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Cookware and bakeware

Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers found in a kitchen. Cookware comprises cooking vessels, such as saucepans and frying pans, intended for use on a stove or range cooktop. Bakeware comprises cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven; some utensils are considered both bakeware. The choice of material for cookware and bakeware items has a significant effect on the item's performance in terms of thermal conductivity and how much food sticks to the item when in use; some choices of material require special pre-preparation of the surface—known as seasoning—before they are used for food preparation. Both the cooking pot and lid handles can be made of the same material but will mean that, when picking up or touching either of these parts, oven gloves will need to be worn. In order to avoid this, handles can be made of non-heat-conducting materials, for example bakelite, plastic or wood, it is best to avoid hollow handles because they are difficult to dry. A good cooking pot design has an "overcook edge", what the lid lies on.

The lid has a dripping edge that prevents condensation fluid from dripping off when handling the lid or putting it down. The history of cooking vessels before the development of pottery is minimal due to the limited archaeological evidence; the earliest pottery vessels, dating from 19,600±400 BP, were discovered in Xianrendong Cave, China. The pottery may have been used as cookware, manufactured by hunter-gatherers. Harvard University archaeologist Ofer Bar-Yosef reported that "When you look at the pots, you can see that they were in a fire." It is possible to extrapolate developments based on methods used by latter peoples. Among the first of the techniques believed to be used by stone age civilizations were improvements to basic roasting. In addition to exposing food to direct heat from either an open fire or hot embers it is possible to cover the food with clay or large leaves before roasting to preserve moisture in the cooked result. Examples of similar techniques are still in use in many modern cuisines.

Of greater difficulty was finding a method to boil water. For people without access to natural heated water sources, such as hot springs, heated stones could be placed in a water-filled vessel to raise its temperature. In many locations the shells of turtles or large mollusks provided a source for waterproof cooking vessels. Bamboo tubes sealed at the end with clay provided a usable container in Asia, while the inhabitants of the Tehuacan Valley began carving large stone bowls that were permanently set into a hearth as early as 7,000 BC. According to Frank Hamilton Cushing, Native American cooking baskets used by the Zuni developed from mesh casings woven to stabilize gourd water vessels, he reported witnessing cooking basket use by Havasupai in 1881. Roasting baskets covered with clay would be filled with the product to be roasted; when the thus-fired clay separated from the basket, it would become a usable clay roasting pan in itself. This indicates a steady progression from use of woven gourd casings to waterproof cooking baskets to pottery.

Other than in many other cultures, Native Americans used and still use the heat source inside the cookware. Cooking baskets are filled with roasting pans with wood coals. Native Americans would form a basket from large leaves to boil water, according to historian and novelist Louis L'Amour; as long as the flames did not reach above the level of water in the basket, the leaves would not burn through. The development of pottery allowed for the creation of fireproof cooking vessels in a variety of shapes and sizes. Coating the earthenware with some type of plant gum, glazes, converted the porous container into a waterproof vessel; the earthenware cookware could be suspended over a fire through use of a tripod or other apparatus, or be placed directly into a low fire or coal bed as in the case of the pipkin. Ceramics conduct heat poorly, however, so ceramic pots must cook over low heats and over long periods of time. However, most ceramic pots will crack if used on the stovetop, are only intended for the oven.

The development of bronze and iron metalworking skills allowed for cookware made from metal to be manufactured, although adoption of the new cookware was slow due to the much higher cost. After the development of metal cookware there was little new development in cookware, with the standard Medieval kitchen utilizing a cauldron and a shallow earthenware pan for most cooking tasks, with a spit employed for roasting. By the 17th century, it was common for a Western kitchen to contain a number of skillets, baking pans, a kettle and several pots, along with a variety of pot hooks and trivets. Brass or copper vessels were common in Asia and Europe, whilst iron pots were common in the American colonies. Improvements in metallurgy during the 19th and 20th centuries allowed for pots and pans from metals such as steel, stainless steel and aluminium to be economically produced. At the 1968 Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can", which included pots and pans.

