Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
The Lok Sabha is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. Members of the Lok Sabha are elected by adult universal suffrage and a first-past-the-post system to represent their respective constituencies, they hold their seats for five years or until the body is dissolved by the President on the advice of the council of ministers; the house meets in the Lok Sabha Chambers of the Sansad Bhavan in New Delhi. The maximum strength of the House allotted by the Constitution of India is 552; the house has 545 seats, made up by the election of up to 543 elected members and at a maximum, 2 nominated members of the Anglo-Indian Community by the President of India. A total of 131 seats are reserved for representatives of Scheduled Tribes; the quorum for the House is 10% of the total membership. The Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues to operate for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. However, while a proclamation of emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Parliament by law.
An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries is carried out by the Boundary Delimitation Commission of India every decade based on the Indian census, last of, conducted in 2011. This exercise earlier included redistribution of seats among states based on demographic changes but that provision of the mandate of the commission was suspended in 1976 following a constitutional amendment to incentivise the family planning programme, being implemented; the 16th Lok Sabha is the latest to date. The schedule for the 2019 Lok Sabha Election has been announced by the Election Commission of India. Broken into seven phases the General Elections will be held from 11th April 2019 till 19th May 2019; the Lok Sabha has its own television channel, Lok Sabha TV, headquartered within the premises of Parliament. A major portion of the Indian subcontinent was under British rule from 1858 to 1947. During this period, the office of the Secretary of State for India was the authority through whom British Parliament exercised its rule in the Indian sub-continent, the office of Viceroy of India was created, along with an Executive Council in India, consisting of high officials of the British government.
The Indian Councils Act 1861 provided for a Legislative Council consisting of the members of the Executive Council and non-official members. The Indian Councils Act 1892 established legislatures in each of the provinces of British India and increased the powers of the Legislative Council. Although these Acts increased the representation of Indians in the government, their power still remained limited, the electorate small; the Indian Councils Act 1909 and the Government of India Act 1919 further expanded the participation of Indians in the administration. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy and proposed a federal structure in India; the Indian Independence Act 1947, passed by the British parliament on 18 July 1947, divided British India into two new independent countries and Pakistan, which were to be dominions under the Crown until they had each enacted a new constitution. The Constituent Assembly was divided into two for the separate nations, with each new Assembly having sovereign powers transferred to it for the respective dominion.
The Constitution of India was adopted on 26 November 1949 and came into effect on 26 January 1950, proclaiming India to be a sovereign, democratic republic. This contained the founding principles of the law of the land which would govern India in its new form, which now included all the princely states which had not acceded to Pakistan. According to Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Parliament of India consists of the President of India and the two Houses of Parliament known as the Council of States and the House of the People; the Lok Sabha was duly constituted for the first time on 17 April 1952 after the first General Elections held from 25 October 1951 to 21 February 1952. Article 84 of Indian Constitution sets qualifications for being a member of Lok Sabha, which are as follows: He / She should be a citizen of India, must subscribe before the Election Commission of India an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule of Indian Constitution.
He / She should not be less than 25 years of age. He / She possesses such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament, he / She should not be proclaimed criminal i.e. they should not be a convict, a confirmed debtor or otherwise disqualified by law. However, a member can be disqualified of being a member of Parliament: If he / she holds office of profit. A seat in the Lok Sabha will become vacant in the following circumstances: When the holder of the seat, by writing to the speaker, resigns; when the holder of the seat is absent from 60 consecutive days of proceedings of the House, without prior permission of the Speaker. When the holder of the seat is subject to any dis
Sankosh is a river that rises in northern Bhutan and empties into the Brahmaputra in the state of Assam in India. In Bhutan, it is known as the Puna Tsang Chu below the confluences of several tributaries near the town of Wangdue Phodrang; the two largest tributaries are the Mo Pho Chhu, which flow together at Punakha. The Punakha dzong, situated above the confluence of the two rivers, is one of the most beautiful dzongs in Bhutan and the winter residence of the Dratshang Lhentshog; the upper reaches of the Pho Chhu are susceptible to ice blockages, the dzong has been damaged on several occasions by glacial lake outburst floods. After it enters in India, it flows on the border of West Bengal. At Wangdue Phodrang, elevation 1,364 metres, the river is joined by the west flowing Tang Chuu and it enters a precipitous gorge; the highway running south from Wangdue Phodrang to Dagana follows the river for much of its course. Near the town of Takshay is the confluence with the west flowing Hara Chhu; the last major Bhutanese tributary is the Daga Chhu.
