Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker. As for economic effects, research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. Research, with few exceptions, finds that immigration on average has positive economic effects on the native population, but is mixed as to whether low-skilled immigration adversely affects low-skilled natives. Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67 and 147 percent. Development economists argue that reducing barriers to labor mobility between developing countries and developed countries would be one of the most efficient tools of poverty reduction; the academic literature provides mixed findings for the relationship between immigration and crime worldwide, but finds for the United States that immigration either has no impact on the crime rate or that it reduces the crime rate.
Research shows that country of origin matters for speed and depth of immigrant assimilation, but that there is considerable assimilation overall for both first- and second-generation immigrants. Research has found extensive evidence of discrimination against foreign born and minority populations in criminal justice, the economy, health care and politics in the United States and Europe; the term immigration was coined in the 17th century, referring to non-warlike population movements between the emerging nation states. When people cross national borders during their migration, they are called migrants or immigrants from the perspective of the country which they enter. From the perspective of the country which they leave, they are called outmigrant. Sociology designates immigration as migration; as of 2015, the number of international migrants has reached 244 million worldwide, which reflects a 41% increase since 2000. One third of the world's international migrants are living in just 20 countries.
The largest number of international migrants live in the United States, with 19% of the world's total. Germany and Russia host 12 million migrants each, taking the second and third place in countries with the most migrants worldwide. Saudi Arabia hosts 10 million migrants, followed by the United Arab Emirates. Between 2000 and 2015, Asia added more international migrants than any other major area in the world, gaining 26 million. Europe added the second largest with about 20 million. In most parts of the world, migration occurs between countries that are located within the same major area. In 2015, the number of international migrants below the age of 20 reached 37 million, while 177 million are between the ages of 20 and 64. International migrants living in Africa were the youngest, with a median age of 29, followed by Asia, Latin America/Caribbean, while migrants were older in Northern America and Oceania. Nearly half of all international migrants originate in Asia, Europe was the birthplace of the second largest number of migrants, followed by Latin America.
India has the largest diaspora in the world, followed by Russia. A 2012 survey by Gallup found that given the opportunity, 640 million adults would migrate to another country, with 23% of these would-be immigrant choosing the United States as their desired future residence, while 7% of respondents, representing 45 million people, would choose the United Kingdom; the other top desired destination countries were Canada, Saudi Arabia, Australia and Spain. One theory of immigration distinguishes between pull factors. Push factors refer to the motive for immigration from the country of origin. In the case of economic migration, differentials in wage rates are common. If the value of wages in the new country surpasses the value of wages in one's native country, he or she may choose to migrate, as long as the costs are not too high. In the 19th century, economic expansion of the US increased immigrant flow, nearly 15% of the population was foreign born, thus making up a significant amount of the labor force.
As transportation technology improved, travel time and costs decreased between the 18th and early 20th century. Travel across the Atlantic used to take up to 5 weeks in the 18th century, but around the time of the 20th century it took a mere 8 days; when the opportunity cost is lower, the immigration rates tend to be higher. Escape from poverty is a traditional push factor, the availability of jobs is the related pull factor. Natural disasters can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. Research shows that for middle-income countries, higher temperatures increase emigration rates to urban areas and to other countries. For low-income countries, higher temperatures reduce emigration. Emigration and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries and employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organizations, the diplomatic service expect, by definition, to work "overseas", they are referred to as "expatriates", their conditions of employment are equal to or better than those applying in the host country.
Beaver is a borough in and the county seat of Beaver County in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. It is located at the confluence of the Beaver and Ohio Rivers 30 miles northwest of Pittsburgh; as of the 2010 census, the borough population was 4,531. The borough is a Tree City USA community. Robert Linn was the mayor of Beaver for 58 years, from 1946 to 2004, making him one of the longest serving mayors in the United States; this area around Beaver was once home to Shawnee Indians, who were displaced by groups such as the Mingoes and the Delawares. This lovely town is home of the Beaver Bobcats. Led by a fearsome pack of cats that lost to their superior, the Blackhawk Cougars 14-13 in late 2018; the Cougars didn't just have tremendous success against them but finished the season with a 10-2 record. It was part of the Ohio Country, in dispute during the French and Indian War. Beaver became the site of a Revolutionary War era Patriot frontier fort. After the war, the fort was the home of the First American Regiment, the oldest active unit in the US Army.
The fort was razed a short time later. By the frontier had moved westward and there was no further need for a permanent garrison to protect the area; the community was laid out in 1792. In 1800, it became the county seat of the newly formed Beaver County; the first county court was established in Beaver in 1804. Growth was steady until 1879 when the arrival of the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad caused a major growth spurt. In February 1884 a massive flood caused extensive damage. In 1974, an archeological excavation was conducted at the site of Fort McIntosh. In late 2007, local officials proposed the consolidation of Beaver with Brighton Township. According to a report by the Governor's Center for Local Government Services, the two municipalities would derive a significant financial benefit from uniting. Being considered was the type of combination: either merger, in which one of the municipalities would be annexed by the other, or consolidation, in which the two would become a single new municipality under a new name.
