Brand awareness refers to the extent to which customers are able to recall or recognise a brand. Brand awareness is a key consideration in consumer behavior, advertising management, brand management and strategy development; the consumer's ability to recognise or recall a brand is central to purchasing decision-making. Purchasing cannot proceed unless a consumer is first aware of a product category and a brand within that category. Awareness does not mean that the consumer must be able to recall a specific brand name, but he or she must be able to recall sufficient distinguishing features for purchasing to proceed. For instance, if a consumer asks her friend to buy her some gum in a "blue pack", the friend would be expected to know which gum to buy though neither friend can recall the precise brand name at the time. Different types of brand awareness have been identified, namely brand recognition. Key researchers argue that these different types of awareness operate in fundamentally different ways and that this has important implications for the purchase decision process and for marketing communications.
Brand awareness is related to concepts such as the evoked set and consideration set which describe specific aspects of the consumer's purchase decision. Consumers are believed to hold between three and seven brands in their consideration set across a broad range of product categories. Consumers will purchase one of the top three brands in their consideration set. Brand awareness is a key indicator of a brand's competitive market performance. Given the importance of brand awareness in consumer purchasing decisions, marketers have developed a number of metrics designed to measure brand awareness and other measures of brand health; these metrics are collectively known as Awareness and Usage metrics. To ensure a product or brand's market success, awareness levels must be managed across the entire product life-cycle - from product launch through to market decline. Many marketers monitor brand awareness levels, if they fall below a predetermined threshold, the advertising and promotional effort is intensified until awareness returns to the desired level.
Brand awareness is related to the functions of brand identities in consumers’ memory and can be measured by how well the consumers can identify the brand under various conditions. Brand awareness is central to understanding the consumer purchase decision process. Strong brand awareness can be a predictor of brand success, it is an important measure of brand strength or brand equity and is involved in customer satisfaction, brand loyalty and the customer's brand relationships. Brand awareness is a key indicator of a brand's market performance; every year advertisers invest substantial sums of money attempting to improve a brand's overall awareness levels. Many marketers monitor brand awareness levels, if they fall below a predetermined threshold, the advertising and promotional effort is intensified until awareness returns to the desired level. Setting brand awareness goals/ objectives is a key decision in marketing planning and strategy development. Brand awareness is one of major brand assets that adds value to the service or company.
Investments in building brand awareness can lead to sustainable competitive advantages, leading to long-term value. Marketers identify two distinct types of brand awareness; these types of awareness operate in different ways with important implications for marketing strategy and advertising. Brand recall is known as unaided recall or spontaneous recall and refers to the ability of the consumers to elicit a brand name from memory when prompted by a product category. Brand recall indicates a strong link between a category and a brand while brand recognition indicates a weaker link; when prompted by a product category, most consumers can only recall a small set of brands around 3–5 brand names. In consumer tests, few consumers can recall more than seven brand names within a given category and for low-interest product categories, most consumers can only recall one or two brand names. Research suggests that the number of brands that consumers can recall is affected by both individual and product factors including.
For instance, consumers who are involved with a category, such as heavy users or product enthusiasts, may be able to recall a larger set of brand names than those who are less involved. Brand recognition is known as aided recall and refers to the ability of the consumers to differentiate the brand when they come into contact with it; this does not require that the consumers identify the brand name. Instead, it means that consumers can recognise the brand when presented with it at the point-of-sale or after viewing its visual packaging. In contrast to brand recall, where few consumers are able to spontaneously recall brand names within a given category, when prompted with a brand name, a larger number of consumers are able to recognise it. Consumers will purchase one of the top three brands in their consideration set; this is known as top-of-mind awareness. One of the goals for most marketing communications is to increase the probability that consumers will include the brand in their consideration sets.
By definition, top-of-mind awareness is "the first brand that comes to mind when a customer is asked an unprompted question about a category." When discussing top-of-mind awareness among larger groups of consumers (as opposed to a
Marketing communications uses different marketing channels and tools in combination: Marketing communication channels focus on any way a business communicates a message to its desired market, or the market in general. A marketing communication tool can be anything from: advertising, personal selling, direct marketing, sponsorship and promotion to public relations. MC are made up of the marketing mix, made up of 4P's: Price, Promotion and Product, for a business selling goods, made up of 7P's: Price, Place, People, Physical evidence and Process, for a service based business. Marketing communications includes advertising, sales and online promotion; the process allows the public to understand a brand. Successful branding involves targeting audiences who appreciate the organization's marketing program. Advertising is a important part of marketing communications, it is commonly called the promotional mix. Crosier states that all terms have the same meaning in the context of the 4ps: Product, price and promotion.
