Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft and ductile metal with high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a pinkish-orange color. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper is one of the few metals; this led to early human use in several regions, from c. 8000 BC. Thousands of years it was the first metal to be smelted from sulfide ores, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c. 4000 BC and the first metal to be purposefully alloyed with another metal, tin, to create bronze, c. 3500 BC. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus, the origin of the name of the metal, from aes сyprium corrupted to сuprum, whence coper and copper, first used around 1530.
Encountered compounds are copper salts, which impart blue or green colors to such minerals as azurite and turquoise, have been used and as pigments. Copper used in buildings for roofing, oxidizes to form a green verdigris. Copper is sometimes used in decorative art, both in its elemental metal form and in compounds as pigments. Copper compounds are used as bacteriostatic agents and wood preservatives. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustaceans, copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. In humans, copper is found in the liver and bone; the adult body contains between 2.1 mg of copper per kilogram of body weight. Copper and gold are in group 11 of the periodic table; the filled d-shells in these elements contribute little to interatomic interactions, which are dominated by the s-electrons through metallic bonds.
Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in copper are lacking a covalent character and are weak. This observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of copper. At the macroscopic scale, introduction of extended defects to the crystal lattice, such as grain boundaries, hinders flow of the material under applied stress, thereby increasing its hardness. For this reason, copper is supplied in a fine-grained polycrystalline form, which has greater strength than monocrystalline forms; the softness of copper explains its high electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, second highest among pure metals at room temperature. This is because the resistivity to electron transport in metals at room temperature originates from scattering of electrons on thermal vibrations of the lattice, which are weak in a soft metal; the maximum permissible current density of copper in open air is 3.1×106 A/m2 of cross-sectional area, above which it begins to heat excessively. Copper is one of a few metallic elements with a natural color other than silver.
Pure copper acquires a reddish tarnish when exposed to air. The characteristic color of copper results from the electronic transitions between the filled 3d and half-empty 4s atomic shells – the energy difference between these shells corresponds to orange light; as with other metals, if copper is put in contact with another metal, galvanic corrosion will occur. Copper does not react with water, but it does react with atmospheric oxygen to form a layer of brown-black copper oxide which, unlike the rust that forms on iron in moist air, protects the underlying metal from further corrosion. A green layer of verdigris can be seen on old copper structures, such as the roofing of many older buildings and the Statue of Liberty. Copper tarnishes when exposed to some sulfur compounds, with which it reacts to form various copper sulfides. There are 29 isotopes of copper. 63Cu and 65Cu are stable, with 63Cu comprising 69% of occurring copper. The other isotopes are radioactive, with the most stable being 67Cu with a half-life of 61.83 hours.
Seven metastable isotopes have been characterized. Isotopes with a mass number above 64 decay by β−, whereas those with a mass number below 64 decay by β+. 64Cu, which has a half-life of 12.7 hours, decays both ways.62Cu and 64Cu have significant applications. 62Cu is used in 62Cu-PTSM as a radioactive tracer for positron emission tomography. Copper is produced in massive stars and is present in the Earth's crust in a proportion of about 50 parts per million. In nature, copper occurs in a variety of minerals, including native copper, copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite, digenite and chalcocite, copper sulfosalts such as tetrahedite-tennantite, enargite, copper carbonates such as azurite and malachite, as copper or copper oxides such as cuprite and tenorite, respectively; the largest mass of elemental copper discovered weighed 420 tonnes and was found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan, US. Native copper is a polycrystal, with the largest single
Joseph R. Brodsky known as Joseph Brodsky and Joe Brodsky, was an early 20th-Century American civil rights lawyer, political activist, general counsel of the International Labor Defense, co-founder of the International Juridical Association, member of ILD defense team for members of the Scottsboro Boys Case of the 1930s. According to Max Lowenthal, Brodsky was a partner in the law firm of a "Captain Hale." Other sources state that Brodsky was a partner with Carol Weiss King at Brodsky, King & Shorr in New York City. Others in their "loose partnership" of radical attorneys included Walter Nelles and Walter Pollak. Brodsky was general counsel of the International Labor Defense, an affiliate of the Communist Party of the United States; the ILD was a legal advocacy organization established in 1925 as the American section of the Comintern's International Red Aid network. The ILD defended Sacco and Vanzetti, was active in the anti-lynching, movements for civil rights, prominently participated in the defense and legal appeals in the cause célèbre of the Scottsboro Boys in the early 1930s.
Its work contributed to the appeal of the Communist Party among African Americans in the South. In addition to fundraising for defense and assisting in defense strategies, from January 1926 it published Labor Defender, a monthly illustrated magazine that achieved wide circulation. In 1946 the ILD was merged with the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties to form the Civil Rights Congress, which served as the new legal defense organization of the Communist Party USA. Carol Weiss King helped Brodsky served on its legal advisory committee. In 1931, nine Southern African-American youths–the "Scottsboro Boys"–were falsely accused of rape and sentenced to death in Alabama. Between April 6 and 9, all boys except Roy Wright were convicted; some of the boys retained George W. Sr. as new defense. In mid-April 1931, the International Labor Defense and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People stepped in to help. Brodsky sought first to hire Clarence Darrow. Brodsky worked hard to "wrest the case from the NAACP."