Any union would have required voter approval. Beaver is located at 40°41′38″N 80°18′29″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.1 square miles, of which 0.9 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. In 1996 the entire community was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district. Centered on Beaver's commercial Third Street, the buildings in the district date to the nineteenth century, although some twentieth-century structures are present; some of the district's most prominent buildings are five churches and the county courthouse, although most of the district consists of residential neighborhoods. Included in the boundaries of the district is the Matthew S. Quay House, the National Historic Landmark home of Beaver native Senator Matthew Quay, the site of Fort McIntosh, a fort constructed in the 1780s. Beaver has three land borders with Brighton Township to the north, Bridgewater to the east, Vanport Township to the west.
Across the Ohio River to the south, Beaver runs adjacent with Monaca to the southeast, Center Township to the south, Potter Township to the southwest. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,775 people, 2,112 households, 1,260 families residing in the borough; the population density was 5,119.3 people per square mile. There were 2,297 housing units at an average density of 2,462.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.44% White, 2.64% African American, 0.13% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.27% from other races, 0.25% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.88% of the population. There were 2,112 households, out of which 23.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.6% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.3% were non-families. 36.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 19.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.83.
In the borough the population was spread out, with 19.2% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 22.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $42,113, the median income for a family was $57,208. Males had a median income of $43,198 versus $26,709 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $24,003. About 3.7% of families and 4.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.1% of those under age 18 and 2.2% of those age 65 or over. Daniel Agnew – Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania John Allison – lawyer and United States Congressman Rudyerd Boulton – ornithologist Amber Brkich-Mariano – winner of Survivor: All Stars Nate Martin – co-founder & CEO of Puzzle Break, first American Escape Room company Tom McCreery – Major League Baseball player André Previn – former music director of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra Harrison Holt Richardson - youngest member of the United States Antarctic Service Expedition Matthew Quay – United States Senator Ralph Francis Scalera – United States District Court judge Jeff Shaver – former Major League Baseball player John Skorupan – former NFL Linebacker for the Buffalo Bills and the New York Giants W. E. Clyde Todd – ornithologist Ida Geer Weller — concert singer and clubwoman Beaver Area Memorial Library List of cities and towns along the Ohio River Beaver Borough Po
Neville Township, Pennsylvania
Neville Township is a township in Allegheny County, United States. Its land area consists of Neville Island, an island on the Ohio River; the population was 1,084 at the 2010 census. The island was known as Montour's Island, named for the Native American interpreter Andrew Montour, who lived on the land in colonial times. Before the American Revolution, the island was claimed by both Virginia. Both states awarded a claim to the island to citizens of their states; the dispute found its way to the Supreme Court in Sims's Lessee. Charles Simms gained possession of the island, it was transferred to his partner in the lawsuit, General John Neville, for whom the island, the township, is named. Neville lived on the island in his final years; the township was incorporated on April 1854, from a part of Ohio Township. It obtained first-class status in 1901. A 1903 newspaper advertisement for real estate on the island promoted it as the next Manhattan Island. In 1998, the Hillman Company built the Island Sports Center on the western tip of Neville Island.
Robert Morris University purchased the Island Sports Center in 2003. The sports center includes a 1,200-seat hockey rink, a golf range, a miniature golf course, athletic fields and a pro shop; the township boundary encompasses a surrounding portion of the Ohio River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 2.2 square miles, of which, 1.3 square miles of it is land and 0.9 square miles of it is water. The island is nearly five miles long. Across the Ohio River's back channel, Neville Township runs adjacent with Coraopolis, Robinson Township, Kennedy Township and Stowe Township. Across the river's main channel, Neville Township runs adjacent with Haysville, Kilbuck Township, Ben Avon and Avalon; the Neville Island Bridge carries Interstate 79 and the Yellow Belt across the Ohio River and over Neville Island, west of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The island is a 15-minute drive from Pittsburgh, depending on driving conditions and other such factors; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,232 people, 624 households, 313 families residing in the township.