River System of Bhutan from "Survey of the Waters of Bhutan Physiography and Fisheries Potential", Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1978 Jordans, Bart. Bhutan: A Trekker's Guide. Cicerone. ISBN 1-85284-398-5. Bhutan Himalaya, 1:390,000. Himalayan Maphouse
Gauḍa, Gaur, or Gour known as Lakhnauti and Jannatabad, is a ruined city on the Bangladesh-India border, split between present-day Nawabganj District of Rajshahi Division and Malda district of West Bengal, India. This city was on the east bank of the Ganges river, 40 kilometres downstream from Rajmahal, 12 km south of Malda. However, the current course of the Ganges is far away from the ruins. Lakhnauti gathered prominence during the Sena dynasty, with the name of the city attributed to the Sena king Lakshman Sena. Prior to the accession of the Sena dynasty, Gauda region was under the control of the Pala dynasty and, in all probability, the capital of Shashanka, served as the administrative headquarter. For example, the Khalimpur copperplate inscription of Dharmapal, refers to the monarch as Gaudeshwar, it is possible that, the Sena dynasty, that supplanted the Pala dynasty in Bengal proper felt the need for a new administrative capital, to reduce the Pala influence. It is possible that the process might have been started by Vijay or Ballal Sena – but given the final shape by Lakshmana Sena.
In fact Lakshmanasena had the administrative capital at Lakhnauti while a lesser capital at Nadia. It was in the capital less defended, that he was surprised by Ikhtiyar-ud-din Mohammad ibn Bakhtiyar Khalji; the area was known as Gauḍa at the time was under the rule of famous Bengali kings such as Shashanka. In the 7th century Gopala by a democratic election in Gauḍa became the first independent Buddhist king of Bengal and founded the Pala Empire; the Pala dynasty ruled for nearly four centuries between the mid to late 8th century to 12th century CE. The Palas were described by opponents as the Lords of Gauḍa, it was a prosperous city during the Sena dynasty's rule in Bengal. However, its most well documented history begins with its conquest in 1198 by the Muslims, who retained it as the chief seat of their power in Bengal for more than three centuries. Around the year 1350, the Sultans of Bengal established their independence, transferred their seat of government to Pandua in Malda district. To build their new capital, they plundered Gauḍa of every monument.
When Pandua was in its turn deserted, Gauḍa once more became the capital under the name Jannatabad during the reign of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah. In 1565 Sulaiman Khan Karrani, a Pashtun ruler, abandoned it for Tanda, a place somewhat nearer the Ganges. Gauḍa was sacked by Sher Shah in 1539, was occupied by Akbar's general Munim Khan in 1575, when Daud Khan Karrani, the last of the Afghan dynasty, refused to pay homage to the Mughal emperor; this occupation was followed by an outbreak of the plague and course change of the Ganges, which completed the downfall of the city. Since it has been little better than a heap of ruins overgrown with jungle. Gauḍa is located at 24°52′N 88°08′E near the India-Bangladesh international border, it has an average elevation of 22 metres. Gauḍa lies in the Eastern bank of the rivers Pagla; the city in its prime measured 7 1/8 km. from north to south, with a breadth of 1 to 2 km. With suburbs it covered an area of 20 to 30 km². and in the 16th century the Portuguese historian Faria y Sousa described it as containing 1,200,000 inhabitants.