On June 22, 1931, the courts denied Brodsky's motion for a new trial. When he arrived to make his application, a "howling mob of lynchers" greeted him. In August 1931, Brodsky and Chamlee had to remain in the court building until a large crowd dispersed. At year's end, Brodsky led arguments, but on December 31, 1931, the Daily Worker newspaper published a statement for Scottsboro defendants that announced retainer of Chamlee and Brodsky as their attorneys. Upon Brodsky's arrival: He was met by a howling mob of lynchers. In his efforts to have the convictions set aside, Hawkins overruled Brodsky's request. Brodsky took exception to the judge's ruling, whereupon the judge overruled his exception. Brodsky countered with an exception to Hawkins' decision overruling his previous request to except; the judge became so angry. Ln all the confusion, Brodsky turned round, was seized by a husky man who said: "Come on, yah Jew bitch! We'11 show you how to defend nigger rapers." Former ILD chairman J. Louis Engdahl toured 26 European countries to raise support for the Scottsboro Boys.
In Chemnitz, two demonstrators were killed during protests. In the United States, "the Communist Party and the Young Communist League were the great stimulating forces which brought Scottsboro before the broad masses of organized labor. In cooperation with the ILD, the question of Negroes serving on juries was raised for the first time."On January 21, 1932, Chamlee and Irving Schwab appealed to the Alabama Supreme Court on all convictions. On March 24, 1932, the court affirms conviction of seven boys but reverses that of Eugene Williams as a minor. On May 31, 1932, the U. S. Supreme Court grants permission for leave to appeal to it. On October 10, 1932, Walter H. Pollak, argues before the U. S. Supreme Court. In 1933, the ILD brought in Samuel Leibowitz to Chamlee; the fact that Leibowitz was not a communist or radical but rather a mainstream Democrat underscored how serious Communists were to win the case. That said, Leibowitz did have to accept as co-counsel ILD chief attorney Joseph Brodsky. On March 27, 1933, Leibowitz opened his defense of Haywood Patterson, the first defendant retried, by challenging Alabama's exclusion of blacks from the jury rolls and tough cross-examination of whites.
On April 9, 1933, at the jury's guilty verdict of Patterson, Liebowitz compared the verdict to "the act of spitting on the tomb of Abraham Lincoln" and vowed to defend the defendants "until hell freezes over." On April 12, 1933, Leibowitz and Brodsky joined John Haynes Holmes, Arthur Garfield Hays, Roger Baldwin at a "Labor Defnese Meeting" in Union Square, New York City. On April 16, 1933, Brodsky filed a motion for new trial for Patterson, which the judge grants on June 22. In May 1933, Brodsky joined the ACLU's Arthur Garfield Hays and NAACP's Alexander Miller to meet faculty and students at Brooklyn College to discuss the case. In November 1933, third trials start for Patterson and Claren
Gretchen Stephanie Mendiola Espina is a Filipino singer and actress who rose to notability after winning Pinoy Idol, an interactive reality-based singing competition. Although she is credited as the first Pinoy Idol, Espina is technically the second winner of a Philippine Idol franchise, after Mau Marcelo of Philippine Idol in 2006, she came from the political family of Espinas of Biliran. Her father Rogelio Espina, is a former governor and the current representative of the lone district of Biliran, while her grandfather Gerardo Espina, Sr. is a former representative and mayor of Naval and her uncle Gerardo Espina, Jr is a former representative and current governor of Biliran. Espina came from a musically-inclined family, the prominent political family in Biliran, with her father, Congressman Dr. Rogelio "Roger" J. Espina, Representative of the Lone District of Biliran, described as a "good piano player and singer." Her mother, works as a pediatrician. Her uncle, Gerry Espina Jr. is the present Governor of Biliran.
Espina was born in Quezon City, Metro Manila, where she spent her early years studying in School of the Holy Spirit before transferring to Naval Central School where she finished elementary level with honors. She had her secondary education in Cathedral School of La Naval, where she graduated as a salutatorian. Espina pursued college in University of the Philippines Diliman campus in Quezon City, with a major in European Languages, she is a member of The University of the Philippines Singing Ambassadors and represented UP in the Inter-Collegiate Singing Contest held in Shantou University, China, where she won the first prize as a solo performer. She was in Philippine Idol's top 40, but was cut from getting into the top 24. Espina auditioned in SM Mall of Asia; this was despite her parents' disapproval of her auditioning because they wanted her to finish college first. News about Espina included was among 179 aspirants who passed the auditions was passed around in Biliran through SMS, she was never among the finalists with the lowest number of votes known as "The Bottom Group", during the competition.
The finale was described as a competition among the Philippines' three major island groups, with Espina representing Visayas while runners-up Jayann Bautista of Pampanga representing Luzon and Ram Chaves of Cagayan de Oro City representing Mindanao. After her win, she revealed that she would give P100,000 to each of her two runners-up as part of their agreement, she was slated to record her first single under Sony-BMG Philippines with "To You", the Pinoy Idol coronation song. On June 19, 2009, she was re-introduced after months of being away from the limelight due to a throat ailment she had gotten during her stint in Pinoy Idol last year, in the 59th Anniversary Celebration of GMA Network held at the Araneta Coliseum singing medley of songs. On July 5, 2009 she was welcomed as a new regular performer and co-host of the musical variety show SOP Rules. Espina's debut album entitled Shining Through was released on August 4, 2009 by Sony Music Philippines and 19 Recordings with the carrier single entitled "Kasalanan Nga Ba?" sung and owned by Thor, the theme song of the drama series Sine Novela: Tinik Sa Dibdib.
The album includes "To You", her "victory song" of Pinoy Idol. In 2010, Espina made her first acting debut in Diva as Debbie Romasanta, Tiffany's best friend and personal assistant who helps her to make Sam/Melody's life miserable. 2009: Shining Through 2008: Ogie Sings with the Idols