The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum; the museum is housed in the Louvre Palace built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the urban expansion of the city, the fortress lost its defensive function and, in 1546, was converted by Francis I into the main residence of the French Kings; the building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre as a place to display the royal collection, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons.
The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces; the museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801; the collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown through donations and bequests since the Third Republic; the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities. The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century to protect the city from English soldiers which were in Normandy.
Remnants of this castle are still visible in the crypt. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den. In the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her "Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris" to a monastery.. The Louvre Palace was altered throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in French Renaissance style. Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed. Four generations of Boulle were granted Royal patronage and resided in the Louvre in the following order: Pierre Boulle, Jean Boulle, Andre-Charles Boulle and his four sons, after him. André-Charles Boulle is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry known as "Inlay".
Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers". He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession". Before the fire of 1720 destroyed them, André-Charles Boulle held priceless works of art in the Louvre, including forty-eight drawings by Raphael'. By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery, with the art critic La Font de Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for a display of the royal collection. On 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. A hall was opened by Le Normant de Tournehem and the Marquis de Marigny for public viewing of the Tableaux du Roy on Wednesdays and Saturdays, contained Andrea del Sarto's Charity and works by Raphael. Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy; the comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the "French Museum".
Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution. During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection i
An amanuensis is a person employed to write or type what another dictates or to copy what has been written by another, refers to a person who signs a document on behalf of another under the latter's authority. The word originated in ancient Rome, for a slave at his master's personal service "within hand's reach", performing any command. In the Bible, the Apostle Paul is shown as the author of the Book of Romans. However, at the end of the book, Tertius describes himself as the scribe. A similar semantic evolution occurred at the French royal court, where the secrétaire de la main du roi a lowly clerk specializing in producing, at royal command, the Sovereign's signature on more documents than he cared to put his pen to, developed into the secrétaires d'état, the first permanent portfolio ministers, to which the British Secretaries of State would be the counterpart; the term is used interchangeably with secretary or scribe. It is used in a specific sense in some academic contexts, for instance when an injured or disabled person is helped by an amanuensis at a written examination.
A notable case in classical music was that of Eric Fenby, who assisted the blind composer Frederick Delius in writing down the notes that Delius dictated. In the Netherlands it refers to a physics or chemistry laboratory assistant responsible for preparing and assisting with laboratory demonstrations and maintaining the instruments; when employed as such in a school environment s/he will have the title of "TOA". In Norway, amanuensis is an academic rank of a lecturer with a doctorate. Førsteamanuensis is the equivalent of associate professor. In Sweden, amanuens is used to denote a teaching assistant at university who either continues with his own scientific work, or who works as an administrative assistant at the department where he or she studies; the title can be used for a civil servant at archives or museums. In Finland, amanuenssi is an administrative employee of a research institution. In universities, amanuenses can be involved with student guidance counseling, organising course activities etc.
In Finnish universities' schools of medicine, the title of "amanuenssi" is reserved for students working under guidance and supervision in hospitals, a mandatory part of medical studies. The term is used to describe one who assists an organist during a performance, by drawing and retiring stops, by turning pages, although the more common term is "registrant." Amanuensis is used in New Thought and mystical religious movements — such as Church Universal and Triumphant — to describe the role of a person receiving dictation from one of the Ascended Masters. For example, Mark L. Prophet — religious leader and founder of the Summit Lighthouse — wrote down the apparent words of AM El Morya as the former claimed to have received them through dictation. In doing so, Prophet served as El Morya's amanuensis. Certain employers use the term for manual labourers at the bottom of the hierarchy, for example as factotum. During the 19th and early 20th century, an amanuensis was the job title for male secretaries who were employed by the railroad or ship to be available for travelers who required services en route.