The population density was 929.4 people per square mile. There were 676 housing units at an average density of 510.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 97.32% White, 1.22% Black or African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.32% from other races, 1.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were irrelevant. There were 624 households, out of which 20.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.8% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 49.7% were non-families. 43.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 18.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.97 and the average family size was 2.75. In the township the population was spread out, with 18.3% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 22.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $30,625, the median income for a family was $44,083. Males had a median income of $31,827 versus $26,838 for females; the per capita income for the township was $19,630. About 4.6% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 11.4% of those age 65 or over. Neville Township website
A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened as a defensive wall. Stockade fortifications were simple forms of defence of military camps or settlements, used since ancient Roman times and earlier; the troops or settlers would build a stockade by clearing a space of woodland and using the trees whole or chopped in half, with one end sharpened on each. They would dig a narrow trench around the area, stand the sharpened logs side-by-side inside it, encircling the perimeter. Sometimes they would add additional defence by placing sharpened sticks in a shallow secondary trench outside the stockade. In colder climates sometimes the stockade received a coating of clay or mud that would make the crude wall wind-proof. Builders could place stones or thick mud layers at the foot of the stockade, improving the resistance of the wall. From that the defenders could, if they had the materials, raise a stone or brick wall inside the stockade, creating a more permanent defence while working protected.
The word stockade refers to a military prison in an army camp, in some cases a crude prison camp or a slave camp. In these cases, the stockade keeps people inside, rather than out. Nowadays, stockade walls are used as garden fencing, made of finished planks more useful for privacy fencing and more decoration than security. Security fence Tower and stockade
Michael John Douglas, known professionally as Michael Keaton, is an American actor and director. He first rose to fame for his roles on the CBS sitcoms All's Fair and The Mary Tyler Moore Hour and his comedic film roles in Night Shift, Mr. Mom, Johnny Dangerously, Beetlejuice, he earned further acclaim for his dramatic portrayal of the title character in Tim Burton's Batman and Batman Returns. Since he has appeared in a variety of films ranging from dramas and romantic comedies to thriller and action films, such as Clean and Sober, The Dream Team, Pacific Heights, Much Ado About Nothing, My Life, The Paper, Jackie Brown, Herbie: Fully Loaded, The Other Guys, Need for Speed, The Founder, Spider-Man: Homecoming, has provided voices for characters in animated films such as Cars, Toy Story 3, Minions. Keaton's lead performance in Birdman or earned him a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Musical or Comedy, the Critics' Choice Award for Best Actor and Best Actor in a Comedy, nominations for the Screen Actors Guild Award, British Academy Film Award, Academy Award for Best Actor.
He received a Golden Globe Award nomination for his performance in Live from Baghdad and a Screen Actors Guild Award nomination for The Company. Keaton was awarded a Career Achievement Award from the Hollywood Film Festival. On January 18, 2016, he was named Officer of Order of Letters in France, he is a visiting scholar at Carnegie Mellon University. Michael John Douglas, the youngest of seven children, was born at Ohio Valley Hospital in Kennedy Township, Pennsylvania, on September 5, 1951, he was raised between Pennsylvania. His father, George A. Douglas, worked as a civil engineer and surveyor, his mother, Leona Elizabeth, a homemaker, came from McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania. Keaton was raised in a Roman Catholic family, is of half Irish descent through his mother, his father was of English, German and Scotch-Irish descent and was from a Protestant family. He attended Montour High School in Robinson Township and studied speech for two years at Kent State University, where he appeared in plays, before dropping out and returning to Pennsylvania.
Keaton first appeared on TV in the Pittsburgh public television programs Where the Heart Is and Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. For Mister Rogers he played one of the "Flying Zookeeni Brothers" and served as a full-time production assistant. Keaton worked as an actor in Pittsburgh theatre, he performed stand-up comedy during his early years in order to supplement his income. Keaton moved to Los Angeles to begin auditioning for various TV parts, he popped up in various popular TV shows including The Mary Tyler Moore Hour. He decided to use a stage name to satisfy SAG rules, as there was an actor and daytime host with the same or similar names; the claim that Keaton selected his new surname due to an attraction to actress Diane Keaton is incorrect. Keaton's film debut came in a small non-speaking role in the Joan Rivers film Rabbit Test, his next break was working alongside Jim Belushi in the short-lived comedy series Working Stiffs, which showcased his comedic talent and led to a co-starring role in the comedy Night Shift directed by Ron Howard.
His role as the fast-talking schemer Bill "Blaze" Blazejowski earned Keaton some critical acclaim, he scored leads in the subsequent comedy hits Mr. Mom, Johnny Dangerously and Gung Ho, he played the title character in Tim Burton's 1988 horror-comedy Beetlejuice, earning Keaton widespread acclaim and boosting him to Hollywood's A list. He turned down the role reconsidered like most of the cast, he now considers Beetlejuice his favorite of his own films. That same year, he gave an acclaimed dramatic performance as a drug-addicted realtor in Clean and Sober. Keaton's career was given another major boost when he was again cast by Tim Burton, this time as the title comic book superhero of 1989's Batman. Warner Bros. received thousands of letters of complaint by fans who believed Keaton was the wrong choice to portray Batman. However, Keaton's performance in the role earned widespread acclaim from both critics and audiences, Batman became one of the most successful films of 1989. According to Les Daniels's reference book Batman: The Complete History, Keaton was not surprised when he was first considered as Batman as he believed the film would be similar to the 1960s television series starring Adam West.