Metal pots are made from a narrow range of metals because pots and pans need to conduct heat well, but need to be chemically unreactive so that they do not alter the flavor of the food. Most materials that are conductive enough to heat evenly are too reactive to use in food preparation. In some cases, a pot may be made out of a more reactive metal, tinned or clad with another. Aluminium is a lightweight metal with good thermal conductivity, it is re


Mountolive, published in 1958, is the third volume in The Alexandria Quartet series by British author Lawrence Durrell. Set in Alexandria, around World War II, the four novels tell the same story from different points of view and come to a conclusion in Clea. Mountolive is the only third person narrative in the series, it is the most overtly political. According to biographer Ian MacNiven, Lawrence Durrell regarded Mountolive as the clou, the nail holding together the entire structure of the Quartet, and Durrell gave to David Mountolive, his English ambassador, details from his own life: "Mountolive had been born in India, had left it at age eleven, had had an affair with a Yugoslav dancer. Mountolive had not seen his father again after leaving India, this Larry joined to his own myth of abandonment, a myth he came to believe, that he had not seen his father after coming to England." The novel's tensions begin with young David Mountolive on the Hosnani estate, where he has begun an affair with Leila Hosnani, mother of Nessim and Narouz.

This leads to a recollection of Mountolive's maturation and career as a diplomat, a career which in time returns him to Egypt, leading up to the present day of the novel series, at which point Mountolive recontextualizes the materials that appeared in Justine and Balthazar. Mountolive retains Pursewarden as his chief political adviser. Mountolive introduces a Coptic gunrunning plot in support of Zionism; this plot development has been criticised as unrealistic, but more scholars have demonstrated the intensely political and well-informed background for Durrell's notions. Pursewarden kills himself; the novel ends with the Copt wake for Narouz. The Pasha has disingenuously pretended to believe he is the Hosnani in the incriminating papers so he can continue to receive bribes from Nessim. Mountolive, meanwhile prepares to turn his back on Egypt disillusioned. Durrell had sent out carbons of Mountolive to a few people whose opinions he valued. Richard Aldington praised the long letter from Pursewarden to Mountolive, the mourning of the Coptic women.

Henry Miller admired the description of the slaughter of the camels, Gerald Sykes, the novelist and New York Times reviewer, found the fish drive "in best manner." Early reviews, following the publication date of 10 October 1958, contained contradictions. The TLS called it " the most significant of the series". Pamela Hansford Johnson in the New Statesman praised the style but was critical of the absence of a'moral and intellectual centre'. Time praised the imagery and'penetrant thought', but judged the novel the weakest of the series to date. In November 1958 Mountolive was an American Book of the Month selection, a selection that would guarantee Durrell $20000; the International Lawrence Durrell Society Official website of ILDS

Examen philosophicum

Examen philosophicum is, together with Examen facultatum, one of two academic exams in most undergraduate programmes at Norwegian universities. Whereas Examen facultatum aims at teaching students how to write academic texts, Examen philosophicum trains students in philosophy and structured thinking. Introduced at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark–Norway in 1675, Examen philosophicum was discontinued in Denmark in 1971 and exists in a reduced version in Norway. Examen philosophicum as a compulsory course is based in royal regulations for each university, for example Regulations of 20 December 2005 No. 1798 on Studies and Exams at the University of Oslo. Both Examen philosophicum and Examen facultatum are compulsory parts of most bachelor's degrees in Norway: professional studies at university colleges and a few natural science studies at universities are exempt from either one or both; the content of Examen philosophicum varies between universities being adapted to the scientific branch of each faculty and on the field of study of each undergraduate programme.

For example, students of foreign languages will study a variety, adapted to ditto. In general, Examen philosophicum includes philosophy and rhetoric. Introduced in 1675 at the University of Copenhagen, Examen philosophicum was continued by the University of Oslo in 1812, two years before the Dano-Norwegian union was dissolved, it was called andreeksamen between 1903, contrasting Examen artium as førsteeksamen. It was called forberedende prøve i filosofi between 1903 and 1967, before retaining its original name in 1967. Examen philosophicum had a duration of two or three semesters, including exams in philosophy, mathematics, natural sciences, Latin language, Greek language, and—for theology students—Hebraic language. Latin and history were dropped in 1845, whilst natural sciences were split into physics and chemistry. Philosophy became the sole field of study in 1875. Under the former cand.mag. System, an Examen philosophicum course was worth 5.0 vekttall, corresponding to a half semester, along with Examen facultatum, it made up an introductory semester at universities.

