Coogan's Bluff is a promontory near the western shore of the Harlem River in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan in New York City. Its boundaries extend from 155th Street to 160th Street, from Edgecombe Avenue to the river. A deep escarpment descends 175 feet from Edgecombe Avenue to the river, creating a sheltered area between the bluff and river known as Coogan's Hollow. For 73 years, the hollow was home to the Polo Grounds sports stadium; the promontory is named for James J. Coogan, a real estate developer and one-term Manhattan Borough President, who owned the land during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the earliest known published reference to "Coogan's Bluff" appeared in The New York Times in 1893. From 1890 until 1963, the bluff overlooked the Polo Grounds, a professional sports venue that served as home field for Major League Baseball's New York Giants from 1891 until the franchise's move to San Francisco at the end of the 1957 season. Sportwriters used Coogan's Bluff as a sobriquet for the Polo Grounds—as Chavez Ravine now refers to Dodger Stadium and China Basin to Oracle Park— although the ballpark was situated in Coogan's Hollow, the bottomland between the bluff and the river.
The Bushman Steps, located just west of Coogan's Bluff in Sugar Hill/Hamilton Heights, led from the 155th Street subway station to the Polo Grounds ticket booths. Brush Stairway, on West 157th Street between St Nicholas Avenue and Edgecombe Avenue carried fans the rest of the way down to the stadium; the two stairways are the only intact structures. The Brush Stairway was named in honor of the owner of the Giants franchise from 1890 until his death in 1912; the identity of the Bushman Steps' namesake has been lost. The 15.15-acre hollow, bordered by Frederick Douglass Boulevard, West 155th Street and Harlem River Drive, is home to the Polo Grounds Towers housing complex: four 30-story buildings containing a total of 1,616 apartments. The complex was completed on June 30, 1968, is run by the New York City Housing Authority. Attached to Tower #2 is the Polo Grounds Community Center, run by Children's Village, which hosts such programs as the Polo Grounds Youth Conference. A plaque on the property marks the approximate location of home plate within the demolished ballpark.
Coogan's Bluff can be reached via the New York City Subway's 155th Street station, on the IND Concourse Line. City bus routes Bx6 SBS, M2 and M10 service the area as well; the Morris-Jumel Mansion, the oldest house in Manhattan still standing is located nearby, in Washington Heights. Across the Harlem River, in the Bronx, is Yankee Stadium, home of Major League Baseball's New York Yankees. Curse of Coogan's Bluff
Machismo (. It is associated with "a man's responsibility to provide for and defend his family."The word macho has a long history in both Spain and Portugal as well as in Spanish and Portuguese languages. It was associated with the ideal societal role men were expected to play in their communities, most Iberian language-speaking societies and countries. Macho in Portuguese and Spanish is a masculine term, derived from the Latin mascŭlus meaning male. Machos in Iberian-descended cultures are expected to possess and display bravery and strength as well as wisdom and leadership, ser macho was an aspiration for all boys. During the women's liberation movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the term began to be used by Latin American feminists to describe male aggression and toxic masculinity; the term was used by Latina feminists and scholars to criticize the patriarchal structure of gendered relations in Latino communities. Their goal was to describe a particular Latin American brand of patriarchy. "Caballerosidad" in Spanish, or cavalheirismo in Portuguese, or the English mixture of both but not a proper word in any of the mentioned languages, caballerismo, is a Latin American understanding of manliness that focuses more on honour and chivalry.
The meaning of caballero is "gentleman". Latin American scholars have noted that positive descriptors of machismo resemble the characteristics associated with the concept of caballerosidad. Understandings of machismo in Latin American cultures are not all negative. Studies show Latin American men understand masculinity to involve considerable childcare responsibilities, respect for women's autonomy, non-violent attitudes and behaviors. In this way, machismo comes to mean both positive and negative understanding of Latin American male identity within the immigrant context. Therefore, like all social constructions of identity, should be understood as having multiple layers; the word caballerosidad originates from the Spanish word caballero, Spanish for "horseman". Caballerosidad refers to a chivalric masculine code of behavior.. Like the English chivalric code, caballerosidad developed out of a medieval socio-historical class system in which people of wealth and status owned horses for transportation and other forms of horsepower whereas the lower classes did not.