The title is used for officer positions in some collegiate debate and literary societies, including the Philodemic Society of Georgetown University. The Amanuensis records the official proceedings of these societies. A similar term, exists in German and Dutch; the term, handlanger, is used in Afrikaans, but without the criminal undertones. Non-English language sourcesBokmålsordboken Pauly-Wissowa Larousse English language sources The dictionary definition of amanuensis at Wiktionary quote, via Goodreads: "I'd be churched to death, bridge-partied to death, called upon to give book reviews at the Amanuensis Club, expected to become a part of the community, it takes a lot of what I don’t have to be a member of this wedding." ― Harper Lee, Go Set a Watchman
Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music. The Oxford Companion to Music describes three interrelated uses of the term "music theory": The first is what is otherwise called'rudiments' taught as the elements of notation, of key signatures, of time signatures, of rhythmic notation, so on; the second is the study of writings about music from ancient times onwards. The third is an area of current musicological study that seeks to define processes and general principles in music — a sphere of research that can be distinguished from analysis in that it takes as its starting-point not the individual work or performance but the fundamental materials from which it is built. Music theory is concerned with describing how musicians and composers make music, including tuning systems and composition methods among other topics; because of the ever-expanding conception of what constitutes music, a more inclusive definition could be that music theory is the consideration of any sonic phenomena, including silence, as they relate to music.
This is not an absolute guideline. However, this medieval discipline became the basis for tuning systems in centuries, it is included in modern scholarship on the history of music theory. Music theory as a practical discipline encompasses the methods and concepts composers and other musicians use in creating music; the development and transmission of music theory in this sense may be found in oral and written music-making traditions, musical instruments, other artifacts. For example, ancient instruments from Mesopotamia and prehistoric sites around the world reveal details about the music they produced and something of the musical theory that might have been used by their makers. In ancient and living cultures around the world, the deep and long roots of music theory are visible in instruments, oral traditions, current music making. Many cultures, at least as far back as ancient Mesopotamia and ancient China, have considered music theory in more formal ways such as written treatises and music notation.
Practical and scholarly traditions overlap, as many practical treatises about music place themselves within a tradition of other treatises, which are cited just as scholarly writing cites earlier research. In modern academia, music theory is a subfield of musicology, the wider study of musical cultures and history. Etymologically, music theory is an act of contemplation of music, from the Greek θεωρία, a looking at, contemplation, theory a sight, a spectacle; as such, it is concerned with abstract musical aspects such as tuning and tonal systems, scales and dissonance, rhythmic relationships, but there is a body of theory concerning practical aspects, such as the creation or the performance of music, ornamentation and electronic sound production. A person who researches, teaches, or writes articles about music theory is a music theorist. University study to the M. A. or Ph. D level, is required to teach as a tenure-track music theorist in Canadian university. Methods of analysis include mathematics, graphic analysis, analysis enabled by Western music notation.
Comparative, descriptive and other methods are used. Music theory textbooks in the United States of America include elements of musical acoustics, considerations of musical notation, techniques of tonal composition, among other topics. Preserved prehistoric instruments and depictions of performance in artworks can give clues to the structure of pitch systems in prehistoric cultures. See for instance Paleolithic flutes, Gǔdí, Anasazi flute. Several surviving Sumerian and Akkadian clay tablets include musical information of a theoretical nature lists of intervals and tunings; the scholar Sam Mirelman reports that the earliest of these texts dates from before 1500 BCE, a millennium earlier than surviving evidence from any other culture of comparable musical thought. Further, "All the Mesopotamian texts are united by the use of a terminology for music that, according to the approximate dating of the texts, was in use for over 1,000 years." Much of Chinese music history and theory remains unclear.
The earliest texts about Chinese music theory are inscribed on the stone and bronze bells excavated in 1978 from the tomb of Marquis Yi of the Zeng state. They include more than 2800 words describing practices of music pitches of the time; the bells produce two intertwined pentatonic scales three tones apart with additional pitches completing the chromatic scale. Chinese theory starts from numbers, the main musical numbers being twelve and eight. Twelve refers to the number of pitches; the Lüshi chunqiu from about 239 BCE recalls the legend of Ling Lun. On order of the Yellow Emperor, Ling Lun collected twelve bamboo lengths with thick and nodes. Blowing on one of these like a pipe, he found its sound agreeable and named it huangzhong, the "Yellow Bell." He heard phoenixes singing. The male and female phoenix each sang six tones. Ling Lun cut his bamboo pipes to match the pitches of the phoenixes, producing twelve pitch pipes in two sets: six from the male phoenix and six from the female: these were called the lülü or the shierlü.
