Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, the GNI per capita is higher, it was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report Office. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.
Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being. Published on 4 November 2010, the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI; the following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index = LE − 20 85 − 20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.2. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI 2 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS 15 Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS 18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.3.
Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. The HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio. Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allo
A bairro is a Portuguese word for a quarter or a neighborhood or, sometimes, a district within a city or town. It is used in Brazil, Guinea-Bissau and other Portuguese-speaking places. Bairro is cognate with Germanic berg, borg, borough etc, Spanish barrio, all of which descend from the same Proto-Indo European root. In Brazil, the word is applied to urban areas in cities, in which the bairros are defined only unofficially and have rough borders, without any official administrative function. In some cities, the bairros have defined territorial limits set by the municipal government, but most follow popular definition by its citizens. In Portugal, the word is used with the same meaning as in Brazil, defining a non administrative urban area without clear borders, an example being the Bairro Alto in Lisbon. A Portuguese bairro can coincide with an administrative freguesia. In the past, the cities of Lisbon and Porto were divided in large administrative divisions - each encompassing several freguesias - which were named bairros.
In Mozambique, bairros are administrative subdivisions of urban districts with important functions in the identification of the residents and determine the attributes of the area in regard to construction or agriculture, much like zoning. They are directed by secretários. In Guinea-Bissau, bairros are first the peri-urban quarters of the capital Bissau beyond the old city centre, e.g. Bairro de Ajuda, Bairro Militar, Quelele, Mpantcha, by extension quarters of smaller towns throughout the country. Bairro Alto in Lisbon Barrio Freguesia
Rio de Janeiro (state)
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 federative units of Brazil. It has the second largest economy of Brazil, with the largest being that of the state of São Paulo; the state of Rio de Janeiro is located within the Brazilian geopolitical region classified as the Southeast. Rio de Janeiro shares borders with all the other states in the same Southeast macroregion: Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and São Paulo, it is bounded on the south by the South Atlantic Ocean. Rio de Janeiro has an area of 43,653 km2, its capital is the city of Rio de Janeiro, the capital of the Portuguese Colony of Brazil from 1763 to 1815, of the following United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves from 1815 to 1822, of independent Brazil as a kingdom and republic from 1822 to 1960. The archaic demonym meaning for the Rio de Janeiro State is "fluminense", taken from the Latin word flumen, meaning "river". Despite the fact "carioca" is a most ancient demonym of Rio de Janeiro's inhabitants, it was replaced by "fluminense" in 1783, when it was sanctioned as the official demonym of the Royal Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a few years after the City of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro has become the capital city of the Brazilian colonies.
From 1783 and during the Imperial Regime, "carioca" remained only as a nickname by which other Brazilians called the inhabitants of Rio. During the first years of the Brazilian Republic, "carioca" was the name given to those who lived in the slums or a pejorative way to refer the bureaucratic elite of the Federal District. Only when the City of Rio lost its status as Federal District and became a Brazilian State when the capital was moved to Brasília earlier in 1960, "carioca" was made a co-official demonym with "guanabarino". In 1975, the Guanabara State was ended and extinct by President Ernesto Geisel becoming the present City of Rio de Janeiro and "carioca" was made the demonym of its municipality. Although "carioca" is not recognized as an official demonym of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazilians call the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro in general as "cariocas", most of its inhabitants claim to be "cariocas". Nowadays, social movements like "Somos Todos Cariocas" have tried to achieve the official recognition of "carioca" as a co-official demonym of the Rio de Janeiro State.
The state's 22 largest cities are Rio de Janeiro, São Gonçalo, Duque de Caxias, Nova Iguaçu, Niterói, Campos dos Goytacazes, Belford Roxo, São João de Meriti, Petrópolis, Volta Redonda, Magé, Macaé, Itaboraí, Cabo Frio, Armação dos Búzios, Angra dos Reis, Nova Friburgo, Barra Mansa, Barra do Piraí, Teresópolis and Nilópolis. Rio de Janeiro is one of the smallest in Brazil, it is, the third most populous Brazilian state, with a population of 16 million of people in 2011 and has the third longest coastline in the country. In the Brazilian flag, the state is represented by the beta star in the Southern Cross. European presence in Rio de Janeiro is as old as Brazil itself, dating back to 1502. Rio de Janeiro originated from parts of the captainships of São Vicente. Between 1555 and 1567, the territory was occupied by the French, who intended to install a colony, France Antarctique. Aiming to prevent the occupation of the Frenchmen, in March 1565, the city of Rio de Janeiro was established by Estácio de Sá.