It was associated with the class of knights in the feudal system. In Spanish, caballero referred to a land-owning colonial gentleman of high station, master of estates and/or ranches. There is controversy surrounding the concept of machismo as from Spanish and Portuguese descent; the use of Spanish and Portuguese produces historical colonial connotations through its promotion of Spanish and Portuguese masculine social construction, when the term should be used to describe specific Latin American historical masculinities. However, the word machismo does resemble words in Spanish and Portuguese language, the cause why it is associated with Spain and Portugal. In addition, by identifying machismo as a form of Europeanness, it offers legitimacy to the concept of a wicked formed of the same Western hypermasculinity known to Protestant Reforme-derived cultures and subjugates Latin America's understanding of itself and its cultural history and peculiarities. For example, the use of caballerosidad, Cavalheirismo,to mean only the positive characteristics of machismo is imbued with feudal and colonial connotations relating to colonial power relations.
This is because the origin of the word caballero resides in feudal Spanish descriptions of landlords that reached through and into the colonial era, exalts European culture in comparison to the so-called Latin American machismo. It cannot be avoided in Portuguese as cavalheirismo, the word for the more acceptable parts of machismo, is itself a loanword from Spanish presenting a palatalization process that Portuguese did not experience. Researchers are concerned regarding the unbalanced representation of machismo within Latin American cultures, are now focused on creating a balanced representation, they have pointed out the positive characteristics consistent with machismo, or caballerosidad: nurturance, protection of the family and its honor, wisdom, hard work, responsibility and emotional connectedness. Latin American scholars propose there are two different constructs within machismo, one positive construct and one negative construct; the negative construct of machismo is based on the traditional Western concept of hypermasculinity, is predominant within mainstream discourse, without an acknowledgement towards its resemblance towards hypermasculinty.
Caballerosidad's characteristics are exalted, while machismo's characteristics ar
Thomas Kane Tulley, known professionally as Tom Tully, was an American actor. He changed his surname from Tulley to Tully. Born in Durango in southwestern Colorado, Tully was the son of Thomas H. Tulley and Victoria Lenore Day Tulley, he served in the United States Navy, was a private pilot, worked as a reporter for the Denver Post in Denver, before he entered acting with the expectation of better pay. Tully debuted on Broadway in Call Me Ziggy, his other Broadway credits include The Sun Field, The Strings, My Lord, Are False, Jason, Ah, Wilderness!, The Time of Your Life, Night Music, The Time of Your Life, The White Steed, Chalked Out. In the era of old-time radio, Tully had the lead role of Joe in the serial Home of the Brave.:155 He played Jim Carroll in the serial Life Begins,:198 Uncle Willie in the comedy My Mother's Husband,:247 and Charles Martin in the serial Stella Dallas. He was a frequent guest actor on Gunsmoke, portraying a wide range of parts. Tully's Hollywood film career spanned from the early 1940s until 1973.
After a brief appearance in the film Carefree, he next appeared in I'll Be Seeing You as Shirley Temple's character's father. He received an Academy Award nomination for Actor in a Supporting Role for portraying the first commander of the Caine in 1954's The Caine Mutiny, with Humphrey Bogart, his last feature film role was as a crooked gun dealer in Don Siegel's thriller Charley Varrick, with Walter Matthau. From 1954 through 1960, he played the role of police Inspector Matt Grebb on the CBS police drama, The Lineup, with co-star Warner Anderson. In repeats, The Lineup was known as San Francisco Beat, he made two appearances as Rob Petrie's father on CBS's The Dick Van Dyke Show in 1964 and 1966. This role reunited Tully with Jerry Paris from The Caine Mutiny, he was a guest star on the Andy Griffith show during the seventh season. He played Walt, the milkman in the Episode, "Goodbye, Dolly." In 1962, he appeared on the NBC modern western series, Empire in the role of Tom Cole in the episode "Long Past, Long Remembered."