The lülü formed the ritual scale to which
MuseScore is a scorewriter for Windows, macOS, Linux, comparable to Finale and Sibelius, supporting a wide variety of file formats and input methods. It is released as open-source software under the GNU General Public License. MuseScore is accompanied by a freemium smartphone score viewer and playback app, an online score sharing platform. MuseScore's main purpose is the creation of high-quality engraved musical scores in a "What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get" environment, it supports unlimited staves, linked parts and part extraction, tablature, MIDI input and output, percussion notation, cross-staff beaming, automatic transposition, fretboard diagrams, in general everything used in sheet music. Style options to change the appearance and layout are available, style sheets can be saved and applied to other scores. There are pre-defined templates for many types of ensembles. Functionality can be extended by making use of the many available plugins. MuseScore can play back scores through the built-in sequencer and SoundFont sample library.
Multiple SoundFonts can be loaded into MuseScore's synthesizer. There is a mixer to mute, solo, or adjust the volume of individual parts, chorus and other effects are supported during playback. MIDI output to external devices and software synthesizers is possible. MuseScore can import and export to many formats, though some are export only and some are import only. MuseScore's native file formats are.mscz, a compressed file containing the score and other media, and.mscx, XML data that can be found in.mscz files. The.mscz format is preferred, as it uses less space and can support images. MuseScore can import and export both compressed and uncompressed MusicXML files, which allows a score to be opened up in other music notation programs, it can import and export MIDI, supported by many other programs, although since MIDI is not designed for sheet music, most score notations are lost. MuseScore can import certain other music software's native formats, including Band-in-a-Box, Bagpipe Music Writer, Guitar Pro and Overture formats.
It can import MuseData, superseded by MusicXML. Audio can be exported to WAV, FLAC, MP3, OGG files, graphical representations of scores can be exported to PDF, SVG, PNG formats, and/or printed directly; the MuseScore Save Online feature allows MuseScore users to publish and share their music online through MuseScore.com. The service allows paying subscribers to share unlimited scores. Free accounts are available, but users are limited to uploading five scores; the MuseScore Start Center displays featured scores from the website. MuseScore.com allows playback of a score in any browser supporting the HTML5 audio tag. A score can be linked to Youtube, so that one may follow the sheet music while watching a video featuring that score. Since May 2014 MuseScore has mobile apps available for iOS and Android which tie into the MuseScore score sharing site; the app can play scores, allows changing of transposition and part extraction, but does not allow creating or editing scores. There is a paid-for version with more features.
MuseScore runs as a PortableApps.com portable application. It can be installed onto a regular hard disk drive or stored on a removable storage device such as a CD, USB flash drive or flash card, so that it can be run on any compatible Windows computer system. MuseScore was created as a fork of the MusE sequencer's codebase. At that time, MusE included notation capabilities and in 2002, Werner Schweer, one of the MusE developers, decided to remove notation support from MusE and fork the code into a stand-alone notation program. Since MuseScore has been under constant active development; the musescore.org website was created in 2008, showed a rising number of MuseScore downloads. By December 2008, the download rate was up to 15,000 monthly downloads. Version 0.9.5 was released in August 2009, stable enough for daily or production use. By October 2009, MuseScore had been downloaded more than one thousand times per day. By the fourth quarter of 2010, the number of MuseScore daily downloads had tripled again, was downloaded 80,000 times per month.