The ramparts of this walled city still exist. The facing of masonry and the buildings with which they were covered have now disappeared, the embankments themselves are overgrown with dense jungle; the western side of the city was washed by the Ganges, within the space enclosed by these embankments and the river stood the city of Gauḍa proper, with the fort containing the palace in its south-west corner. Radiating north and east from the city, other embankments are to be traced running through the suburbs and extending in certain directions for 30 or 40 m. Surrounding the palace is an inner embankment of similar construction to that which surrounds the city, more overgrown with jungle. A deep moat protects it on the outside. To the north of the outer embankment lies the Sagar Dighi, a great reservoir, 1600 yd. by 800 yd. dating from 1126. The fort or you can say the city was made by Great Gaur Rajputs or Pala Dynasty, great warriors who fought well, they present some area of Bangladesh. Fergusson in his History of Eastern Architecture thus describes the general architectural style of Gauḍa: It is neither like that of Delhi nor Jaunpur, nor any other style, but one purely local and not without considerable merit in itself.
Owing to the lightness of the small, thin bricks, which were chiefly used in the making of Gauḍa, its buildings have not well withstood the ravages of time and the weather. Moreover, the ruins long served as a quarry for the builders of neighboring towns and villages, till in 1900 steps were taken for their preservation by the government; the finest ruin in Gauḍa is that of the Great Golden Mosque called Bara Darwaza, or twelve doored. An arched corridor running along the whole front of the original building is the principal portion now standing. There are eleven arches on either side of the corridor and one a
The Ahom kingdom was a kingdom originating in Medieval India, in the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam, India. It is well known for maintaining its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and resisting Mughal expansion in Northeast India. Established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao, it began as a mong in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra based on wet rice agriculture, it expanded under Suhungmung in the 16th century and became multi-ethnic in character, casting a profound effect on the political and social life of the entire Brahmaputra valley. The kingdom became weaker with the rise of the Moamoria rebellion, subsequently fell to repeated Burmese invasions of Assam. With the defeat of the Burmese after the First Anglo-Burmese War and the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826, control of the kingdom passed into East India Company hands. Though it came to be called the Ahom kingdom in the colonial and subsequent times, it was multi-ethnic, with the ethnic Ahom people constituting less than 10% of the population toward the end.
The 1901 census of India enumerated 179,000 people identifying as Ahom. The latest available census records over 2 million Ahom individuals, estimates of the total number of people descended from the original Tai-Ahom settlers are as high as 8 million; the total population of Assam being at 31 million according to the 2011 census, they presently constitute over 25%. The Ahoms called their kingdom Mong Dun Shun Kham; the British-controlled province after 1838 and the Indian state of Assam came to be known by this name. The Ahom kingdom was established in 1228 when the first Ahom king Sukaphaa came from Mong Mao and entered the Brahmaputra valley, crossing the rugged Patkai mountain range, he was accompanied by his three queens, two sons, several nobles and officials and their families, soldiers totaling more than nine thousand persons. He crossed the Patkai and reached Namruk on 2 December 1228 and occupied a region on the south bank with the Burhidihing river in the north, the Dikhau river in the south and the Patkai mountains in the east.
He befriended the local groups, the Barahi and the Marans settled his capital at Charaideo and established the offices of the Dangarias— the Burhagohain and the Borgohain. In the 1280s, these two offices were given independent regions of control and the check and balance that these three main offices accorded each other was established; the Ahoms brought with them the technology of wet rice cultivation that they shared with other groups. The people that took to the Ahom way of life and polity were incorporated into their fold in a process of Ahomization; as a result of this process the Barahi people, for instance, were subsumed, some of the other groups like some Nagas and the Maran peoples became Ahoms, thus enhancing the Ahom numbers significantly. This process of Ahomization was significant till the 16th century when under Suhungmung, the kingdom made large territorial expansions at the cost of the Chutiya and the Kachari kingdoms; the expansion was so large and so rapid that the Ahomization process could not keep pace and the Ahoms became a minority in their kingdom.