In the 17th century, cattle raising and sugar cane cultivation stimulated the city's progress, definitively assured when the port started to export gold extracted from Minas Gerais in the 18th century. In 1763, Rio de Janeiro became the capital of Colonial Brazil. With the flight of the Portuguese royal family from Portugal to Brazil in 1808, the region soon benefited from urban reforms to house the Portuguese. Chief among the promoted changes were: the transformation of agencies of public administration and justice, the creation of new churches, hospitals, the foundation of the first bank of the country - the Banco do Brasil - and the Royal Press, with the Gazette do Rio of Janeiro; the following years witnessed the creation of the Academia Real Militar. There followed a process of cultural enhancement influenced not only by the arrival of the Royal Family, but by the presence of European graphic artists who were hired to record the society and Brazilian natural features. During this same time, the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios was founded as well.
In 1834, the city of Rio de Janeiro was transformed into a "neutral city", remaining as capital of the state, while the captainships became provinces, with headquarters in Niterói, a neighboring city. In 1889, the city became the capital of the Republic, the neutral city became the federal district and the province a state. In 1894, Petrópolis became the capital of Rio de Janeiro, until 1902 when Niterói recovered its capital status. With the relocation of the federal capital to Brasília in 1960, the city of Rio de Janeiro became Guanabara State. Niterói remained the state capital for Rio de Janeiro state, while Rio de Janeiro served the same status for Guanabara. In 1975, the states of Guanabara and Rio de Janeiro were merged under the name of Rio de Janeiro, with the city of Rio de Janeiro as state capital; the symbols of the former State of Rio de Janeiro were preserved, while the symbols of Guanabara were kept by the city of Rio de Janeir
Aphrodite is an ancient Greek goddess associated with love, pleasure and procreation. She is identified with the planet Venus, named after the Roman goddess Venus, with whom Aphrodite was extensively syncretized. Aphrodite's major symbols include myrtles, doves and swans; the cult of Aphrodite was derived from that of the Phoenician goddess Astarte, a cognate of the East Semitic goddess Ishtar, whose cult was based on the Sumerian cult of Inanna. Aphrodite's main cult centers were Cythera, Cyprus and Athens, her main festival was the Aphrodisia, celebrated annually in midsummer. In Laconia, Aphrodite was worshipped as a warrior goddess, she was the patron goddess of prostitutes, an association which led early scholars to propose the concept of "sacred prostitution", an idea, now seen as erroneous. In Hesiod's Theogony, Aphrodite is born off the coast of Cythera from the foam produced by Uranus's genitals, which his son Cronus has severed and thrown into the sea. In Homer's Iliad, she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione.
Plato, in his Symposium 180e, asserts that these two origins belong to separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos. Aphrodite had many other epithets, each emphasizing a different aspect of the same goddess, or used by a different local cult, thus she was known as Cytherea and Cypris, due to the fact that both locations claimed to be the place of her birth. In Greek mythology, Aphrodite was married to the god of blacksmiths and metalworking. Despite this, Aphrodite was unfaithful to him and had many lovers. In the First Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, she seduces the mortal shepherd Anchises. Aphrodite was the surrogate mother and lover of the mortal shepherd Adonis, killed by a wild boar. Along with Athena and Hera, Aphrodite was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War and she plays a major role throughout the Iliad. Aphrodite has been featured in western art as a symbol of female beauty and has appeared in numerous works of western literature.
