Transportation in South Florida
As of the 2010 US Census, South Florida is both the eighth most populous and eighth most densely populated metropolitan area in the United States. Now, with a population of five and a half million people living in an urbanized area of only 1,116.1 sq mi. According to the population as of the 2010 US Census, the 35, for example, a very low percentage of the areas office space is located in the Central Business District of Miami. Additionally, there has been very little transit-oriented development, transit access between people and jobs in the city and region remains limited. Transport in South Florida is largely dominated by roads and highways, after it was built, it was derogatorily referred to as Metrofail due to low ridership, cost overruns, and an inability to finish what was supposed to be a 50-mile system. The system slowly gained ridership, but only at a rate comparable to population increases, in South Florida, there are two Florida Department of Transportation districts and three Metropolitan Planning Organizations.
Florida has no income tax, but has more toll road mileage than any other state. Although it directly connects to the Metrorail system at two stations, nearly 80% of the ridership is through direct boardings and this mode alone would suggest at least 15% of the downtown-area population uses transit. Historically, Metromover ridership remained fairly steady from 1995 to 2002, after this, ridership spiked by more than 60% within two years, but it was not until 2013 that ridership doubled from 2002. In a region and state not overly inclined to public transport, this system is considered successful, funds were misused and it was admitted that the half-cent increase was known to never be nearly enough for what was promised, further souring public opinion of local transit and government. Miami International Airport is one of the busiest airports in the United States in terms of passenger traffic and cargo traffic. It is considered to be the largest economic engine in Miami-Dade County, the connection is made at the Miami Airport Station through the MIA Mover people mover, and the station only sees about 1,500 passengers a day, much lower than many of the systems other stations.
With headways cut in half, ridership rose much more on double-lined portion of the system from Earlington Heights to Dadeland South stations than the Airport Station itself. As the population of South Florida fluctuates similar to the rest of the state, transit ridership, Miami-Dade County contains many grade separated highways built to Interstate Highway standards. The main north–south thoroughfare for the entire tri-county area is Interstate 95, Interstate 95 terminates into U. S. Route 1 just south of downtown Miami, in the Brickell neighborhood. I-95 has three east–west spurs in the Miami area, from south to north, they are I-395 and I-195 in Miami-Dade County, many highways and roads intersect at the complex Golden Glades Interchange near North Miami Beach in Miami-Dade County. The Dolphin, Don Shula, and Snapper Creek expressways, the Sawgrass Expressway was once managed by the Broward County Expressway Authority, but was sold to Floridas Turnpike Enterprise in 1990. The rest of the highways and the majority of roads in Miami-Dade County
U.S. Route 1 in Florida
U. S. Highway 1 in Florida runs 545 miles along the states east coast from Key West to its crossing of the St. Marys River into Georgia north of Boulogne, and south of Folkston. US1 was designated through Florida when the United States Numbered Highway System was established in 1926, the road is maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation. From its national terminus in Key West, US1 carries the Overseas Highway—the Keys main highway north to the mainland. North of Jacksonville, US1 curves inland towards the St. Marys River as it enters Georgia. /US17 in Jacksonville to the Georgia state line near Boulogne, among other designations, US1 is a designated Blue Star Memorial Highway along its entire route through the state. Markers are placed at locations, including one in Rockledge. US1 officially begins at the Monroe County courthouse at the intersection of Whitehead and Fleming Streets and it proceeds south as Whitehead Street, a two-laned street, until the intersection with Truman Avenue, which takes it east through central Key West.
Truman Avenue becomes North Roosevelt Boulevard about a mile east, and remains so until leaving the island, the road follows the northern shore of this section of Key West, after curving southward, it meets State Road A1A head-on at a T-intersection before continuing east. This intersection marks the terminus of the Overseas Highway. The highway expands to four lanes as it crosses the Bahia Honda Bridge, after Little Duck Key, US1 enters Knights Key, Boot Key, Key Vaca and the town of Marathon via the Seven Mile Bridge, thus leaving the lower Keys. US1 runs through Marathon as a four-laned road, after Key Vaca, the road becomes two-laned once more and runs through Fat Deer Key, where it forms the northern boundary of the city of Key Colony Beach. It continues wholly in Marathon through Long Point Key, Crawl Key, the road crosses to Little Conch Key and Conch Key, both part of the Duck Key district. US1 crosses to and traverses Long Key, which is mostly unincorporated except for the city of Layton, the road reaches Craig Key, and the village of Islamorada including Lower Matecumbe Key, Tea Table Key, Upper Matecumbe Key and Windley Key.