Richard Jordan appeared in this episode too as Jay Bee Fowler. The series starred Richard Egan as New Mexico rancher Jim Redigo. In 1963, he was cast as Danny Mundt in "A Taste for Pineapple" of the ABC crime drama, The Untouchables; that same year he portrayed Jethro Tate in "Who Killed Billy Jo?" on another ABC crime drama, Burke's Law, with Gene Barry. In 1964, Tully had two appearances on CBS's Perry Mason; the first was as defendant Carey York in "The Case of the Arrogant Arsonist. During the 1966 season of ABC's Shane western series, he made 17 appearances as Tom Starett.:954Later, Tully continued his acting in television dramas such as Mission: Impossible and The Rookies. In November 1969, Tully traveled to South Vietnam Vietnam, for the United Service Organization, his "handshake tour" took him to hospitals, radio interviews, flight behind enemy lines, courtesy of the 173rd Airborne Brigade, to visit strategic military outposts such as the "Hawks Nest" in the Phum Valley. While in Vietnam entertaining troops, Tully contracted a filarial worm, similar to the creature that causes elephantiasis.
After returning to the United States, his condition worsened. Because a blood clot in a major vein shut off circulation, his left leg was amputated close to the hip; the amputation was performed in Laguna Beach, close to his home in San Juan Capistrano. Complications from his surgery caused pleuritis and serious debilitation. At the time of his death, Tully had completed a manuscript about his grandmother and grandfather, David F. Day, a Medal of Honor recipient in the American Civil War. Day enlisted in the army at age 14, served with the 57th Ohio Infantry, fought in the battles of Shiloh and Stones River, was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for actions when he was just 16 years old. Day was the owner of the newspaper in Ouray, Colorado known as The Solid Muldoon, now the Durango Herald. In 1930, Tully married Helen Brown in Colorado, they had a daughter, they were divorced on November 26, 1935. In 1938, he married actress Frances McHugh, to whom he remained wed until her death in 1953.
On June 20, 1954, he married Ida Johnson in Los Angeles, they remained married until his death. Tully died of cancer at the age of 73 on April 27, 1982 at Hoag Memorial Hospital in Newport Beach, California. Tom Tully on IMDb Tom Tully at the Internet Broadway Database
A film poster is a poster used to promote and advertise a film. Studios print several posters that vary in size and content for various domestic and international markets, they contain an image with text. Today's posters feature photographs of the main actors. Prior to the 1980s, illustrations instead of photos were far more common; the text on film posters contains the film title in large lettering and the names of the main actors. It may include a tagline, the name of the director, names of characters, the release date, etc. Film posters are displayed inside and on the outside of movie theaters, elsewhere on the street or in shops; the same images appear in the film exhibitor's pressbook and may be used on websites, DVD packaging, advertisements in newspapers and magazines, etc. Film posters have been used since the earliest public exhibitions of film, they began as outside placards listing the programme of films to be shown inside the hall or movie theater. By the early 1900s, they began to feature illustrations of a film scene or an array of overlaid images from several scenes.
Other posters have used artistic interpretations of a scene or the theme of the film, represented in a wide variety of artistic styles. The first film poster was based on an illustration by Marcellin Auzolle to promote the showing of the Lumiere Brothers film L'Arroseur arrosé at the Grand Café in Paris on December 26, 1895. Film posters were produced for the exclusive use by the theaters exhibiting the film the poster was created for, were required to be returned to the distributor after the film left the theater. In the United States, film posters were returned to a nationwide operation called the National Screen Service which printed and distributed most of the film posters for the studios between 1940 and 1984; as an economy measure, the NSS recycled posters that were returned, sending them back out to be used again at another theater. During this time, a film could stay in circulation for several years, so many old film posters were badly worn before being retired into storage at an NSS warehouse.
Those posters which were not returned were thrown away by the theater owner or damaged by being outside. Beginning in the 1980s, the American film studios began taking over direct production and distribution of their posters from the National Screen Service and the process of making and distributing film posters became decentralized in that country. After the National Screen Service ceased most of its printing and distribution operations in 1985, some of the posters which they had stored in warehouses around the United States ended up in the hands of private collectors and dealers. Today there is a thriving collectibles market in film posters; the first auction by a major auction house of film posters occurred on December 11, 1990, when proceeds of a sale of 271 vintage posters run by Bruce Hershenson at Christie's totaled US$935,000. The record price for a single poster was set on November 15, 2005 when $690,000 was paid for a poster of Fritz Lang's 1927 film Metropolis from the Reel Poster Gallery in London.