She is a major deity in modern Neopagan religions, including the Church of Aphrodite and Hellenismos. Hesiod derives Aphrodite from aphrós "sea-foam", interpreting the name as "risen from the foam", but most modern scholars regard this as a spurious folk etymology. Early modern scholars of classical mythology attempted to argue that Aphrodite's name was of Greek or Indo-European origin, but these efforts have now been abandoned. Aphrodite's name is accepted to be of non-Greek Semitic, but its exact derivation cannot be determined. Scholars in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, accepting Hesiod's "foam" etymology as genuine, analyzed the second part of Aphrodite's name as *-odítē "wanderer" or *-dítē "bright". Michael Janda accepting Hesiod's etymology, has argued in favor of the latter of these interpretations and claims the story of a birth from the foam as an Indo-European mytheme. Witczak proposes an Indo-European compound *abʰor- "very" and *dʰei- "to shine" referring to Eos.
Other scholars have argued that these hypotheses are unlikely since Aphrodite's attributes are different from those of both Eos and the Vedic deity Ushas. A number of improbable non-Greek etymologies have been suggested. One Semitic etymology compares Aphrodite to the Assyrian barīrītu, the name of a female demon that appears in Middle Babylonian and Late Babylonian texts. Hammarström looks to Etruscan, comparing prϑni "lord", an Etruscan honorific loaned into Greek as πρύτανις; this would make the theonym in origin an honorific, "the lady". Most scholars reject this etymology as implausible since Aphrodite appears in Etruscan in the borrowed form Apru; the medieval Etymologicum Magnum offers a contrived etymology, deriving Aphrodite from the compound habrodíaitos, "she who lives delicately", from habrós and díaita. The alteration from b to ph is explained as a "familiar" characteristic of Greek "obvious from the Macedonians"; the cult of Aphrodite in Greece was imported from, or at least influenced by, the cult of Astarte in Phoenicia, which, in turn, was influenced by the cult of the Mesopotamian goddess known as "Ishtar" to the East Semitic peoples and as "Inanna" to the Sumerians.
Pausanias states that the first to establish a cult of Aphrodite were the Assyrians, after the Assyrians, the Paphians of Cyprus, the Phoenicians at Ascalon. The Phoenicians, in turn, taught her worship to the people of Cythera. Aphrodite took on Inanna-Ishtar's associations with procreation. Furthermore, she was known as Ourania, which means "heavenly", a title corresponding to Inanna's role as the Queen of Heaven. Early artistic and literary portrayals of Aphrodite are similar on Inanna-Ishtar. Like Inanna-Ishtar, Aphrodite was a warrior goddess, he mentions that Aphrodite's most ancient cult statues in Sparta and on Cythera showed her bearing arms. Modern scholars note that Aphrodite's warrior-goddess aspects appear in the oldest strata of her worship and see it as an indication of her Near Eastern origins. Nineteenth century classical scholars had a general aversion to the idea that ancient Greek religion was at all influenced by the cultures of the Near East, but Friedrich Got
Belmond Copacabana Palace is a hotel in the city of Rio de Janeiro, facing Copacabana beach. Designed by French architect Joseph Gire, it was built in a style that follows the line and model of the great beach hotels of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, opened on August 13, 1923. With a century of existence, Belmond Copacabana Palace continues to be one of the most important hotel complexes in the city of Rio, in Brazil, with two hundred and forty-three rooms, divided between the main and the annex building, in an area of twelve thousand square meters. Belmond Copacabana Palace is known throughout Brazil for the international celebrities who stay at the hotel when visiting the city of Rio de Janeiro. In addition, the hotel is known for hosting some of the most popular social events in that country; the hotel has been voted several times as the best hotel in South America, like in 2009, when it won the World Travel Award, one of the most important tourism awards in the world. Belmond Copacabana Palace was built by businessman Octavio Guinle and Francisco Castro Silva between 1919 and 1923, in an initiative of President Epitacio Pessoa, who wanted a large tourism hotel in the capital of the country, to help host the great number of visitors expected for the big Centennial of the Independence of Brazil Exhibition, an event of international dimensions to be held on the esplanade of Castelo, a region in downtown Rio de Janeiro, in 1922.
