gaining altitude and remaining airborne, maintaining forward motion. Gliders benefit from producing the least drag for any given amount of lift, this is best achieved with long, thin wings, a faired narrow cockpit and a slender fuselage. Aircraft with these features are able to soar - climb efficiently in rising air produced by thermals or hills. In still air, gliders can glide long distances at high speed with a minimum loss of height in between. Gliders have either skids or undercarriage. In contrast hang gliders and paragliders use the pilot's feet for the start of the launch and for the landing; these latter types are described in separate articles, though their differences from gliders are covered below. Gliders are launched by winch or aerotow, though other methods: auto tow and bungee, are used.
Some gliders do not soar and are engineless aircraft towed by another aircraft to a desired destination and cast off for landing. Military gliders are single-use only, are abandoned after landing, having served their purpose. Motor gliders are gliders with engines which can be used for extending a flight and in some cases, for take-off; some high-performance motor gliders may have an engine-driven retractable propeller which can be used to sustain flight. Other motor gliders have enough thrust to launch themselves before the engine is retracted and are known as "self-launching" gliders. Another type is the self-launching "touring motor glider", where the pilot can switch the engine on and off in flight without retracting their propellers. Sir George Cayley's gliders achieved brief wing-borne hops from around 1849. In the 1890s, Otto Lilienthal built gliders using weight shift for control. In the early 1900s, the Wright Brothers built gliders using movable surfaces for control. In 1903, they added an engine.
After World War I gliders were first built for sporting purposes in Germany. Germany's strong links to gliding were to a large degree due to post-WWI regulations forbidding the construction and flight of motorised planes in Germany, so the country's aircraft enthusiasts turned to gliders and were encouraged by the German government at flying sites suited to gliding flight like the Wasserkuppe; the sporting use of gliders evolved in the 1930s and is now their main application. As their performance improved, gliders began to be used for cross-country flying and now fly hundreds or thousands of kilometres in a day if the weather is suitable. Early gliders had the pilot sat on a small seat located just ahead of the wing; these were known as "primary gliders" and they were launched from the tops of hills, though they are capable of short hops across the ground while being towed behind a vehicle. To enable gliders to soar more than primary gliders, the designs minimized drag. Gliders now have smooth, narrow fuselages and long, narrow wings with a high aspect ratio and winglets.
The early gliders were made of wood with metal fastenings and control cables. Fuselages made of fabric-covered steel tube were married to wood and fabric wings for lightness and strength. New materials such as carbon-fiber, fiber glass and Kevlar have since been used with computer-aided design to increase performance; the first glider to use glass-fiber extensively was the Akaflieg Stuttgart FS-24 Phönix which first flew in 1957. This material is still used because of its high strength to weight ratio and its ability to give a smooth exterior finish to reduce drag. Drag has been minimized by more aerodynamic shapes and retractable undercarriages. Flaps are fitted to the trailing edges of the wings on some gliders to minimize the drag from the tailplane at all speeds. With each generation of materials and with the improvements in aerodynamics, the performance of gliders has increased. One measure of performance is the glide ratio. A ratio of 30:1 means that in smooth air a glider can travel forward 30 meters while losing only 1 meter of altitude.
Comparing some typical gliders that might be found in the fleet of a gliding club – the Grunau Baby from the 1930s had a glide ratio of just 17:1, the glass-fiber Libelle of the 1960s increased that to 39:1, modern flapped 18 meter gliders such as the ASG29 have a glide ratio of over 50:1. The largest open-class glider, the eta, has a span of 30.9 meters and has a glide ratio over 70:1. Compare this to the Gimli Glider, a Boeing 767 which ran out of fuel mid-flight and was found to have a glide ratio of 12:1, or to the Space Shuttle with a glide ratio of 4.5:1. Due to the critical role that aerodynamic efficiency plays in the performance of a glider, gliders have aerodynamic features found in other aircraft; the wings of a modern racing glider have a specially designed low-drag laminar flow airfoil. After the wings' surfaces have been shaped by a mold to great accuracy, they are highly polished. Vertical winglets at the ends of the wings are computer-designed to decrease drag and improve handling performance.