Other early horror and science fiction posters are known to bring high prices as well, with an example from The Mummy realizing $452,000 in a 1997 Sotheby's auction, posters from both Bride of Frankenstein and The Black Cat selling for $334,600 in Heritage auctions, in 2007 and 2009, respectively. Rare film posters have been found being used as insulation in attics and walls. In 2011, 33 film posters, including a Dracula Style F one-sheet, from 1930-1931 were discovered in an attic in Berwick and auctioned for $502,000 in March 2012 by Heritage Auctions. Over the years, old Bollywood posters with hand-painted art, have become collectors items; as a result of market demand, some of the more popular older film posters have been reproduced either under license or illegally. Although the artwork on reproductions is the same as originals, reproductions can be distinguished by size, printing quality, paper type. Several websites on the Internet offer "authentication" tests to distinguish originals from reproductions.
Original film posters distributed to theaters and other poster venues by the movie studios are never sold directly to the public. However, most modern posters are produced in large quantities and become available for purchase by collectors indirectly through various secondary markets such as eBay. Accordingly, most modern posters are not as valuable; however some recent posters, such as the Pulp Fiction "Lucky Strike" U. S. one sheet poster, are quite rare. Lobby cards are similar to posters but smaller 11 in × 14 in 8 in × 10 in before 1930. Lobby cards are collectible and values depend on their age and popularity. Issued in sets of eight, each featuring a different scene from the film. In unusual circumstances, some releases were promoted with smaller sets; the set for The Running Man, for example, had only six cards, whereas the set for The Italian Job had twelve. Films released by major production companies experiencing financial difficulties lacked lobby sets, such as Manhunter. A Jumbo Lobby Card is larger, 14 in x 17 in and issued in sets.
Prior to 1940 studios promoted major releases with the larger card sets. In addition to the larger size, the paper quality was better; the title card disp
Not to be confused with the British actress, Betty FieldsBetty Field was an American film and stage actress. Field was born in Massachusetts, to George and Katharine, she began acting before she reached age 15 and went into stock theater after graduating from high school. She attended the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City. Producer/director George Abbott is credited with having discovered Field. Field began her acting career in 1934 on the London stage in Howard Lindsay's farce, She Loves Me Not. Following its run she returned to the United States and appeared in several stage successes, before making her film debut in 1939. Field's Broadway credits include Page Miss Glory, Room Service, Angel Island, If I Were You, What a Life, The Primrose, Ring Two, Two on an Island, Flight to the West, A New Life, The Voice of the Turtle, Dream Girl, The Rat Race, Not for Children, The Fourposter, The Ladies of the Corridor, The Waltz of the Toreadors, A Touch of the Poet, A Loss of Roses, Strange Interlude, Where's Daddy?, All Over.
Her final stage performances were in three productions at Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in 1971. Field had to overcome obstacles early in her film career. A 1942 newspaper article reported:When Betty Field was first signed for pictures, conversation buzzed. "But she's not pretty," was the first objection. "And her mouth is too large." Field's role as Mae, the sole female character, in Of Mice and Men established her as a dramatic actress. She starred opposite John Wayne in the 1941 film The Shepherd of the Hills. Field played a supporting, yet significant role as Cassandra Tower in Kings Row. A life member of The Actors Studio, Field preferred performing on Broadway and appeared in Elmer Rice's Dream Girl and Jean Anouilh's The Waltz of the Toreadors, but returned to Hollywood appearing in Flesh and Fantasy, The Southerner, The Great Gatsby, Bus Stop, Peyton Place, for which she was nominated for a Laurel Award, BUtterfield 8 and Birdman of Alcatraz, her final film role was in Coogan's Bluff in 1968.
She appeared on television series such as General Electric Theater, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Dr. Kildare and many more. Field played Mary Aldrich on The Aldrich Family, her first marriage, to playwright Elmer Rice, ended in divorce in May 1956. The couple had three children, John and Judith. John became a lawyer, but he died in a swimming accident at age 40, her second marriage, to Edwin J. Lukas, lasted from 1957–1967, her third marriage, to Raymond Olivere, lasted from 1968 until her death in 1973. Field died from a stroke on September 13, 1973, at Cape Cod Hospital in Hyannis, aged 60. Betty Field on IMDb Betty Field at the Internet Broadway Database Betty Field at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Betty Field North American Theater Online
New York Airways
This article discusses the helicopter airline, which should not be confused with the 1980s startup airline, New York Air. New York Airways was a helicopter airline in the New York City area, founded in 1949 as a mail and cargo carrier. On 9 July 1953 it may have been the first scheduled helicopter airline to carry passengers in the United States, with headquarters at LaGuardia Airport. Although a helicopter airline operator with scheduled passenger operations, New York Airways flew fixed wing aircraft, such as the de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter 19-passenger STOL twin turboprop aircraft. Passenger flights started with Sikorsky S-55 helicopters, with three Sikorsky S-58s added to its five S-55s in 1956. In 1962 they transitioned to the tandem rotor, twin turbine engine powered Boeing Vertol 107-II Turbocopter and operated the twin turbine engine Sikorsky S-61. In February 1955 the one-way fare from LaGuardia to Idlewild was $4.50. The aircraft was a Sikorsky H-19, registration number N418A.