US1 crosses a drawbridge onto Plantation Key, where it expands to four lanes, immediately the Overseas Highway enters Tavernier, where it temporarily splits into a pair of one-way roads through the community. Soon the road enters the community of Key Largo, which features another pair of one-way roads. Signage approaching the intersection directs northbound motorists to take this route if the lights on it are flashing. US1 swings to the northwest, forms the boundary of North Key Largo. After crossing the Jewfish Creek Bridge and travelling along Cross Key, US1 crosses Manatee Creek, along with the Miami-Dade County boundary, for the first 14 miles in Miami-Dade County, US1 is a divided two-lane road bordering the Everglades National Park on the west. It is named South Dixie Highway from the county line to Miami and its first major intersection is with the north end of Card Sound Road south of Florida City
Greater Downtown Miami
Downtown Miami is an urban city center, based around the Central Business District of Miami, United States. In addition to the business district, the area consists of the Brickell Financial District, Historic District, Government Center, Omni. The neighborhood is divided by the Miami River and is bordered by Midtown to the north, Biscayne Bay to the east, Civic Center and Overtown to the west, Brickell Avenue and Biscayne Boulevard are the main north-south roads, and Flagler Street is the main east-west road. Locally known as Downtown, the area is a cultural, greater Downtown is home to many major museums, education centers, company headquarters, government offices, theaters and many of the oldest buildings in the city. Downtown Miami is the heart of Miami, and along with Coconut Grove, is the oldest settled area of Miami. Urban development began in the 1890s with the construction of the Florida East Coast Railway by Standard Oil industrialist Henry Flagler down to Miami at the insistence of Julia Tuttle, after New York City and Chicago.
Along with Brickell, Downtown has grown from 40,000 residents in 2000, to over 70,000 in 2009 and it was estimated in February 2010, that about 550 new residents move to the Downtown area every month. As of 2009, over 190,000 office employees work in Downtown, Downtown is served by the Miami Metrorail at Historic Overtown/Lyric Theatre, Government Center, and Brickell stations, accessible from Broward and Palm Beach counties via Tri-Rail transfer station. The Metro connects to the Downtown Metromover, which encompasses 22 stations on the clockwise Inner loop and counterclockwise Brickell, Government Center station is Downtowns main station and allows for transfers to all Metromover loops, Metrorail trains, and Metrobus lines at the Stephen P. Clark Government Center. Downtown Miami is centered on the Central business district, best known by local Miamians as simply Downtown, Downtown is bound by NE 6th St to the north, Biscayne Bay to the east, the Miami River to the west and south. Miami Historic District and Government Center are located within the CBD, Downtown is directly served by the Miami Metrorail at, Government Center Station, and by 13 Metromover stations on the Downtown and Omni Loops.
Brickell is south of the Miami River, and is a mixed upper-class residential neighborhood as well as Miamis major financial district along Brickell Avenue, the Shops at Mary Brickell Village and Simpson Park are located within Brickell. Brickell is directly served by the Miami Metrorail at, Brickell Station, Omni is an urban neighborhood with numerous hotels, and high-rise residential buildings. The neighborhoods name comes from the Omni International Mall on Biscayne Boulevard, Omni borders Biscayne Bay the east, NE 2nd Ave to the west, NE 21st St to the north and I-395 to the south. Pace Park, Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, Omni is served by the Miami Metrorail at, Government Center Station, and by two Metromover stations on the Omni Loop. Park West is directly served by the Miami Metrorail at, Historic Overtown/Lyric Theatre Station, the Miami Jewelry District is a sub-neighborhood of Downtown within the Central Business District historically known for its numerous jewelry stores and gem dealers.