Special aerodynamic seals are used at the ailerons and elevator to prevent the flow of air through control surface gaps. Turbulator devices in the form of a zig-zag tape or multiple blow holes positioned in a span-wise line along the wing are used to trip laminar flow air into turbulent flow at a desired location on the wing; this flow control prevents the formation of laminar flow bubbles and ensures t
Piper PA-28 Cherokee
The Piper PA-28 Cherokee is a family of two- or four-seat light aircraft built by Piper Aircraft and designed for flight training, air taxi and personal use. The PA-28 family of aircraft comprises all-metal, single-engined, piston-powered airplanes with low-mounted wings and tricycle landing gear, they have a single door on the copilot side, entered by stepping on the wing. The first PA-28 received its type certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration in 1960 and the series remains in production to this day. Current models are the Warrior and the Archer TX and LX; the Archer was discontinued in 2009, but with investment from new company ownership, the model was put back into production in 2010. The PA-28 series competes with the high-winged Cessna 172 and the low-winged Grumman American AA-5 series and Beechcraft Musketeer designs. Piper has created variations within the Cherokee family by installing engines ranging from 140 to 300 hp, offering turbocharging, retractable landing gear, constant-speed propeller and stretching the fuselage to accommodate six people.
The Piper PA-32 is a larger, six-seat variant of the PA-28. The PA-32R Saratoga variant was in production until 2009. At the time of the Cherokee's introduction, Piper's primary single-engined, all-metal aircraft was the Piper PA-24 Comanche, a larger, faster aircraft with retractable landing gear and a constant-speed propeller. Karl Bergey, Fred Weick and John Thorp designed the Cherokee as a less expensive alternative to the Comanche, with lower manufacturing and parts costs to compete with the Cessna 172, although some Cherokees featured retractable gear and constant-speed propellers; the Cherokee and Comanche lines continued in parallel production, serving different market segments for over a decade, until Comanche production was ended in 1972, to be replaced by the Piper PA-32R family. The original Cherokees were the Cherokee 150 and Cherokee 160, which started production in 1961. In 1962, Piper added the Cherokee 180 powered by a 180-horsepower Lycoming O-360 engine; the extra power made it practical to fly with all four seats filled and the model remains popular on the used-airplane market.
In 1968, the cockpit was modified to replace the "push-pull"-style engine throttle controls with quadrant levers. In addition, a third window was added to each side, giving the fuselage the more modern look seen in current production. Piper continued to expand the line rapidly. In 1963, the company introduced the more powerful Cherokee 235, which competed favorably with the Cessna 182 Skylane for load-carrying capability; the Cherokee 235 featured a Lycoming O-540 engine derated to 235 horsepower and a longer wing which would be used for the Cherokee Six. It included tip tanks of 17-gallon capacity each, bringing the total fuel capacity of the Cherokee 235 to 84 gallons; the aircraft had its fuselage stretched in 1973. The stabilator area was increased, as well. In 1973, the marketing name was changed from "235" to "Charger". In 1974, it was changed again to "Pathfinder". Production of the Pathfinder continued until 1977. No 1978 models were built. In 1979, the aircraft was given the Piper tapered wing and the name was changed again, this time to Dakota.
In 1964, the company filled in the bottom end of the line with the Cherokee 140, designed for training and shipped with only two seats. The PA-28-140 engine was modified shortly after its introduction to produce 150 horsepower, but kept the -140 name. In 1967, Piper introduced the PA-28R-180 Cherokee Arrow; this aircraft featured a constant-speed propeller and retractable landing gear and was powered by a 180-horsepower Lycoming IO-360-B1E engine. A 200-hp version powered by a Lycoming IO-360-C1C was offered as an option beginning in 1969 and designated the PA-28R-200. At the time the Arrow was introduced, Piper removed the Cherokee 150 and Cherokee 160 from production; the Arrow II came out in 1972, featuring a five-inch fuselage stretch to increase legroom for the rear-seat passengers. In 1977, Piper introduced the Arrow III, which featured a semitapered wing and longer stabilator, a design feature, introduced on the PA-28-181 and provided better low-speed handling, it featured larger fuel tanks, increasing capacity from 50 to 77 gallons.
The first turbocharged model, the PA-28R-201T, was offered in 1977, powered by a six-cylinder Continental TSIO-360-F engine equipped with a Rajay turbocharger. A three-bladed propeller was optional. In 1979, the Arrow was restyled again as the PA-28RT-201 Arrow IV, featuring a "T" tail that resembled the other aircraft in the Piper line at the time. In 1971, Piper released a Cherokee 140 variant called the Cherokee Cruiser 2+2. Although the plane kept the 140 designation, it was, in fact, a 150-hp plane and was shipped as a four-seat version. In 1973, the Cherokee 180 was named the Cherokee Challenger and had its fuselage lengthened and its wings widened and the Cherokee 235 was named the Charger with similar airframe modifications. In 1974, Piper changed the marketing names of some of the Cherokee models again, renaming the Cruiser 2+2 the Cruiser, the Challenger to the Archer and the Charger to Pathfinder. Piper reintroduced the Cherokee 150 in 1974, renaming it the Cherokee Warrior and giving it the Archer's stretched body and a new, semitapered wing.