The trip took ten minutes and their phone number was DEfender 5-6600. The first scheduled passenger flights to Manhattan arrived in December 1956 at the new heliport west of the West Side Highway at 30th St; the downtown heliport on East River Pier 6 opened in 1960 and New York Airways moved all its Manhattan passenger flights down there around December 1960. Due to route restrictions on the single-engine Vertol 44, nonstop flights from Manhattan to Idlewild had to await the twin-engine Boeing Vertol 107. Moody's says in 1962 the "operating revenue" of $3.9 million included $2.2 million federal subsidy. In June 1964 they had 32 daily flights from JFK to 33 returning; the only other flights were 15 round trips a day between JFK and the Port Authority building at the World's Fair, as La Guardia was still under construction. Scheduled flights to the top of the Pan Am Building began in December 1965. In April 1966 23 flights a day flew nonstop to Pan Am's terminal at JFK, scheduled 10 minutes; the downtown heliport had 13 flights a day to Newark, 5 nonstops to TWA's terminal at JFK and 12 to LGA, all of which continued to JFK.
Soon after Pan Am Building flights resumed the March 1977 Official Airline Guide showed 48 weekday S-61 departures from there: 12 to EWR, 14 to LGA JFK, 22 nonstops to JFK. New York Airways employed the first African American airline pilot. Perry H. Young made his historic first flight on February 5, 1957. Young had made history as the first African American flight instructor for the United States Army Air Corps. At its peak the airline partnered with 24 domestic airlines. At various times it served: John F. Kennedy International Airport LaGuardia Airport Newark Airport West 30th St, Manhattan "Wall Street" Heliport 40.7013°N 74.009°W / 40.7013. Fuel prices soared after the 1973 oil crisis; the airline could not recover after the 1977 Pan Am Building accident and the 1979 oil crisis, New York Airways filed for bankruptcy on May 18, 1979. The number of passengers boarded, in thousands, scheduled flights only were 68 in 1957, 144 in 1960, 537 in 1967, 268 in 1970. All surviving New York Airways Boeing Vertol 107s are now operated by Columbia Helicopters, based in Aurora, Oregon: N6672D N6674D N6675D N6676D N6682D N107PA N108PA N6674D is the highest flying time helicopter in the world, with more than 70,000 flight hours since its construction in 1962.
N6682D is in the 1968 film Coogan's Bluff, starring Clint Eastwood, taking off atop the Pan Am Building. N108PA is the helicopter arriving with Eastwood. N6676D is shown taking off from the Downtown Manhattan/Wall St. Heliport in the last of the Secret Agent 077 trilogy of films, 1966's Special Mission Lady Chaplin, it appears in the 1967 spy thriller Matchless and taking off from the Pan Am Building. On October 14, 1963 New York Airways Flight 600, a Boeing Vertol 107, registration N6673D, crashed shortly after takeoff from Idlewild Airport en route to Newark via Wall Street. All three passengers and all three crew members died; the accident was caused by mechanical failure due to contaminated lubricants. On May 16, 1977, the landing gear failed on a Sikorsky S-61L while it was taking on passengers on the roof of the Pan Am Building; the aircraft rolled onto its side. Its spinning rotor blades injured a fifth. Parts of a broken blade fell into the streets below, injuring another; the accident precipitated the permanent closure of the heliport.