Reduced in scope, both Examen philosophicum and Examen facultatum are worth 10.0 ECTS each, corresponding to two thirds of a semester. Examen artium Examen facultatum Rørvik, Thor Inge Historien om examen philosophicum 1675-1983: Forum for universitetshistorie

11th Armored Cavalry Regiment

The 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army garrisoned at Fort Irwin, California. Although termed an armored cavalry regiment, it is being re-organized as a multi-component heavy brigade combat team; the regiment has served in the Philippine–American War, World War II, the Vietnam War, Cold War, Operation Desert Storm, Operation Iraqi Freedom. The 11th ACR serves as the Opposing Force for the Army and Marine task forces, foreign military forces that train at the National Training Center; the OPFOR trained U. S. Army forces in mechanized desert warfare following a Soviet-era style threat until June 2002, when the OPFOR and the 11th ACR changed to portraying an urban/asymmetrical warfare style of combat U. S. soldiers are facing in operations abroad. From June to December 2003, members of the 11th ACR deployed to Afghanistan, where they helped to develop and train the armor and mechanized infantry battalions of the Afghan National Army; these specialized units would defend the Afghan capital during the country's constitutional convention.

In January 2004, the 11th ACR deployed to Iraq. The 11th ACR was not reorganized under the U. S. Army Combat Arms Regimental System, but has been reorganized under the U. S. Army Regimental System; the regiment was constituted on 2 February 1901 in the Regular Army as the 11th Cavalry Regiment, was organized on 11 March 1901 at Fort Myer, Virginia. The regiment participated in the 1916 Pancho Villa Expedition under the command of William Jones Nicholson. For an operational history of the regiment, see the separate squadron histories below. At the start of World War II, the 11th Cavalry was stationed at the Presidio of Monterey in California, they moved to Fort Ord in stages from 16 to 27 January 1940 and again to Camp Clayton on 15 April to 15 May 1940 for temporary training. They participated in maneuvers at Fort Lewis in Washington from 4 to 29 August 1940, returned to the Presidio of Monterey on 31 August 1940, where they were detached from the 2nd Cavalry Division, resumed its status as a separate regiment.

They next moved to Camp Seeley in California on 7 November 1941, again to Live Oaks, California on 24 July 1941. They were next assigned to the United States Army Armored Force on 12 June 1942, relocated to Fort Benning in Georgia on 10 July 1942, where they prepared to be inactivated and reorganized; the 11th Cavalry Regiment was deactivated on 15 July 1942 at Georgia. The remainder of 11th Cavalry was disbanded on 26 October 1944. 11th Armored Regiment was constituted on 11 July 1942 in the national army, assigned to the 10th Armored Division, organized at Fort Benning on 15 July 1942 from the personnel and equipment of the 11th Cavalry Regiment. The motto on the unit insignia is "Allons"; the regiment moved to Murfreesboro, Tennessee on 22 June 1943, Fort Gordon on 5 September 1943. 11th Armored Regiment was broken up on 20 September 1943, its elements were distributed as follows: HHC-11th Armored Regiment, 1st and 2nd Battalions were reorganized as the 11th Tank Battalion in the 10th AD. 3rd Battalion, 11th Armored Regiment was reorganized and redesignated as the 712th Tank Battalion, relieved from assignment to the 10th AD.712th Tank Battalion was inactivated at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey on 27 October 1945, redesignated the 525th Medium Tank Battalion on 1 September 1948.