In 1977, Piper stopped produ
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo. Such aircraft are most operated by airlines. Although the definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, an airliner is defined as an aeroplane intended for carrying multiple passengers or cargo in commercial service; the largest of them are wide-body jets which are called twin-aisle because they have two separate aisles running from the front to the back of the passenger cabin. These are used for long-haul flights between airline hubs and major cities. A smaller, more common class of airliners is the single-aisle; these are used for short to medium-distance flights with fewer passengers than their wide-body counterparts. Regional airliners seat fewer than 100 passengers and may be powered by turbofans or turboprops; these airliners are the non-mainline counterparts to the larger aircraft operated by the major carriers, legacy carriers, flag carriers, are used to feed traffic into the large airline hubs. These regional routes form the spokes of a hub-and-spoke air transport model.
The lightest of short-haul regional feeder airliner type aircraft that carry a small number of passengers are called commuter aircraft, commuterliners and air taxis, depending on their size, how they are marketed, region of the world, seating configurations. The Beechcraft 1900, for example, has only 19 seats; when the Wright brothers made the world’s first sustained heavier-than-air flight, they laid the foundation for what would become a major transport industry. Their flight in 1903 was just 11 years before what is defined as the world’s first airliner; these airliners have had a significant impact on global society and politics. In 1913, Igor Sikorsky developed the first large multi-engine airplane, the Russky Vityaz, refined into the more practical Ilya Muromets with dual controls for a pilot plus copilot and a comfortable cabin with a lavatory, cabin heating and lighting; the large four-engine biplane was derived in a bomber aircraft, preceding subsequent transport and bomber aircraft.
Due to the onset of World War I, it was never used as a commercial airliner. It first flew on December 10, 1913 and took off for its first demonstration flight with 16 passengers aboard on February 25, 1914. In 1915, the first airliner was used by Elliot Air Service; the aircraft was a Curtiss JN 4, a small biplane, used in World War I as a trainer. It was used as a tour and familiarization flight aircraft in the early 1920s. In 1919, after World War I, the Farman F.60 Goliath designed as a long-range heavy bomber, was converted for commercial use into a passenger airliner. It could seat 14 passengers from 1919, around 60 were built. Several publicity flights were made, including one on 8 February 1919, when the Goliath flew 12 passengers from Toussus-le-Noble to RAF Kenley, near Croydon, despite having no permission from the British authorities to land. Another important airliner built in 1919 was the Airco DH.16. In March 1919, the prototype first flew at Hendon Aerodrome. Nine aircraft were built, all but one being delivered to the nascent airline, Aircraft Transport and Travel, which used the first aircraft for pleasure flying, on 25 August 1919, it inaugurated the first scheduled international airline service from London to Paris.
One aircraft was sold to the River Plate Aviation Company in Argentina, to operate a cross-river service between Buenos Aires and Montevideo. Meanwhile, the competing Vickers converted its successful WWI bomber, the Vickers Vimy, into a civilian version, the Vimy Commercial, it was redesigned with a larger-diameter fuselage, first flew from the Joyce Green airfield in Kent on 13 April 1919. The world's first all-metal transport aircraft was the Junkers F.13 from 1919, with 322 built. The Dutch Fokker company produced the Fokker F. II and the F. III; these aircraft were used by the Dutch airline KLM when it reopened an Amsterdam-London service in 1921. The Fokkers were soon flying to destinations across Europe, including Bremen, Brussels and Paris, they proved to be reliable aircraft. The Handley Page company in Britain produced the Handley Page Type W as the company's first civil transport aircraft, it housed two crew in 15 passengers in an enclosed cabin. Powered by two 450 hp Napier Lion engines, the prototype first flew on 4 December 1919, shortly after it was displayed at the 1919 Paris Air Show at Le Bourget.
It was the world's first airliner to be designed with an on-board lavatory. Meanwhile in France, the Bleriot-SPAD S.33 was a great success throughout the 1920s serving the Paris-London route, on continental routes. The enclosed cabin could carry four passengers with an extra seat in the cockpit. By 1921, aircraft capacity needed to be larger for the economics to remain favourable; the English company de Havilland, therefore built the 10-passenger DH.29 monoplane, while starting work on the design of the DH.32, an eight-seater biplane with a less powerful but more economical Rolls-Royce Eagle engine. Owing to the urgent need for more capacity, work on the DH.32 was stopped and the DH.34 biplane was designed, accommodating 10 passengers. The Fokker trimotor was an important and popular transport, manufactured under license in Europe and America. Throughout the 1920s, companies in Britain and France were at the forefront of the civil airliner industry considerably aided by governme