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Conway County, Arkansas

Conway County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. Created as Arkansas's 11th county on October 20, 1825, Conway County has four incorporated municipalities, including Morrilton, the county seat and most populous city; the county is the site of numerous unincorporated communities and ghost towns. The county is named for Henry Wharton Conway, a politician from a powerful political family who served as the delegate from the Arkansas Territory to the U. S. Congress from 1823 to 1827; as of the 2010 census, the population was 21,273. The county seat is Morrilton; the county was formed on October 20, 1825, from a portion of Pulaski County and named for Henry Wharton Conway, the territorial delegate to the U. S. Congress. In 2010, the center of population of Arkansas was located in Conway County, near the city of Plumerville. Conway County was formed on October 20, 1825 from a portion of Pulaski County and named for Henry Wharton Conway, the territorial delegate to the U. S. Congress. From 1831 until 1883, Lewisburg was the county seat.

When the Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad planned built tracks 1 mile north of Lewisburg in 1871, the proposed depot was to be named Morrilton after farmer E. J. Morrill, who sold the land to the railroad. People relocated from Lewisburg to Morrilton beginning in 1880, county government was relocated in 1883, the depot was built in 1910. Conway County was much larger upon creation. Van Buren County was created from parts of Conway and Independence counties on November 11, 1833. Perry County was created from Conway County on December 18, 1840. Faulkner County was created from parts of Conway and Pulaski counties on April 12, 1873. Conway County is within the Arkansas River Valley region, a fertile, low-lying valley along the Arkansas River between the Ozark Mountains to the north and the Ouachita Mountains to the south. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 567 square miles, of which 552 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water, it is the fifth-smallest county in Arkansas by area.

The county is located 52 miles northwest of Little Rock, 109 miles east of Fort Smith, 180 miles west of Memphis, Tennessee. Conway County is surrounded by two Central Arkansas counties: Faulkner County to the east and Perry County to the south, three River Valley/mountain counties: Van Buren County to the north, Yell County to the southwest, Pope County to the west; the northern 16 square kilometres of Conway County is protected within the Ozark National Forest, a small part of a large protected forest spanning parts of 16 Arkansas counties. Petit Jean State Park, is Arkansas's oldest state park, rises from the River Valley in southern Conway County along the top of Petit Jean Mountain. Conway County is home to five Wildlife Management Areas under Arkansas Game and Fish Commission jurisdiction. Ed Gordon Point Remove WMA is a wetland near the confluence of the East Fork and West Fork of Point Remove Creek in western Conway County; the area is known for duck and dove hunting. Lake Overcup WMA is a noted crappie fishing lake created by AGFC in 1963.

Cypress Creek WMA is located around the shore of Brewer Lake, a fishing lake built in 1983 to construct a water supply for Conway, as well as containing parts of the Cherokee WMA and a small part of Piney Creeks WMA. The county is home to the Cove Creek Natural Area; as of the 2010 census, there were 21,273 people, 8,463 households, 4,473 families residing in the county. The population density was 38 people per square mile. There were 9,720 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.2% White, 11.2% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. 3.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,463 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.4% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 23.4% from 25 to 44, 27.7% from 45 to 64, 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.5 years. For every 100 females there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,700, the median income for a family was $48,116. Males had a median income of $38,675 versus $26,318 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,909. About 10.2% of families and 17.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.8% of those under age 18 and 14.5% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 20,336 people, 7,967 households, 5,736 families residing in the county; the population density was 37 people per square mile. There were 9,028 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the county was 84.27% White, 13.05% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.74% from other races, 1.18% from two or more races. 1.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,967 households out of which 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 11.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.00% were non-families

Jindalee, Western Australia

Jindalee is an outer coastal suburb of Perth, Western Australia, located 40 kilometres north of the Perth central business district. Its local government area is the City of Wanneroo. Jindalee is bounded by an east-west line near Eglinton Rocks to its north, Butler to the east and Quinns Rocks to the south. West is the coast of the Indian Ocean. 75% of the suburb is still within its native state. The name Jindalee was proposed by the Shire of Wanneroo on 29 June 1979 and is an imported Aboriginal word from an unknown New South Wales dialect meaning "a bare hill", most referring to Eglinton Hill, covered in low vegetation; the suburb of Jindalee in south-western Brisbane, applied in 1964, notes the same word origin. The planning of Jindalee goes back to 1997, but the Butler-Jindalee District Structure Plan was approved on 18 November 2003 by the Western Australian Planning Commission. Satterley Property Group is managing the development in conjunction with the Department of Housing and Works, around 900 residential lots are proposed, all of which will have high-speed internet, cable TV and underground power.