Price can send a message to the target audience. For example, comparing a $50 bag to a $10 bag, the former may be viewed as a luxury or more durable item; the marketing plan identifies key opportunities, threats and strengths, sets objectives and develops an action plan to achieve marketing goals. Each section of the 4P's sets its own object; this creates a significant change in the market because more people of the target market would aim to do business with your organization than your competitors, because pricing is one of the most significant aspects of marketing that can change the whole market positively and or negatively. Communication barriers: Communication barriers are factors that hinder the objectives of a marketing communication. Major communication barriers are: Noise and clutter, consumer apathy, brand parity and weak creative ideas or strategies. Noise is an unrelated sensory stimulus. Clutter is the high concentration of advertisements presented to a consumer at any time; as attention cannot be divided, there is a limit to how much can be taken in and processed, which means that a strong marketing communication needs to stand out from the clutter and be heard above the noise.
Consumer apathy is the tendency of a consumer to avoid marketing communications. The consumer may not be interested, or consider themselves "in the market," and as such attempt to shut out the irrelevant marketing stimuli. Alternatively, a consumer may be "in the market," yet not be aware of the brand or products existence or prevalence. Consumers tend to purchase familiar brands, will not be inspired to investigate alternatives. One approach marketers use to overcome apathy is to create incentives, such as competitive pricing or loyalty rewards. Brand parity means a brand is not different from its competition. Without a distinct value proposition, consumers do not develop brand preference or associations, instead purchase purely based on price; this is not ideal. One important objective of marketing communications is to develop a strong, unique brand identity that allows the brand to be positioned separate from its competition. Marketing mix is the most important part of marketing strategy, "the framework to manage marketing and incorporate it within a business context".
Marketing strategy: how a business achieves their marketing objectives. The initial step to achieve a marketing strategy is to identify the market target and build up a plan that the business can implement. Communication is one important aspect of the marketing mix. Marketing communication is the largest component of communication within a company, which may be to present company values, objectives or specific products and services to investors, customers or the general public. In the 21st century, communications objectives focus on more customized messages, targeting customer groups or individuals to create high responses and greater brand interaction; as business becomes global with greater access to Internet, mobile phones and social media, new challenges exist to inform people in targeted foreign markets. Shifts in the global economy and access to new markets lead to greater demands for product shipping and associated services. To be effective, communication strategies must converge with marketing objectives while accounting for local languages and cultural norms.
External communications might involve market research questionnaires, office website, company annual report and presentations for investors. Internal communication can be the marketing materials, price list, product catalogues, sales presentations and management communications. On the other hand, each market demands different types of communications. For example, the industrial market demands a more personal communication but the consumer market demands non-personal communication. There are 4 different fundamental types of communication. One-to-many: this kind of communic
A brochure is an informative paper document that can be folded into a template, pamphlet or leaflet. A brochure can be a set of related unfolded papers put into a pocket folder or packet. Brochures are promotional documents used to introduce a company, products or services and inform prospective customers or members of the public of the benefits. Brochures are distributed in many different ways: as newspaper inserts, handed out by mail or placed in brochure racks in high traffic locations in tourist precincts, they may be considered as grey literature. A brochure is folded and only includes summary information, promotional in character. A brochure is folded and only includes summary information, promotional in character. A booklet is several sheets of paper with a cardstock cover and bound with staples, string or plastic binding. In contrast, a single piece of unfolded paper is called an insert, flyer or bulletin. Brochures available in electronic format are called e-brochures; this format has the added benefit of unlimited distribution and cost savings when compared to traditional paper brochures.
The most common types of single-sheet brochures are the tri-fold. A bi-fold brochure results in four panels. Other brochure fold arrangements are possible: the accordion or "z-fold" method, the "c-fold" method, etc. Larger sheets, such as those with detailed maps or expansive photo spreads, are folded into four, five, or six panels; when two card fascia are affixed to the outer panels of the z-folded brochure. Booklet brochures are made of multiple sheets most saddle-stitched, stapled on the creased edge, or perfect bound like a paperback book, result in eight or more panels. Brochures and leaflets are edited to promote an organization or business, to sell a service or product, raise awareness or to champion a cause. Editors will be clear who they are trying to define their target audience, they will be conscious of skillful layout and design aimed at attracting the attention of their readers. Brochures are printed using four-color process on thick, glossy paper to give an impression of quality.