It is where a variety of jeweled products are sold and is one of the three districts in the United States. The Jewelry District can be accessed by public transportation through the Metromover, as of 2010, the population of Downtown Miami was 65,696 people, with a population density of 27,487 per square mile
Florida /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States, the Miami metropolitan area is Floridas most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital, much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south, the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther, and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was a location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, the states economy relies mainly on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, the Kennedy Space Center, Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, auto racing, by the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee, the Timucua, the Ais, the Tocobaga, the Calusa and the Tequesta. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans, the earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2,1513 and he named the region La Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is a myth, in May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet.
Very soon, many smokes appeared along the whole coast, billowing against the sky, the Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Spanish language, and more to Florida. Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success, in 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561. Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the tribes to Christianity. The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north, the English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery, in 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St
Mission Revival architecture
It evolved into and was subsumed by the more articulated Spanish Colonial Revival Style, established in 1915 at the Panama–California Exposition. All of the 21 Franciscan Alta California missions, including their chapels and support structures and these commonalities arose because the Franciscan missionaries all came from the same places of previous service in Spain and colonial Mexico City in New Spain. The New Spain religious buildings the founding Franciscan saw and emulated were of the Spanish Colonial style, the limited availability and variety of building materials besides adobe near mission sites or imported to Alta California limited design options. Finally, the missionaries and their indigenous Californian workforce had minimal construction skills, exterior walls were coated with white plaster, which with wide side eaves shielded the adobe brick walls from rain. Revival These architectural elements were replicated, in varying degrees, the Spanish Mission Style and its associated Spanish Colonial Revival Style became internationally influential.
Examples can be found throughout Australia and New Zealand where the California Bungalow style was prevalent, in Central and South America its influence is less discernible as the Spanish Colonial Style had, in effect not been departed from, so it is arguable that there wasnt a revival. The Mission Inn in Southern California is one of the largest extant Mission Revival Style buildings in the United States, located in Riverside, it has been restored, with tours of the styles expression. Other structures designed in the Mission Revival Style include, The Hotel Castañeda, ponce De Leon Hotel in St. Four Roses Distillery, in Lawrenceburg, francis Lederer estate and residence, in West Hills, Los Angeles, completed 1936 Iao Theater, in Wailuku, Maui—Hawaii, built in 1928. Kelso Depot, in Mojave Desert—Mojave National Preserve, completed in 1923 for Union Pacific Railroad, Lederer Stables—Canoga Mission Gallery, in West Hills, Los Angeles, completed in 1936 Los Angeles Herald-Examiner Building, Julia Morgan, Downtown Los Angeles,1915.
Texas A&M University–Kingsville, in Kingsville, founded in 1925 with new construction reflecting the Mission Revival style, Union Station, in San Diego, completed in 1915. Valdosta State Universitys Main Campus in Valdosta, Georgia Villa Rockledge, in Laguna Beach, completed in 1935 Louis P. best Residence and Auto House, Clausen & Clausen, Iowa, constructed 1909–1910. Several buildings at Montclair State University in Montclair, New Jersey, santa Fe Coast Lines Depots, Los Angeles Division. Laguna Beach, CA, American National Research Institute, Karen J. Californias Mission Revival. Thunder Bay Press, San Diego, CA
Art Deco, sometimes simply referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. It took its name, short for Arts Decorators, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925 and it combined modernist styles with fine craftsmanship and rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, exuberance, Art Deco was a pastiche of many different styles, sometimes contradictory, united by a desire to be modern. It featured rare and expensive materials such as ebony and ivory, the Chrysler Building and other skyscrapers of New York were the most visible monuments of the new style. In the 1930s, during the Great Depression, the became more subdued. New materials arrived, including chrome plating, stainless steel and plastic, a more sleek form of the style, called Streamline Moderne, appeared in the 1930s, it featured curving forms and smooth, polished surfaces. Art Deco became one of the first truly international architectural styles, with examples found in European cities, the style came to an end with the beginning of World War II.