MuseScore 1.0 was released in February 2011. Development has been continuous since then. At the end of 2013, the project moved from SourceForge to GitHub, continuous download statistics have not been publicly available since but in March 2015 a press release stated that MuseScore had been downloaded over eight million times, in December 2016 the project stated that version 2.0.3 had been downloaded 1.9 million times in the nine months since its release. MuseScore 0.9.5 was released in August 2009. This was the first stable version, as well as the first version to support Mac OS X. MuseScore 0.9.6 was released in June 2010. This version introduced many new features, including out-of-the-box support for playback of all instruments based on the General MIDI standard, support for multimeasure rests, initial support for custom key signatures, the "Save Online" feature connecting to sheet music sharing site musescore.com. MuseScore 1.0 was released in February 2011. The milestone release focused on delivering a stable package rather than adding new features to the prerelease versions.
MuseScore 1.1 was released in July 2011, fixing around 60 bugs and featuring
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in classical music, he remains one of the most recognised and influential of all composers, his best-known compositions include 9 symphonies. His career as a composer is conventionally divided into early and late periods. Beethoven was born in Bonn the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of the Holy Roman Empire, he displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe. At the age of 21 he moved to Vienna, where he began studying composition with Joseph Haydn and gained a reputation as a virtuoso pianist, he lived in Vienna until his death. By his late 20s his hearing began to deteriorate and by the last decade of his life he was completely deaf. In 1811 he continued to compose. Beethoven was the grandson of Ludwig van Beethoven, a musician from the town of Mechelen in the Austrian Duchy of Brabant who had moved to Bonn at the age of 21.
Ludwig was employed as a bass singer at the court of the Elector of Cologne rising to become, in 1761, Kapellmeister and thereafter the pre-eminent musician in Bonn. The portrait he commissioned of himself towards the end of his life remained displayed in his grandson's rooms as a talisman of his musical heritage. Ludwig had one son, who worked as a tenor in the same musical establishment and gave keyboard and violin lessons to supplement his income. Johann married Maria Magdalena Keverich in 1767. Beethoven was born of this marriage in Bonn. There is no authentic record of the date of his birth; as children of that era were traditionally baptised the day after birth in the Catholic Rhine country, it is known that Beethoven's family and his teacher Johann Albrechtsberger celebrated his birthday on 16 December, most scholars accept 16 December 1770 as his date of birth. Of the seven children born to Johann van Beethoven, only Ludwig, the second-born, two younger brothers survived infancy. Kaspar Anton Karl was born on 8 April 1774, Nikolaus Johann, the youngest, was born on 2 October 1776.
Beethoven's first music teacher was his father. He had other local teachers: the court organist Gilles van den Eeden, Tobias Friedrich Pfeiffer, Franz Rovantini. From the outset his tuition regime, which began in his fifth year, was harsh and intensive reducing him to tears, his musical talent was obvious at a young age. Johann, aware of Leopold Mozart's successes in this area, attempted to promote his son as a child prodigy, claiming that Beethoven was six on the posters for his first public performance in March 1778; some time after 1779, Beethoven began his studies with his most important teacher in Bonn, Christian Gottlob Neefe, appointed the Court's Organist in that year. Neefe taught him composition, by March 1783 had helped him write his first published composition: a set of keyboard variations. Beethoven soon began working with Neefe as assistant organist, at first unpaid, as a paid employee of the court chapel conducted by the Kapellmeister Andrea Luchesi, his first three piano sonatas, named "Kurfürst" for their dedication to the Elector Maximilian Friedrich, were published in 1783.
Maximilian Frederick noticed his talent early, subsidised and encouraged the young man's musical studies. Maximilian Frederick's successor as the Elector of Bonn was Maximilian Francis, the youngest son of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, he brought notable changes to Bonn. Echoing changes made in Vienna by his brother Joseph, he introduced reforms based on Enlightenment philosophy, with increased support for education and the arts; the teenage Beethoven was certainly influenced by these changes. He may have been influenced at this time by ideas prominent in freemasonry, as Neefe and others around Beethoven were members of the local chapter of the Order of the Illuminati. In December 1786, Beethoven travelled to Vienna, at his employer's expense, for the first time in the hope of studying with Mozart; the details of their relationship are uncertain, including whether they met. Having learned that his mother was ill, Beethoven returned to Bonn in May 1787, his mother died shortly thereafter, his father lapsed deeper into alcoholism.