Businesses may print small quantities of brochures on a computer printer or on a digital printer, but offset printing turns out higher quantities at a lower cost per unit. Compared with a flyer, a brochure uses higher-quality paper, more color, is folded. Propaganda Marketing Brochure
A billboard is a large outdoor advertising structure found in high-traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Billboards present large advertisements to passing drivers. Showing witty slogans and distinctive visuals, billboards are visible in the top designated market areas; the largest ordinary-sized billboards are located on major highways, expressways or principal arterials, command high-density consumer exposure. These afford greatest visibility due not only to their size, but because they allow creative "customizing" through extensions and embellishments. Posters are the other common form of billboard advertising, located along primary and secondary arterial roads. Posters are a smaller format and are viewed principally by residents and commuter traffic, with some pedestrian exposure. Billboard advertisements are designed to catch a person's attention and create a memorable impression quickly, leaving the reader thinking about the advertisement after they have driven past it, they have to be readable in a short time because they are read while being passed at high speeds.
Thus there are only a few words, in large print, a humorous or arresting image in brilliant color. Some billboard designs spill outside the actual space given to them by the billboard, with parts of figures hanging off the billboard edges or jutting out of the billboard in three dimensions. An example in the United States around the turn of the 21st century was the Chick-fil-A billboards, which had three-dimensional cow figures in the act of painting the billboards with misspelled anti-beef slogans such as "frendz don't let frendz eat beef." The first "scented billboard", an outdoor sign emitting the odors of black pepper and charcoal to suggest a grilled steak, was erected on NC 150 near Mooresville, North Carolina by the Bloom grocery chain. The sign depicted a giant cube of beef being pierced by a large fork; the scents were emitted between 7–10 am and 4–7 pm from 28 May 2010 through 18 June 2010. All these billboards were painted in large studios; the image was projected on the series of paper panels.
Line drawings were done traced with a pounce wheel that created perforated lines. The patterns were "pounced" onto the board with a chalk filled pounce bag, marking the outlines of the figures or objects. Using oil paints, artists would use large brushes to paint the image. Once the panels were installed using hydraulic cranes, artists would go up on the installed billboard and touch up the edges between panels; these large, painted billboards were popular in Los Angeles where historic firms such as Foster & Kleiser and Pacific Outdoor Advertising dominated the industry. These painted billboards gave way to graphic reproduction, but hand-painted billboards are still in use in some areas where only a single board or two is required; the "Sunset Strip" in Los Angeles is one area where hand-painted billboards can still be found to advertise upcoming films or albums. A digital billboard is a billboard that shows varying imagery and text created from computer programs and software. Digital billboards can be designed to display running text, display several different displays from the same company, provide several companies a certain time slot during the day.
The changing texts ensure maximum impact and wide exposure to target audiences. The ability to schedule advertisements remotely, in combination with flexible real-time scheduling, has allowed for a decrease in traditional upkeep and maintenance costs. Additionally, digital billboards are continually integrating with real-time advertisement technologies to measure audiences or serve dynamic content. In January 2015, Ooh! Media launched a campaign with Porsche that detected incoming Porsche cars and displayed a dynamic piece of relevant content to Porsche drivers. In May 2014, Beck's Beer released a billboard poster. Conductive ink linked to sensors and speakers means that when touched, the poster begins to play music; the beer company claim it to be'the world's first playable music poster'. However, Agency Republic released the Spotify Powered Interactive Music Poster in April 2012. Creative agency, Grey London collaborated on a interactive poster using touch sensitive inks in April 2014. Outdoor Advertising, such as a mobile billboard, is effective.