It was only after he was introduced to Frank Miller's comic book miniseries, The Dark Knight Returns, that Keaton understood the dark and brooding side of Batman that he portrayed to much fan approval. Keaton reprised the role for the sequel Batman Returns, another critically acclaimed success, he was set to reprise the role again for a third Batman film going as far as to show up for costume fitting. However, when Burton was dropped as director of the film, Keaton left the franchise as well, he was dissatisfied with the screenplay approved by the new director, Joel Schu
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania
McKees Rocks known as "The Rocks", is a borough in Allegheny County, in western Pennsylvania, along the south bank of the Ohio River. The borough population was 6,104 at the 2010 census. In the past, the city was known for its extensive steel interests. There were large railroad machine shops, manufacturers of locomotives and passenger cars. Other city factories manufactured springs, enamel ware, wall materials, plaster and bolts, malleable castings and forgings, tin ware and cigars; the Pittsburgh, Allegheny and McKees Rocks Railroad is located in an area along the river known as the "Bottoms". The name of the borough is incorrectly written as "Mc Kees Rocks," "McKee's Rocks," or "McKees Rock," but the official name is "McKees Rocks." The USPS official spelling is "MC KEES ROCKS". It is within the Sto-Rox School District, which serves neighboring Stowe Township; the local high school is Sto-Rox High School. The McKees Rocks Bridge, which carries traffic between McKees Rocks and Pittsburgh, is the longest bridge in Allegheny County, at 7,293 feet.
McKees Rocks has one of the largest Indian mounds in the state, built by the Adena and Hopewell peoples a thousand years before Europeans entered the area. McKees Rocks is known for being the birthplace of Merle Fainsod and Billy Mays. For thousands of years, Native Americans inhabited the region; the Adena culture built a large earthwork mound here, a burial site. It was augmented in years by members of the Hopewell culture; this was the largest such mound in the state. The Carnegie Museum of Natural History excavated half the mound in 1896, its archaeologists unearthed the remains of 33 people. The mound crowned a high bluff that overlooks the Ohio River; the bluff under the mound was quarried for municipal paving some time after the archaeological dig, eliminating what remained of the Indian burial site. This site was considered by George Washington as a possible location for Fort Pitt, which he ordered built on the site of the destroyed French Fort Duquesne in what is now Pittsburgh's Point State Park.
The borough derives its name from trader Alexander McKee, who served as an Indian agent. He was given a 1,300-acre tract of land in 1764 for his services during the French and Indian War; the name related to a rocky projection into the river at this site. In 1769, the name McKees Rocks was placed on an official deed, that year is considered to be its founding date. In 1892, it was incorporated as a borough. In 1900, 6,353 people resided in the borough. After industrial restructuring caused a loss of jobs in the city, the population declined, to 6,104 at the 2010 census. Mann's Hotel, one of the oldest buildings in the Pittsburgh area, was located at 23 Singer Avenue in McKees Rocks, it was believed to have been built around 1803, although some sources put the construction in the 18th century. It is rumored. On October 12, 2009, Mann's Hotel was condemned due to neglect and had to be demolished because of its deteriorating condition. McKees Rocks was the site of one of the pivotal labor conflicts of the early 20th century, the 1909 McKees Rocks Strike.
In the summer and early fall of 1909, some 5,000 workers of the Pressed Steel Car Company's plant at McKees Rocks went on strike, joined by 3,000 others who worked for the Standard Steel Car Company of Butler and others in New Castle. The strike, led by organizers of the Industrial Workers of the World, was repressed by armed security guards and the state militia, resulting in at least a dozen deaths; the conflict involved participants on both sides. The city hit its peak of population in 1930. After that, there was population decline due to the Great Depression, industrial restructuring and suburbanization after World War II. McKees Rocks is located at 40°28′13″N 80°3′49″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 1.1 square miles, of which 1.0 square mile is land and 0.1 square miles, or 6.31%, is water. McKees Rocks is made up of several neighborhoods, such as West Park, Meyers Ridge, "The Bottoms"; as of the census of 2000, there were 6,622 people, 2,905 households, 1,652 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 6,377.5 people per square mile. There were 3,402 housing units at an average density of 3,276.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 82.71% White, 14.06% African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.68% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, 1.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.09% of the population. The census of 2010 revealed; the population density was 6003.25 people per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 62.17% White, 35.26% African American, 0.57% Asian, 0.34% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.65% of the population. Households: There were 2,905 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.4% were married couples living together, 21.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.1% were non-families. 37.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.2% had someone living alone, 65 or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.96.
Age Distribution: The population included 24.1% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 19.0% who were 65 or older. The median age was 38. Fo