As a result, he became responsible for the care of his two younger brothers, spent the next five years in Bonn. He was introduced in these years to several people. Franz Wegeler, a young medical student, intro
Music notation or musical notation is any system used to visually represent aurally perceived music played with instruments or sung by the human voice through the use of written, printed, or otherwise-produced symbols. Types and methods of notation have varied between cultures and throughout history, much information about ancient music notation is fragmentary. In the same time period, such as in the 2010s, different styles of music and different cultures use different music notation methods; the symbols used include ancient symbols and modern symbols made upon any media such as symbols cut into stone, made in clay tablets, made using a pen on papyrus or parchment or manuscript paper. Although many ancient cultures used symbols to represent melodies and rhythms, none of them were comprehensive, this has limited today's understanding of their music; the seeds of what would become modern western notation were sown in medieval Europe, starting with the Catholic Church's goal for ecclesiastical uniformity.
The church began notating plainchant melodies so that the same chants could be used throughout the church. Music notation developed further in the Baroque music eras. In the classical period and the Romantic music era, notation continued to develop as new musical instrument technologies were developed. In the contemporary classical music of the 20th and 21st century, music notation has continued to develop, with the introduction of graphical notation by some modern composers and the use, since the 1980s, of computer-based score writer programs for notating music. Music notation has been adapted to many kinds of music, including classical music, popular music, traditional music; the earliest form of musical notation can be found in a cuneiform tablet, created at Nippur, in Babylonia, in about 1400 BC. The tablet represents fragmentary instructions for performing music, that the music was composed in harmonies of thirds, that it was written using a diatonic scale. A tablet from about 1250 BC shows a more developed form of notation.
Although the interpretation of the notation system is still controversial, it is clear that the notation indicates the names of strings on a lyre, the tuning of, described in other tablets. Although they are fragmentary, these tablets represent the earliest notated melodies found anywhere in the world. Ancient Greek musical notation was in use from at least the 6th century BC until the 4th century AD; the notation consists of symbols placed above text syllables. An example of a complete composition is the Seikilos epitaph, variously dated between the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. Three hymns by Mesomedes of Crete exist in manuscript; the Delphic Hymns, dated to the 2nd century BC use this notation, but they are not preserved. Ancient Greek notation appears to have fallen out of use around the time of the Decline of the Western Roman Empire. Byzantine music has survived as music for court ceremonies, including vocal religious music, it is not known if it is based on the monodic modal singing and instrumental music of Ancient Greece.
Greek theoretical categories played a key role to understand and transmit Byzantine music the tradition of Damascus had a strong impact on the pre-Islamic Near East comparable to Persian music. Unlike Western notation Byzantine neumes always indicate modal steps in relation to a clef or modal key; this key or the incipit of a common melody was enough to indicate a certain melodic model given within the echos. Despite ekphonetic notation further early melodic notation developed not earlier than between the 9th and the 10th century. Like the Greek alphabet notational signs are ordered left to right; the question of rhythm was based on cheironomia, well-known melodical phrases given by gestures of the choirleaders, which existed once as part of an oral tradition. Today the main difference between Western and Eastern neumes is that Eastern notation symbols are differential rather than absolute, i.e. they indicate pitch steps, the musicians know to deduce from the score and the note they are singing presently, which correct interval is meant.
These step symbols themselves, or better "phonic neumes", resemble brush strokes and are colloquially called gántzoi in Modern Greek. Notes as pitch classes or modal keys are represented in written form only between these neumes. In modern notation they serve as an optional reminder and modal and tempo directions have been added, if necessary. In Papadic notation medial signatures meant a temporary change into another echos; the so-called "great signs" were once related to cheironomic signs. Since Chrysanthos of Madytos there are seven standard note names used for "solfège" pá, vú, ghá, dhē, ké, zō, nē, while the older practice still used t