In return, the Federal Government would grant tax incentives, as well as the license to have a casino work in it - a requirement of the entrepreneur. Once the agreement was done, the businessman acquired a plot of land on Copacabana beach, facing Avenida Atlântica, extended in 1919 by engineer Paulo de Frontin. At the time, the hotel was the first large building in Copacabana, was surrounded only by small houses and mansions. French architect Joseph Gire was hired to carry out the project, drawing inspiration from two famous hotels on the French Riviera: the Negresco, in Nice, the Carlton, in Cannes; the structure and imposing, was erected by engineer César Melo e Cunha, who employed, on a large scale, Carrara marble and Bohemia crystals. However, the hotel was only inaugurated on August 13, 1923 a year after the Centennial Exposition; this was due to the difficulties in the importation of marbles and crystals and in the execution of its foundations. To mark the inauguration, the great French singer and vedette Mistinguett was invited to the ceremony, despite having the famous "most beautiful legs in the world", was prohibited from showing them at the party.
Her presence and presentation made the hotel's inauguration an event of world proportions. In view of the delay in the execution of the project, President Artur Bernardes tried to revoke the license to operate the casino in 1924; the matter was referred to Court, the Guinle family, after ten years of dispute, won the case. The hotel and its casino were essential for the consolidation of the fame and glamor of the neighborhood in the following decades. On May 23, 1928, President Washington Luis was shot at the hotel by his mistress, the Italian marquess Elvira Vishi Maurich, 28 years old at the time. President Washington Luis was hospitalized, with the official statement affirming he had had an appendicitis crisis. Four days the young marquess was found dead; the police report stated it to be a suicide. In 1934, the hotel's swimming pool was built, and, in 1949, it was extended, with a project by engineer César Melo e Cunha. In 1938, the "Golden Room" was inaugurated, with a show by French actor, cabaret singer and entertainer Maurice Chevalier.
In April 1946, after World War II, President Eurico Gaspar Dutra banned gambling in the country. The casino was transformed into a concert hall, the hotel underwent a major renovation, increasing its capacity and adding two areas to the main building: the side pergola and the back annex; this remodeling was in charge of architect Wladimir Alves de Sousa. With the capital of Brazil being transferred to Brasilia in 1960, the hotel experienced a period of slow decay, until it was overcome by more modern hotels, built in the 1970s. In 1985, its demolition was projected. However, Copacabana Palace became a cultural property, being registered in federal and municipal levels. In 1989, the Guinle family, represented by José Eduardo Guinle, sold it to the Orient Express group, now called Belmond, which rehabilitated the Copacabana Palace, modernizing the old facilities without discharacterizing them. Official website
World Youth Day 2013
World Youth Day 2013, stylized WYDRio2013, was the 14th international World Youth Day, an international Catholic event focused on religious faith and youth. The host city of World Youth Day 2013 was Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as announced by Pope Benedict XVI at the end of the closing Mass of World Youth Day 2011 in Madrid, Spain; the events were scheduled to be held from 23 July to 28 July 2013. World Youth Day 2013 was the second World Youth Day to be held in South America. Additionally, World Youth Day 2013 was the first World Youth Day to be held in a country whose primary language is Portuguese, the first for Pope Francis. On the event attended over 3 million people. On 24 August 2011, Pope Benedict XVI announced the theme for World Youth Day 2013. Taken from the Gospel of Matthew, the theme will be "Go and make disciples of all peoples". On Pentecost Sunday, 27 May 2012, the World Youth Day Office released the names of the official patron saints for WYD2013; the saints and blesseds chosen include: Patrons: Our Lady of Aparecida, Saint Sebastian, Saint Anthony of St. Ann Galvão, Saint Therese of Lisieux, Blessed John Paul II.