A small cafe/shopping node on the beachfront at the end of Jindalee Boulevard has yet to be approved. 15% of the lots have been developed and the projected completion date is 2010. Jindalee has no conventional facilities at the present stage, apart from a medical centre on Jindalee Boulevard and a fish and chips shop on the foreshore. Brighton Village Shopping Centre on the suburb's eastern border provides basic shopping needs, Butler Primary School is nearby. Eglinton Hill provides views of the ocean and the scrub leading north towards Eglinton and Yanchep, untouched beaches continuous to Yanchep are accessible by sand tracks; the undeveloped part of the suburb offers a wide array of native scrubland and heath, varying in condition from excellent to degraded, including Xanthorrhoea preissii, banksia and Nuytsia floribunda. Some degradation has occurred due to uncontrolled vehicular access, clearing for stock grazing and rabbits. Jindalee had a nil population at the 2001 Australian census, but has seen rapid residential development in the latter half of the 2000s.

The 2011 population is estimated at 1,274. Jindalee is served by a deviation of the 483 bus between Clarkson train station and Butler along Marmion Avenue; this service is operated by Swan Transit. Jindalee's political leanings are unclear as there were a negligible number of residents at the time of the last federal and state elections

Amite County, Mississippi

Amite County is a county located in the state of Mississippi on its southern border with Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,131, its county seat is Liberty. The county is named after the Amite River. Amite County is part of MS Micropolitan Statistical Area. Amite County was established in February 1809 from the eastern portion of Wilkinson County, it was named after the Amite River. French explorers had named the latter for the friendly indigenous Houma people they encountered in the region; the legislation that established the county authorized the appointment of five commissioners to find a site for the county seat, near the county's center and near a good spring. At this time, the total population of the county numbered about 4000 people, about 80% of whom were middle-class families of seventeenth-century Virginia stock who had migrated through other frontier states. Primary religious groups were all Protestant, including Baptists and Methodists. Completed in 1840, the courthouse in Liberty is the oldest courthouse in Mississippi in continuous use.

Liberty became the county's justice and business center. The county economy was based on timber from longleaf pine and the cultivation of commodity crops of cotton and tobacco on plantations worked by enslaved African Americans. Given the reliance of planters on labor-intensive crops such as tobacco and cotton, the county soon had a majority population of enslaved African Americans. In the antebellum period, the county seat attracted entertainers and lecturers on tour. In the 1850s, Liberty hosted opera singer Jenny Lind, known as the "Swedish Nightingale," at the Walsh building. In 1861, the state legislature called a convention to vote on secession from the United States. David Hurst, the delegate from Amite County, voted against secession, but the majority of the state's delegates voted for it. Led by South Carolina, the largest slave-owning states were the first in the South to secede. Mississippi voted to join the Confederate States of America. During the Civil War, Captain George H. Tichenor married Margaret Anne Drane at the Liberty Baptist Church.

By the end of the war, 279 men from Amite County had died for the Confederate cause. Amite County was not in a theater of war. A raiding party of Union cavalry, under the command of Colonel Benjamin Grierson, is known to have camped in the county nine miles east of Liberty on the evening of April 28, 1863, while conducting a deep penetration raid as part of the Vicksburg Campaign; as part of that raid, Union forces pillages many plantations. Most of the buildings of the Amite Female Seminary, with 13 pianos, were burnt. At the end of the Civil War, Amite County's population was 60% African American. During Reconstruction, freedmen elected several African Americans to local office as county sheriff. After Reconstruction, white Democrats regained power in the state legislature through a combination of violent voter repression and fraud, they disenfranchised most African Americans and many poor whites in the state by the new 1890 state constitution, which imposed a poll tax, literacy tests, other requirements as barriers to voter registration.