Deco was replaced as the dominant global style by the functional and unadorned styles of modernism. The term arts décoratifs was first used in France in 1858, in 1868, Le Figaro newspaper used the term art décoratifs with respect to objects for stage scenery created for the Théâtre de lOpéra. In 1875, furniture designers, textile and glass designers and it took its present name of ENSAD in 1927. The term Art déco was used in a 1966 newspaper article by Hillary Gelson in the Times, describing the different styles at the exhibit. Art Deco gained currency as a broadly applied stylistic label in 1968 when historian Bevis Hillier published the first major book on the style. Hillier noted that the term was already being used by art dealers and cites The Times, in 1971, Hillier organized an exhibition at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, which he details in his book about it, The World of Art Deco. The emergence of Art Deco was closely connected with the rise in status of decorative artists, the term arts décoratifs had been invented in 1875, giving the designers of furniture and other decoration official status.
The Société des artistes décorateurs, or SAD, was founded in 1901, a similar movement developed in Italy. The first international exhibition devoted entirely to the arts, the Esposizione international dArte decorative moderna, was held in Turin in 1902. Several new magazines devoted to decorative arts were founded in Paris, including Arts et décoration, Decorative arts sections were introduced into the annual salons of the Sociéte des artistes français, and in the Salon dautomne. French nationalism played a part in the resurgence of decorative arts, in 1911 the SAD proposed the holding of a major new international exposition of decorative arts in 1912
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen /ˌɪliˈɑːnə ˈrɒs ˈleɪtənən, -tnən/ is the most senior U. S. Representative from Florida, representing Floridas 27th congressional district and she served as Chairwoman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee from 2011–2013. In 1989, Ros-Lehtinen became the first Cuban American and Latina elected to Congress and she was the first Republican woman elected to the House from Florida, and is currently the most senior Republican woman in the U. S. House. Ros-Lehtinen gave the first Republican response to the State of the Union address in Spanish in 2011, in September 2011, Ros-Lehtinen became the first Republican member of the U. S. Congress to co-sponsor the Respect for Marriage Act, which would repeal the Defense of Marriage Act. In July 2012, Ros-Lehtinen became the first Republican in the House to support same-sex marriage, she said she would propose legislation making U. S. funding for the UN contingent on extensive reform. Ileana Ros y Adato was born in Havana, one of two born to Enrique Ros, now a Cuban American businessman and anti-Fidel Castro activist.
The family immigrated to the United States when Ileana was seven years old and she received her Bachelor of Arts in education and her Master of Arts in educational leadership from Florida International University. She attended the University of Miami where she earned an Ed. D in higher education, Ros-Lehtinen was raised Catholic and is now an Episcopalian. Ros-Lehtinens maternal grandparents were Sephardic Jews, originally from the Ottoman Empire and her maternal grandfather left the city of Kırklareli for Cuba in 1913, fleeing the devastation and economic collapse caused by the First Balkan War. Her mother converted to Catholicism to marry her father, Ros-Lehtinen was an educator and the owner/operator of a private school in Miami-Dade County. She was elected to the Florida House of Representatives in 1982 and they married on June 9,1984, after Dexter switched parties. They both served in the State House until 1986 and that year, they were both elected to the Florida Senate, where he was elected to District 40 and she was elected in District 34.
In 1988, Dexter Lehtinen resigned his seat to become U. S. Attorney of South Florida, in 1989, Ros-Lehtinen resigned her seat to become a U. S. Representative. Ros-Lehtinen has two children, Rodrigo, a transgender LGBT rights activist, and Patricia Marie and she is step-mother to Katherine and Douglas Lehtinen. Congressman Claude Pepper died on May 30,1989, there was an election scheduled for August 29,1989. State Senator Ros-Lehtinen defeated Democrat Gerald Richman 53%–47% and she was the first Cuban American elected to the United States Congress and the first Republican woman elected from Florida. Ros-Lehtinen was unaware that she was the first Latina elected to Congress until after she was elected, in 1990, she won re-election to a full term with 60% of the vote. In total, she has elected to ten full terms
The Dixie Highway was a United States automobile highway, first planned in 1914 to connect the US Midwest with the Southern United States. It was part of the National Auto Trail system, and grew out of an earlier Miami to Montreal highway, the final result is better understood as a network of connected paved roads, rather than one single highway. It was constructed and expanded from 1915 to 1927, the Dixie Highway was inspired by the example of the slightly earlier Lincoln Highway, the first road across the United States. The prime booster of both projects was promoter and businessman Carl G. Fisher and it was overseen by the Dixie Highway Association, and funded by a group of individuals, local governments, and states. In the early years the U. S. S, Route system, with some portions becoming state roads. The route was marked by a red stripe with the white letters DH, usually with a stripe above. The logo was painted on utility poles. The Dixie Highway, an idea of Carl G. Fisher of the Lincoln Highway Association, was organized in early December 1914 in Chattanooga.