On April 18, 1979, Sikorsky S-61L, while on departure climbout from Newark International Airport, experienced a fracture of one of the tail rotor blades, resulting in severe vibrations and an immediate return and descent to the airport. At about 150 feet altitude, the entire tail rotor gearbox was torn from the aircraft, resulting in an immediate and radical center of gravity change to the aircraft; this caus
New York City Police Department
The City of New York Police Department, more known as the New York Police Department and its initials NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the City of New York, New York in the United States. Established on May 23, 1845, the NYPD is one of the oldest police departments in the United States, is the largest police force in the United States; the NYPD headquarters is at 1 Police Plaza, located on Park Row in Lower Manhattan across the street from City Hall. The department's mission is to "enforce the laws, preserve the peace, reduce fear, provide for a safe environment." The NYPD's regulations are compiled in title 38 of the New York City Rules. The New York City Transit Police and New York City Housing Authority Police Department were integrated into the NYPD in 1995 by New York City Mayor Rudolph W. Giuliani. In June 2004, there were about 45,000 sworn officers plus several thousand civilian employees; as of December 2011, that figure increased to over 36,600, helped by the graduation of a class of 1,500 from the New York City Police Academy.
As of Fiscal Year 2018, the NYPD's current authorized uniformed strength is 38,422. There are approximately 4,500 Auxiliary Police Officers, 5,000 School Safety Agents, 2,300 Traffic Enforcement Agents, 370 Traffic Enforcement Supervisors employed by the department; the Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York, the largest municipal police union in the United States, represents over 50,000 active and retired NYC police officers. The NYPD has a broad array of specialized services, including the Emergency Service Unit, K9, harbor patrol, air support, bomb squad, counter-terrorism, criminal intelligence, anti-gang, anti-organized crime, public transportation, public housing; the NYPD Intelligence Division & Counter-Terrorism Bureau has officers stationed in 11 cities internationally. In the 1990s the department developed a CompStat system of management which has since been established in other cities; the NYPD has extensive crime scene investigation and laboratory resources, as well as units which assist with computer crime investigations.
The NYPD runs a "Real Time Crime Center" a large search engine and data warehouse operated by detectives to assist officers in the field with their investigations. A Domain Awareness System, a joint project of Microsoft and the NYPD, links 6,000 closed-circuit television cameras, license plate readers, other surveillance devices into an integrated system. Due to its high-profile location in the largest city and media center in the United States, fictionalized versions of the NYPD and its officers have been portrayed in novels, television, motion pictures, video games; the Municipal Police were established in 1845. Mayor William Havemeyer shepherded the NYPD together, originating the phrase "New York Finest." In 1857, it was tumultuously replaced by a Metropolitan force. Twentieth-century trends struggles against corruption. Officers begin service with the rank of "probationary police officer," referred to as "recruit officer". After successful completion of five and a half to six months, sometimes longer of Police Academy training in various academic and tactical training, officers graduate from the Police Academy.
While retaining the title of "probationary police officer,"" graduates are referred to as a "police officer," or informally as a "rookie", until they have completed an additional 18 month probationary period. There are three career "tracks" in the NYPD: supervisory and specialist; the supervisory track consists of nine sworn titles, referred to as ranks. Promotion to the ranks of sergeant and captain are made via competitive civil service examinations. After reaching the civil service rank of captain, promotion to the ranks of deputy inspector, deputy chief, assistant chief and chief of department is made at the discretion of the police commissioner. Promotion from the rank of police officer to detective is discretionary by the police commissioner or required by law when the officer has performed eighteen months or more of investigative duty; the entry level appointment to detective is third specialist. The commissioner may grant discretionary grades of second and first; these grades offer compensation equivalent to that of supervisors.
A second grade detective's pay corresponds to a sergeant's and a first grade detective's pay corresponds to a lieutenant's. Detectives are police officers who perform investigatory duties but have no official supervisory authority. A "detective first grade" still falls above. Just like detectives and lieutenants can receive pay grade increases within their respective ranks. ^ †: Uniform rank that has no police powers There are two basic types of detective in the NYPD: "detective-investigators" and "detective-specialists". Detective-investigators are the type most people associate with the term "detective" and are the ones most portrayed on television and in the movies. Most police officers gain their detective title by working in the Narcotics Division of the Detective Bureau. Detectives assigned to squads are co-located within each precinct and are responsible for investigating murders, robberies and other crimes within that precinct's boundaries. Other detective-investigators are assigned to specialized units at either the major command or citywide level, investigating terrorist groups, organized crime, narcotics dealing, ext