These were administered by whites in a discriminatory way. Most black voters and many poor whites were dropped from the voter rolls. Racial violence, including lynchings, escalated during the Jim Crow years; the county had 14 documented lynchings in the period from 1877 to 1950. Blacks were excluded from the political process in the state until the late 1960s. African Americans were a majority in the state until the 1930s but excluded from voting, they were excluded from juries and the entire political system; the county continued to be based on agriculture, with cotton the basis of the economy into the 1930s. A boll weevil invasion damaged many cotton crops. Planters shifted during the Great Depression; as agriculture was mechanized, reducing the need for farm labor, many blacks left Amite County during the first half of the 20th century in two waves of the Great Migration. In the first wave, before World War II, many moved north to Chicago and other industrial cities of the Midwest. In the second wave, they moved to the West Coast, where the burgeoning defense industry created jobs before and after the war.

From 1940 to 1960, the county population declined by 29 %. Some rural whites left the county for industrialized cities. In the 1950s, local farmer E. W. Steptoe founded a chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in the county. Herbert Lee, a married farmer with nine children, was among its charter members, they were working to regain constitutional civil rights, including the ability to vote. In the summer of 1961, Bob Moses from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee worked in the county to organize African Americans for voter registration, he was beaten by Bill Caston, a cousin to the sheriff, near the county courthouse, arrested. He was told to leave the county for his own safety. In the 1960s, only one African American of the total of 5,500 in Amite County was a registered voter. After the Voting Rights Act was passed in 1965, extensive grassroots efforts were required to register eligible voters. Racial violence against blacks in the county escalated during the years of the Civil Rights Mov

Montague Rupp

Herman Montague Rucker Rupp was an Australian clergyman and botanist who specialised in orchids. He was known throughout his life as Montague Rupp and in life as the "Orchid Man". Rupp was born in Port Fairy, Victoria to Charles Ludwig Hermann Rupp, a Prussian-born Anglican clergyman and Marie Ann Catherine Rupp, a Tasmanian who died two weeks after the birth of Montague. Montague Rupp was educated at Geelong Grammar School as a boarder, where an uncle John Bracebridge Wilson, the naturalist, was headmaster. Charles's parents died on the voyage to Australia or shortly before, the boy was raised by William Frederic Augustus Rucker, another Prussian émigré. Rupp was made deacon on 28 May 1899 and ordained priest on 2 June 1901, he began recording his botanical observations and specimens in 1892. In 1924 he decided to'concentrate on the family which had always attracted me most — the orchids' and gave some 5000 other specimens to the University of Melbourne's botany school, he sent'some MSS notes on orchids' to Joseph Maiden who had them published in the Australian Naturalist.

Rupp published over 200 papers in the following thirty years. Rupp was awarded the Clarke Medal by the Royal Society of New South Wales in 1949 and the Australian Natural History Medallion by the Field Naturalists Club of Victoria in 1954. Gilbert, Lionel Arthur; the Orchid Man: The Life and Memoirs of the Rev. H. M. R. Rupp, 1872-1956. Kenthurst, New South Wales: Kangaroo Press. P. 248. ISBN 9780864174154. OCLC 27240057. Retrieved 16 October 2012. Gilbert, L. A.'Rupp, Herman Montague Rucker', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 11, MUP, 1988, pp 480–481


Downsizer is a virtual community, run on a not-for-profit basis, which describes itself as "a resource for people who want to live more sustainably". Its website includes articles on sustainable living and a popular forum with over 4,500 registered members; the site was set up in October 2004 by the founder members. Its name came from a term used in present-day English to describe a person, whose aim it is to cut down on consumer goods and live a more self-reliant and sustainable lifestyle. A year after Downsizer's establishment, the Essex Chronicle remarked on the site's growth, observing that it had "tapped into an increasing awareness and interest in the impact our lives have on the environment", it has continued to grow, has over 4,500 users registered on its forum as of July 2011. is a not-for-profit online community, a resource for people who want to live more sustainably. Like-minded individuals can visit the forums to discuss matters of self-sufficiency and sustainability amongst other things.