On April 3,1915, governors of the states met at Chattanooga. On May 22,1915, the decided on a split route in order to serve more communities. The route left Chicago to the south via Danville and turned east to Indianapolis, two alternate routes were included between Chattanooga and Atlanta, and again between Atlanta and Macon, Georgia. Finally, between Macon and Jacksonville, the west route went south to Tallahassee, Florida before turning east, from Jacksonville, the route followed the east coast south to Miami along the John Anderson Highway. Within a week, Michigan agreed to construct a loop around the Lower Peninsula, passing via South Bend, Mackinaw City, Detroit became the northern end of the eastern division, with the old route to Indianapolis becoming a connecting link. In early April 1916, the approved the route between Macon and Jacksonville via Savannah and designated the more direct route via Waycross. The Carolina division, connecting to the division at Knoxville and Waynesboro.
By mid-1919, a piece on Michigans Upper Peninsula to Sault Ste. At Chattanooga, the western and eastern routes intersected, the took a longer route along U. S. Route 27 to Rome. The Eastern route connected Sault Ste, in Michigans Upper Peninsula, the highway followed what is now M-129 from Sault Ste
Miami-Dade County Public Schools
Miami-Dade County Public Schools is a public school district serving Miami-Dade County, in the U. S. state of Florida. The district is managed by the School Board of Miami-Dade County, Alberto Carvalho has been Superintendent since September 12,2008. Miami-Dade County Public Schools is one of a few school districts in the United States to offer optional international studies programs. Bilingual education is offered in Spanish, German, Haitian Creole, m-DCPS is the only school district in Florida to offer bilingual education in Mandarin. 35% of MDCPS teachers are graduates of Florida International University, the School Board of Miami-Dade County first met in Miami, June 27,1885. Those present at the first Board of Education meeting were Superintendent C. H, and members of the Board, W. H. Benest, Joseph F. Frow, and Adam C. The main order of business consisted of dividing the district, which at the time spanned from current day Florida Keys to Martin County and members divided Dade County into four districts.
Lake Worth was declared District #1, while Miami became known as District #2, Coconut Grove fell within the boundaries of District #3, with Elliotts Key, and all other islands or keys comprising District #4. The First Coconut Grove School, erected in 1887, served as both the religious and educational center of the pioneer community, in 1889, the building was rented to the School Board for the purpose of servicing children in District #3. The first teachers at the First Coconut Grove Schoolhouse included Mrs. C. L, the first students in attendance included Annie and Harry Peacock, James and Mary Pent, and Lillian, Grace and Joseph Frow. The First Coconut Grove Schoolhouse is a one-story, one-room, rectangular structure, built with a frame. In 1970, the schoolhouse was moved from its location to its current home on the grounds of the Plymouth Congregational Church, at 3429 Devon Road, Coconut Grove. The school was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975, the turn of the 20th century launched Miami and its school system into decades of growth.
By 1924, the county lines had shifted with the creation of Broward, Palm Beach, despite losing jurisdiction over many of its schools in just twenty years, the school system still boasted thirty-three separate schools and a student population of nearly 5,000. Following the 1926 Miami hurricane, many schools were destroyed, the hurricane ended the 1920s land boom in Miami, and ushered in the Great Depression to the area long before the actual market crash of 1929. The crash forced many schools not destroyed by the hurricane to be closed. Beginning in 1930 the school board faced its first overcrowding and funding problems, in 1928, Miami Senior High, the districts first secondary school, moved into its fifth and current location. The building cost over $1 million to construct, in 1926, the original Booker T. Washington Senior High School building opened in what is now the Overtown district