Intercessors: Saint Rose de Lima, Saint Teresa of Los Andes, Blessed Laura Vicuña, Saint José de Anchieta, Blessed Albertina Berkenbrock, Blessed Chiara Luce Badano, Blessed Sister Dulce, Blessed Adílio Daronch, Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati, Blessed Isidore Bakanja, Blessed Frederick Ozanam, Saint George, Saint Andrew Kim and Companions. Day 2013 logo incorporates colors and famous symbols of Rio de Janeiro, including the Christ the Redeemer statue, the Sugarloaf Mountain, coastline and water; the logo was designed by a native of Cantagalo, Rio de Janeiro. The logo design was based on the official World Youth Day 2013 theme of the Great Commission from the Gospel of Matthew, includes the use of colours found in Brazilian flag; the unveiling of the official logo was postponed by Orani João Tempesta out of respect to the January 2011 natural disasters. The logo was revealed on 7 February 2012; the official logo was presented to President Dilma Rousseff by Rio de Janeiro governor, Sérgio Cabral Filho on DVD.
The official song for World Youth Day 2013 was released on 14 September 2012, titled "Esperança do Amanhecer". The official website for World Youth Day in Rio de Janeiro was www.rio2013.com and offered social networking through Google+, Facebook and RSS feed. From 22–29 July 2013, the youth website Xt3.com webcast all the major events live from Rio de Janeiro, allowing pilgrims from all over the world to participate in World Youth Day online. In July 2013 it was reported that 320,000 young people had registered for this World Youth Day, although one million had been predicted by the organizers. A Brazilian newspaper reported that Rio organizers had unsuccessfully sought additional funding from government leaders. A bus-truck crash in western French Guiana on 17 July killed 21-year-old Sophie Moriniere, a member of a Paris WYD group, wounded six others of the 23 young WYD pilgrims from France on the bus. Moriniere had been serving as a special correspondent for Notre Dame Radio; the bus was on its way to Kourou, French Guiana.
Bishop Emmanuel Lafont of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cayenne in Cayenne celebrated a Mass for the crash victims, while Cardinal Andre Vingt-Trois, Cardinal Archbishop of Paris, asked members of his Archdiocese to pray for the victims. Pope Francis's Cardinal Secretary of State, Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone, S. D. B. sent a formal message of condolence. A travel firm's bankruptcy affected pilgrims in 20 US dioceses. Cardinal Barbarin canceled his participation after suffering a heart incident in Guyane, where 700 French WYD pilgrims were stranded due to airliner failure. Official website Catholic Pilgrim Office - World Youth Day headquarters WYD RIO 2013 Twitter: @Website20121 Live Webcast for World Youth Day 2013
Portuguese pavement is a traditional-style pavement used for many pedestrian areas in Portugal. It consists of small flat pieces of stones arranged like a mosaic, it can be found in Olivença and throughout former Portuguese colonies, such as Brazil and Macau. Portuguese workers are hired for their skill in creating these pavements in places such as Gibraltar. Being used in sidewalks, it is in squares and atriums that this art finds its deepest expression. One of the most distinctive uses of this paving technique is the image of Saint-Queen Elizabeth of Portugal, in Coimbra, designed with black and white stones of basalt and limestone. Paving as a craft is believed to have originated in Mesopotamia, where rocky materials were used in the inside and outside of constructions, being brought to Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome; the Romans used to pave the vias connecting the empire using materials to be found in the surroundings. Some of the techniques introduced are still applied on the calçada, most noticeably the use of a foundation and a surfacing.
Little new paving is done and the entire profession is at risk. The long hours and low wages typical of calceteiros have reduced apprenticeships and thus new pavers. Furthermore, as the pavement is less safe, costs more, wears quicker than concrete or asphalt, there is dropping interest in investment and construction in it. Although there were once hundreds of calceteiros, most modern work is on conservation or major architectural projects. While São Paulo is replacing the Portuguese pavement sidewalks of Paulista Avenue with a cheaper type of pavement, other Brazilian cities such as Rio de Janeiro still have nearly ubiquitous Portuguese pavement in more affluent areas. Craftsmen lay a bedding of gravel upon a well-compacted trench of argillaceous materials, which accommodates the tessera stones, acting as a cement. Mosaic Terrazzo Engineered stone Paving in Portuguese, urbanphoto.net Portuguese pavement and its histories The Portuguese Pavements Handbook, Direccção Nacional de Energia e Geologia