According to a UK national survey, it is memorable. Capitol Communications Group found that 81.7% of those polled recalled images they saw on a moving multi-image sign. This is compared to a 19% retention rate for static signs. Unlike a typical billboard, mobile billboards are able to go directly to their target audience, they can be placed wherever there is heavy foot traffic due to an event – including convention centers, train stations and sports arenas. They can repeat routes, ensuring that an advertiser's message is not only noticed, but that information is retained through repetition. Billboards may be multi-purpose. An advertising sign can integrate its main purpose with telecommunications antenna or public lighting support; the structure has a steel pole with a coupling flange on the above-fitted advertising billboard structure that can contain telecommunications antennas. The lighting and any antennas are placed inside the structure. Common along highways are free-standing two-sided as well as three-sided billboards.
Other types of billboards include the billboard bicycle attached to the back of a bicycle or the mobile billboard, a special advertising
Radio is the technology of signalling or communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 300 gigahertz, they are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, by measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth.
In wireless remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device. Applications of radio waves which do not involve transmitting the waves significant distances, such as RF heating used in industrial processes and microwave ovens, medical uses such as diathermy and MRI machines, are not called radio; the noun radio is used to mean a broadcast radio receiver. Radio waves were first identified and studied by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in 1886; the first practical radio transmitters and receivers were developed around 1895-6 by Italian Guglielmo Marconi, radio began to be used commercially around 1900. To prevent interference between users, the emission of radio waves is regulated by law, coordinated by an international body called the International Telecommunications Union, which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses. Radio waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration.
They are generated artificially by time varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing back and forth in a metal conductor called an antenna. In transmission, a transmitter generates an alternating current of radio frequency, applied to an antenna; the antenna radiates the power in the current as radio waves. When the waves strike the antenna of a radio receiver, they push the electrons in the metal back and forth, inducing a tiny alternating current; the radio receiver connected to the receiving antenna detects this oscillating current and amplifies it. As they travel further from the transmitting antenna, radio waves spread out so their signal strength decreases, so radio transmissions can only be received within a limited range of the transmitter, the distance depending on the transmitter power, antenna radiation pattern, receiver sensitivity, noise level, presence of obstructions between transmitter and receiver. An omnidirectional antenna transmits or receives radio waves in all directions, while a directional antenna or high gain antenna transmits radio waves in a beam in a particular direction, or receives waves from only one direction.
Radio waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light, in air at close to the speed of light, so the wavelength of a radio wave, the distance in meters between adjacent crests of the wave, is inversely proportional to its frequency. In radio communication systems, information is carried across space using radio waves. At the sending end, the information to be sent is converted by some type of transducer to a time-varying electrical signal called the modulation signal; the modulation signal may be an audio signal representing sound from a microphone, a video signal representing moving images from a video camera, or a digital signal consisting of a sequence of bits representing binary data from a computer. The modulation signal is applied to a radio transmitter. In the transmitter, an electronic oscillator generates an alternating current oscillating at a radio frequency, called the carrier wave because it serves to "carry" the information through the air; the information signal is used to modulate the carrier, varying some aspect of the carrier wave, impressing the information on the carrier.
Different radio systems use different modulation methods: AM - in an AM transmitter, the amplitude of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FM - in an FM transmitter, the frequency of the radio carrier wave is varied by the modulation signal. FSK - used in wireless digital devices to transmit digital signals, the frequency of the carrier wave is shifted periodically between two frequencies that represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1, to transmit a sequence of bits. OFDM - a family of complicated digital modulation methods widely used in high bandwidth systems such as WiFi networks, digital television broadcasting, digital audio broadcasting to transmit digital data using a minimum of radio spectrum bandwidth. OFDM has higher spectral efficiency and more resistance to fading than AM or FM. Multiple radio carrier waves spaced in frequency are transmitted within the radio channel, with each carrier modulated with bits from the incoming bitstream
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information. It is the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver and display the content for the same; the word "publisher" can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, blogs, video game publishers, the like. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing, printing and distribution. Publication is important as a legal concept: As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation.
Self-publishing: The author has to meet the total expense to get the book published. The author should retain full rights known as vanity publishing. Publishing became possible with the invention of writing, became more practical upon the introduction of printing. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development of books; the Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Around 1450, in what is regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould; this invention made books less expensive to produce, more available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. "A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.
D. 330."Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with publishing of magazines following in 1663. Publishing has been handled by publishers, with the history of self-publishing progressing until the advent of computers brought us electronic publishing, made evermore ubiquitous from the moment the world went online with the Internet; the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 soon propelled the website into a dominant medium of publishing, as websites are created by anyone with Internet access. The history of wikis started shortly thereafter, followed by the history of blogging. Commercial publishing progressed, as printed forms developed into online forms of publishing, distributing online books, online newspapers, online magazines. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the technological convergence of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of multimedia content.
Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying on commissioned material, but as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the majority come from unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review; the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process are dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication.
Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent; this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and n
Lyrics are words that make up a song consisting of verses and choruses. The writer of lyrics is a lyricist; the words to an extended musical composition such as an opera are, however known as a "libretto" and their writer, as a "librettist". The meaning of lyrics can either be implicit; some lyrics are abstract unintelligible, and, in such cases, their explication emphasizes form, articulation and symmetry of expression. Rappers can create lyrics that are meant to be spoken rhythmically rather than sung. "Lyric" derives via Latin lyricus from the adjectival form of lyre. It first appeared in English in the mid-16th century in reference, to the Earl of Surrey's translations of Petrarch and to his own sonnets. Greek lyric poetry had been defined by the manner in which it was sung accompanied by the lyre or cithara, as opposed to the chanted formal epics or the more passionate elegies accompanied by the flute; the personal nature of many of the verses of the Nine Lyric Poets led to the present sense of "lyric poetry" but the original Greek sense—words set to music—eventually led to its use as "lyrics", first attested in Stainer and Barrett's 1876 Dictionary of Musical Terms.
Stainer and Barrett used the word as a singular substantive: "Lyric, poetry or blank verse intended to be set to music and sung". By the 1930s, the present use of the plurale tantum "lyrics" had begun; the singular form "lyric" is still used to mean the complete words to a song by authorities such as Alec Wilder, Robert Gottlieb, Stephen Sondheim. However, the singular form is commonly used to refer to a specific line within a song's lyrics; the differences between poem and song may become less meaningful where verse is set to music, to the point that any distinction becomes untenable. This is recognised in the way popular songs have lyrics. However, the verse may pre-date its tune, or the tune may be lost over time but the words survive, matched by a number of different tunes. Possible classifications proliferate. Nursery rhymes may be songs, or doggerel: the term doesn't imply a distinction; the ghazal is a sung form, considered poetic. See rapping, roots of hip hop music. Analogously, verse drama might be judged as poetry, but not consisting of poems.
In Baroque music and their lyrics were prose. Rather than paired lines they consist of rhetorical sentences or paragraphs consisting of an opening gesture, an amplification, a close. For example: When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child. - 1 Corinthians 13:11 In the lyrics of popular music a "shifter" is a word a pronoun, "where reference varies according to, speaking and where", such as "I", "you", "my", "our". For example, the "my" of "My Generation"? See RoyaltiesCurrently, there are many websites featuring song lyrics; this offering, however, is controversial, since some sites include copyrighted lyrics offered without the holder's permission. The U. S. Music Publishers' Association, which represents sheet music companies, launched a legal campaign against such websites in December 2005; the MPA's president, Lauren Keiser, said the free lyrics web sites are "completely illegal" and wanted some website operators jailed. Lyrics licenses could be obtained worldwide through one of the two aggregators: LyricFind and Musixmatch.
The first company to provide licensed lyrics was Yahoo! followed by MetroLyrics and Lyrics.com. More and more lyric websites are beginning to provide licensed lyrics, such as SongMeanings and LyricWiki. Many competing lyrics web sites are still offering unlicensed content, causing challenges around the legality and accuracy of lyrics. In the latest attempt to crack down unlicensed lyrics web sites a federal court has ordered LiveUniverse, a network of websites run by MySpace co-founder Brad Greenspan, to cease operating four sites offering unlicensed song lyrics. Lyrics can be studied from an academic perspective. For example, some lyrics can be considered a form of social commentary. Lyrics contain political and economic themes—as well as aesthetic elements—and so can communicate culturally significant messages; these messages implied through metaphor or symbolism. Lyrics can be analyzed with respect to the sense of unity it has with its supporting music. Analysis based on tonality and contrast are particular examples.
Former Oxford Professor of Poetry Christopher Ricks famously published Dylan's Visions of Sin, an in-depth and characteristically Ricksian analysis of the lyrics of Bob Dylan. A 2009 report published by McAfee found that, in terms of potential exposure to malware, lyrics-related searches and searches containing the word "free" are the most to have risky results from search engines, both in terms of average risk of all results, maximum risk o