This resulted in a change in the character of the kingdom and it became multi-ethnic and inclusive. Hindu influences, which were first felt under Bamuni Konwar at the end of the 14th century, became significant. Rudra Singha introduced Islamic prayers in the court; the Assamese language entered the Ahom court and co-existed with the Tai language for some time in the 17th century before replacing it. The rapid expansion of the state was accompanied by the installation of a new high office, the Borpatrogohain, at par with the other two high offices and not without opposition from them. Two special offices, the Sadiakhowa Gohain, the Marangikowa Gohain were created to oversee the regions won over from the Chutiya and the Kachari kingdoms respectively; the subjects of the kingdom were organized under the Paik system based on the phoid or kinship relations, which formed the militia. The kingdom came under attack from Turkic and Afghan rulers of Bengal. On one occasion, the Ahoms under Ton Kham Borgohain pursued the invaders and reached the Karatoya river, the Ahoms began to see themselves as the rightful heir of the erstwhile Kamarupa kingdom.
The Ahom kingdom took many features of its mature form under Pratap Singha. The Paik system was reorganized under the professional khel system, replacing the kinship-based phoid system. Under the same king, the offices of the Borphukan, the Borbarua were established along with other smaller offices. No more major restructuring of the state structure was attempted until the end of the kingdom; the kingdom came under repeated Mughal attacks in the 17th century, on one occasion in 1662, the Mughals under Mir Jumla occupied the capital, Garhgaon. The Mughals were unable to keep it, in at the end of the Battle of Saraighat, the Ahoms not only fended off a major Mughal invasion but extended their boundaries west, up to the Manas river. Following a period of confusion, the kingdom got itself the last set of kings, the Tungkhungia kings, established by Gadadhar Singha; the rule of Tungkhungia kings was marked by peace and achievements in the Arts and engineering constructions. The phase of the rule was marked by increasing social conflicts, leading to the Moamoria rebellion.
The rebels were able to capture and maintain power at the capital Rangpur for some years but were removed with the help of the British under Captain Welsh. The following repr
West Bengal is an Indian state, located in eastern region of the country on the Bay of Bengal. With over 91 million inhabitants, it is India's fourth-most populous state, it has an area of 88,752 km2. A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region of the Indian subcontinent, it borders Bangladesh in the east, Nepal and Bhutan in the north, it borders the Indian states of Odisha, Bihar and Assam. The state capital is Kolkata, the seventh-largest city in India, center of the third-largest metropolitan area in the country; as for geography, West Bengal includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, the Ganges delta, the Rarh region, the coastal Sundarbans. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis, with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period; the region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas.
It was a bastion of regional kingdoms. The citadel of Gauda served as the capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. From the 13th century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans, powerful Hindu states, Baro-Bhuyan landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th century; the British East India Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757, Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in an expansion of Western education, culminating in developments in science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance. A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, East Bengal, a province of Pakistan which became independent Bangladesh.
Between 1977 and 2011 the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist government. The economy of West Bengal is the sixth-largest state economy in India with ₹13.14 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹108,000. The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, includes authors in literature, such as Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Kolkata is known as the "cultural capital of India". West Bengal is known for its enthusiasm for the sport of association football, as well as cricket; the origin of the name Bengal is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE; the Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga. Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure. At the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west.
The eastern part came to be known be as East Pakistan, the eastern wing of newly born Pakistan and the western part came to be known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state. In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to PaschimBanga; this is the native name of the state meaning western Bengal in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal to "Bengal" in English, "Bangla" in Bengali. Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress, the Left Front, the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution. However, the central government has turned down the proposal stating that the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three and the name should not be the same as that of any other territory. Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had earlier thought.