The website includes many articles related to downsizing issues including the following: Growing Fruit and Vegetables Raising Livestock Recipes, Homebrewing / Winemaking Foraging Energy and Construction Fishing and Trapping Recycling and Conservation The website received a positive assessment from Alison Cork in The Observer, who commented on the variety of topics discussed by members and concluded, "Whether you're an individual wanting to live a more sustainable lifestyle or a small business trying to get an appreciative market for your ethical product or service, you'd be hard pushed not to find something of interest."A more negative stance was taken by Steve Lowe and Alan McArthur, authors of Is It Just Me Or Is Everything Shit?. In an article in The Sunday Times to promote their book, they presented the interest of "burnt-out stockbrokers" in the advice provided by Downsizer as an instance of the "mediocrity" of contemporary British culture. Official website

Theories of Surplus Value

Theories of Surplus Value is a draft manuscript written by Karl Marx between January 1862 and July 1863. It is concerned with the West European theorizing about Mehrwert from about 1750, critically examining the ideas of British and German political economists about wealth creation and the profitability of industries. At issue are the source and determinants of the magnitude of surplus-value and Marx tries to explain how after failing to solve basic contradictions in its labour theories of value the classical school of political economy broke up, leaving only "vulgar political economy" which no longer tried to provide a consistent, integral theory of capitalism, but instead offered only an eclectic amalgam of theories which seemed pragmatically useful or which justified the rationality of the market economy. Theories of Surplus Value was part of the large Economic Manuscripts of 1861–1863, entitled by Marx A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy and written as the immediate sequel to the first part of A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy published in 1859.

The total 1861–1863 manuscript consists of 23 notebooks running to some 200 printed sheets in length. It is the first systematically worked out draft of all four volumes of Capital, although still only rough and incomplete. Theories of Surplus Value forms the longest and most elaborated part of this huge manuscript, it is the first and only draft of the fourth, concluding volume of Capital; as distinguished from the three theoretical volumes of Das Kapital, Marx called this volume the historical, historico-critical, or historico-literary part of his work. Marx began to write Theories of Surplus Value within the framework of the original plan of his Critique of Political Economy as he had projected in 1858–1862. On the basis of what Marx says about the structure of his work in his introduction to the first part of A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, in his letters of 1858–1862 and in the 1861–1863 manuscript itself, this plan titled Plan for the Critique of Political Economy can be presented in the following schematic form as projected by Marx in 1858–1862: Capital: Introduction: Commodity and Money Capital in general: The production process of capital: Transformation of money into capital Absolute surplus-value Relative surplus-value The combination of both Theories of surplus-value The circulation process of capital The unity of the two, or capital and profit The competition of capitals Credit Share capital Landed property Wage-labour The state Foreign trade The world-marketTheories of Surplus Value was conceived by Marx only as a historical excursion in the section of his theoretical study of "capital in general".

This was to conclude the section on the process of production of capital. This ambitious plan proved to be more than Marx could undertake as he was burned out before had completed the study of capital; the publication of Theories of Surplus Value did not make all of Marx's writing on political economy available to the public and this task was only fulfilled decades with the publication of the Grundrisse, the Results of the Immediate Production Process and various other manuscripts. In his preface to his edition of Volume II of Das Kapital and in several letters during the following ten years, Friedrich Engels had indicated his intention to publish the manuscript of Theories of Surplus Value. However, although he succeeded in publishing the second and third volume of Das Kapital, Engels was unable to publish the Theories before he died in 1895. In 1905–1910, Karl Kautsky published a first edited version of Marx’s manuscript in three volumes, with Dietz publishers in Stuttgart. However, Kautsky rearranged the original sequence of topics discussed in the notebooks and deleted or modified some text.

For this reason, his edition is not regarded as a scientifically accurate rendering of Marx's thought. Kautsky’s first volume of Marx’s notes dealt with the theories of surplus value up to Adam Smith, the second volume with David Ricardo and the final one with the breakup of the Ricardian school and "vulgar economics"; this edition is out of print and rare. In 1923, David Riazanov of the Marx–Engels Institute in Moscow purchased many of Marx's original manuscripts and many other 19th century socialist archives with generous finance from the Soviet government, including the Theories of Surplus Value. From that point on, the access to, the editing and the publication of the text was under the control of the Russian and East German communist authorities. After 1991, the manuscript was transferred to the Russian Center for Preservation and Study of Records of Modern History and since the late 1990s it is stored with the centralized Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History in Moscow. A full translation of Kautsky's German edition into French was made by Jules Molitor and published in 1924–1925 by A. Costes.

The first Japanese translation of Theories of Surplus Value appears to have been made in the 1920s. Another was made in the 1930s by Zenya Takashima, who taught at Tokyo University of Commerce/Hitotsubashi University, but the manuscript of this translation was seized when he was arrested and it was lost. A Spanish translation was made by Wenceslao Roces and published in Mexico City in 1945 under the title Historia crítica de la teoría de la plusvalía