It was activated on 10 September 1948 at Washington. 525th Medium Tank Battalion was redesignated as 95th Tank Battalion on 4 February 1950, assigned to 7th Armored Division, activated at Camp Roberts, California on 24 November 1950, inactivated there on 15 November 1953. Reconnaissance Company was reorganized and redesignated as Troop E, 90th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron, which maintained a separate history thereafter. Maintenance and Service Companies were disbanded; as part of the 10th Armored Division, 11th Tank Battalion shipped out from the New York Port of Embarkation on 13 September 1944, landed in France on 23 September 1944. The battalion participated in the Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, Central Europe Campaigns, was located at Schongau, Germany on 14 August 1945; the battalion returned to the Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation on 13 October 1945, was inactivated at Camp Patrick Henry, Virginia on the same day, was relieved from assignment to the 10th AD. HHT, 11th Cavalry Regiment was redesignated on 19 April 1943 as HHT, 11th Cavalry Group, was activated at Camp Anza, California on 5 May 1943.

At that time, the 36th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron and 44th Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron were attached. The group was moved to Fort Bragg on 31 January 1944, again to Atlantic Beach, Florida on 15 March 1944 for amphibious training, they moved to Camp Gordon on 1 June 1944 and departed the New York Port of Embarkation on 29 September 1944, arrived in England on 10 October 1944, landed in France on 26 November 1944. They moved to the Netherlands on 8 December 1944, went into the line in Germany on 12 December 1944, protected the Roer River sector. S. 84th Infantry Division. The group held a defensive line along the Rhine River near Düsseldorf on 12 March 1945 under the XIII Corps, crossed the Rhine at Wesel on 1 April 1945, screened XIII Corps' northern flank, saw action during the Battle of Munster and the seizure of t

2013 Worcestershire County Council election

An election to Worcestershire County Council took place on 2 May 2013 as part of the 2013 United Kingdom local elections. 57 councillors were elected from 53 electoral divisions, which returned either one or two county councillors each by first-past-the-post voting for a four-year term of office. The divisions were the same as those used at the previous election in 2009; the election saw the Conservative Party retain overall control of the council with a reduced majority of just 2 seats. All locally registered electors who were aged 18 or over on Thursday 2 May 2013 were entitled to vote in the local elections; those who were temporarily away from their ordinary address were entitled to vote in the local elections, although those who had moved abroad and registered as overseas electors cannot vote in the local elections. It is possible to register to vote at more than one address at the discretion of the local Electoral Register Office, but it remains an offence to vote more than once in the same local government election.

The Conservative Party retained control of the council with a majority of two seats. The Labour Party, who had in 2009 won a total of 3 seats, became the official opposition with a total of 12 seats. UKIP became the third largest party; the Liberal Democrats, who formed the official opposition prior to the election, won three seats, a net loss of five. The Independent Kidderminster Hospital and Health Concern and the Green Party both won two seats, while the Wythall Residents Association and continuation Liberal Party won one seat each

Philip Champion de Crespigny

Philip Champion de Crespigny was a British lawyer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1774 and 1790. He was of Huguenot descent, the son of Philip Champion de Crespigny, proctor of the Admiralty court, his wife Anne Fonnereau, daughter of Claude Fonnereau of Christchurch Mansion in Ipswich, Suffolk, his elder brother Claude was made a baronet in 1805. Philip Champion de Crespigny was educated at Eton College in 1748, was an advocate of Doctors' Commons in 1759. In 1768 he became King’s Proctor and held the post until 1784. In 1774 he was elected as a Member of Parliament for Sudbury on the Fonnereau interest after a contest, but lost his seat on petition. In 1780 he was returned unopposed at Aldeburgh on the Fonnereau interest, as well as at Sudbury after a contest, he held both seats until 1781, when he lost Sudbury on petition, continued to sit for Aldeburgh. The English Chronicle wrote in 1781 that “his hauteur is so distinguished, that he is characterised... by the profane, though applicable appellation, of God Almighty”.

He did not stand in the 1790 election. Champion de Crespigny was married four times: first, to Sarah, daughter of Thomas Cocksedge of Thetford, Norfolk, on 24 November 1762, he died on 1 January 1803. His obituary in The Gentleman's Magazine described him as “very much a man of fashion in his person and demeanour, full of anecdote, with a turn for satirical humour that rendered him a amusing companion”