The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom, according to the Indian epic Mahabharata. Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal region, including Vanga, Rarh and the Suhma Kingdom. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai, located at the mouths of the Ganges. Bengal had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi. According to the Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa, Prince Vijaya, a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country; the kingdom of Magadha was formed in the 7th century BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar and Bengal. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of the lives of Mahavira, founder of Jainism, Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, it kingdoms. Under Ashoka, the Maurya Empire of Magadha in the 3rd century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia, including Afghanistan and parts of Balochistan. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha served as the seat of the Gupta Empire.
Two kingdoms – Vanga or Samatata, Gauda –
Shukladhwaja, or more popularly Bir Chilarai, was the younger brother of Nara Narayan, the king of the Kamata kingdom in the 16th century. He was Nara Narayan's commander-in-chief and got his name Chilarai because, as a general, he executed troop movements that were as fast as a chila. Chilarai is known to have descended from the powerful founder of the Koch dynasty of Kamatapur, Biswa Singha. By his valour, he played a significant role in expanding the empire of his elder brother, Maharaja Nara Narayan, his valour ensured Koch supremacy over the Bhutia, Kachari kingdom and the Ahoms though several battles were fought between the Koches and Ahoms with countable victories for both sides. Chilaray was the third son of Maharaja Biswa Singha, his mother Padmavati was from the country called Gaur. Chilaray was instrumental in giving Srimanta Sankardeva protection and shelter, as well as marrying his niece Kamalapriya, it was only due to his Royal Patronage that Sankardeva was able to establish the Ek Saran Naam Dharma in Assam and bring about his cultural renaissance.
His son and grandson were responsible for breaking away of Koch Hajo from the parent kingdom. Shukladhwaj was the greatest general that Indian history ignored. A master military strategist, he was the commander of elder brother and Koch king Naranarayan's army. Chilaray's valour ensured Koch supremacy over Kachari kingdom and the Ahoms. In June 1563 the Koches under the command of Chilaray managed to occupy the capital of Ahom, Garhgaon. Several kings, namely the Raja of Manipur and the Khasi chief, submitted to the Koch army. Chilaray and his army vanquished and killed the Jaintia Raja, Rajas of Tippera and Sylhet. Chilaray is said to have never committed brutalities on unarmed common people, those kings who surrendered were treated with respect, they were harsh to kings and soldiers who refused to surrender, but the brothers never annexed conquered territories nor oppressed the people. They only collected tributes from the vanquished kings, they treated enemy prisoners kindly, gave them land-grants to settle.
Chilaray adopted guerrilla warfare successfully- before Shivaji Maharaja of Maratha empire did. The duo turned towards Bengal, but unforeseen circumstances led to Chilaray's capture by the Afghan Sultan Sulaiman Karrani, while Naranarayan retreated to his capital. Much of the Koch kingdom was captured by the Afghans; however Chilaray and Nara Narayan rebuilt the Kamakhya temple that the Sultan's army had destroyed. They patronized the great Vaishnavite movement of Sankardev. Chilaray died in 1577 of small pox on the bank of Ganges; the birth anniversary of Mahabir Chilaray is organised by Government of Assam annually from 2005. The Government declares this day as state holiday; the Directorate of Cultural Affairs, Government of Assam instituted these awards in 2005. Theycomprise a shawl, a citation, a cash award of Rs. 100,000 Jyoti Prasad Rajkhowa. Generalissimo Chilarai and his times: a historical biography. Vikram Publishers. Retrieved 2 June 2013. Guptajit Pathak. Assam's its graphics. Mittal Publications.
Pp. 132–. ISBN 978-81-8324-251-6. Retrieved 2 June 2013. Sarkar, J. N.. "Chapter IV: Early Rulers of Koch Bihar". In Barpujari, H. K; the Comprehensive History of Assam. 2. Guwahati: Assam Publication Board