California State Prison, Corcoran
California State Prison, Corcoran is a male-only state prison located in the city of Corcoran, in Kings County, California. It is known as Corcoran State Prison, CSP-C, CSP-COR, CSP-Corcoran, Corcoran I; the facility is just north of the newer California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility and State Prison, Corcoran. As of Fiscal Year 2002/2003, COR had a total of 1,703 staff and an annual institutional budget of US$115 million; as of April 2016, the facility's total population was 3,870. Individual cells, fenced perimeters and armed coverage Level IV housing: Cells, fenced or walled perimeters, electronic security, more staff and armed officers both inside and outside the installation Security Housing Units, "the most secure area within a Level IV prison designed to provide maximum coverage"; the Protective Housing Unit, which holds up to 47 prisoners who require "extraordinary protection from other prisoners". The unit houses inmates; the Protective Housing Unit has been described as "strikingly calm" because inmates "don't want to be moved somewhere less guarded".
One violent incident occurred in March 1999 when three inmates attacked inmate Juan Corona, inflicting minor injuries, smashed Charles Manson's guitar. Three other Protective Housing Unit inmates suffered minor injuries. Acute care hospital Prison Industry Authority Built on what was once Tulare Lake, home to the Yokut Native American people, the facility opened in 1988; the prison hospital was dedicated in October 1993. In March 1993, at Corcoran, prisoner Wayne Jerome Robertson had raped Eddie Dillard, a prisoner about half his size, after the latter was reassigned to his cell. Robertson, who had the nickname "Booty Bandit", testified in 1999 that prison guards set up the attack. Dillard testified in the same trial. After Robertson was assigned to general population at Pelican Bay State Prison, California state senator Tom Hayden stated "It is certain that he would be targeted for death."A front-page article by Mark Arax in the August 1996 Los Angeles Times claimed that COR was "the most troubled of the 32 state prisons".
At the time, COR officers had shot and killed more inmates "than any prison in the country" in COR's eight years of existence. Seven inmates had been killed, 50 others wounded. Based on interviews and documents, Arax concluded that many shootings of prisoners were "not justified" and that in some cases "the wrong inmate was killed by mistake". Furthermore, the article alleged that "officers... and their supervisors staged fights between inmates" during "gladiator days". In November 1996, CBS Evening News broadcast "video footage of an inmate fatally shot by guards" at COR in 1994. A March 1997 episode of the CBS News 60 Minutes discussed the 1994 death, "the alleged cover-up and the alarming number of shootings at the prison"; the California Department of Corrections issued the results of its own investigation in November 1997, which found "isolated incidents of staff misconduct" but no "'widespread staff conspiracy' to abuse prisoners". A film titled Maximum Security University, which used prison surveillance tapes showing four 1989–1993 fights "end when a guard fatally shoots a combatant", was released in February 1998.
That month, eight California correctional officers and supervisors were indicted "on federal criminal civil rights charges in connection with inmate fights that occurred at Corcoran State Prison in 1994". After a trial, the eight men were "acquitted of all charges" in June 2000; as of 1999 California had paid out several large prison brutality settlements for incidents at Corcoran, including $2.2 million to inmate Vincent Tulumis paralyzed for life in a May 1993 shooting, $825,000 for the killing of Preston Tate in April 1994. Subsequently, COR has been featured in at least two episodes of MSNBC's Lockup series: "Inside Corcoran" and "Return to Corcoran". In July of 2013, many inmates at COR participated in a state-wide hunger strike protesting the use of solitary confinement. Billy Michael Sell, an inmate in COR, participating in the hunger strike, committed suicide by hanging himself while in a Solitary Housing Unit, he had been protesting from July 8 to July 21. Sell's death caused significant controversy, as inmate advocates reported that fellow prisoners had heard Sell asking for medical attention for several days before his eventual suicide.
His suicide triggered reviews of the circumstances behind his death at the local and federal level. The prison's most infamous inmates include: CurrentRodney Alcala — the "dating game killer." Sentenced to death in 1980, 1986, 2010. Dana Ewell — a convicted triple murderer, he ordered the murders of his family in 1992. Serving three life sentences and is appealing his sentences. Phillip Garrido — who kidnapped Jaycee Lee Dugard in 1991 and kept her captive in his backyard up until 2009. Mikhail Markhasev — convicted murderer of Ennis Cosby, son of entertainer Bill Cosby. In 1998, he received a sentence of life without parole, plus 10 years. John Floyd Thomas, Jr. — serial rapist and killerFormerJuan Corona — murdered twenty-five people in 1971. He was transferred to COR from the Correctional Training Facility in 1992. On March 4, 2019, Corona died from natural causes. Charles Manson — leader of the Manson family. Transferred from San Quentin State Prison to COR in March 1989. In April 2012, Manson was again denied parole, was not to be eligible again until 20
Juan Vallejo Corona was a Mexican serial killer, convicted of the murders of 25 migrant farm workers found buried in shallow graves in peach orchards along the Feather River in Sutter County, California, in 1971. At the time, the crimes were characterized as among the most notorious in U. S. history. The exact victim total remains unknown and may be higher, according to local authorities. Corona was convicted of 25 counts of first-degree murder in 1973. An Appeals Court overturned the conviction in 1978 on the basis of incompetent legal representation and granted him a new trial. In 1982, he was again found guilty of all 25 homicides, he served out a life sentence in Corcoran. Juan Corona was born in Autlán, Mexico on February 7, 1934, he first entered the United States illegally in 1950. Crossing the border into California, the 16-year-old picked carrots and melons in the Imperial Valley for three months before moving on north to the Sacramento Valley, his half-brother, Natividad Corona, had immigrated to California in 1944 to work and settled at Marysville, across the Feather River from Yuba City.
Corona moved to the Marysville/Yuba City area in May 1953, at the suggestion of Natividad, found work on a local ranch. He was first married to Gabriella E. Hermosillo on October 24, 1953, in Nevada. In 1959, he married Gloria I. Moreno and they had four daughters. In late December 1955, a flood occurred on the Feather Rivers, it was one of the most widespread and destructive of any in the recorded history of Northern California. A rush of water flooded 100,000 acres, killing 74 people. Corona had a mental breakdown, he believed that he was living in a land of ghosts. Corona was suffering from an episode of schizophrenia. On January 17, 1956, Natividad had him committed to DeWitt State Hospital in Auburn, where he was diagnosed with "schizophrenic reaction, paranoid type." He received twenty-three shock treatments, before being pronounced recovered and released three months later. Upon his release, Corona was deported back to Mexico. In 1962, Corona returned to the U. S. with a green card. At this time, he stopped drinking.
Aside from schizophrenic episodes and a reported violent temper, Corona was regarded as a hard worker. This same year, he became a licensed labor contractor, he was in charge of hiring workers to staff the local fruit ranches. Corona was outwardly macho and had anger issues with homosexual men, his half-brother, gay, owned the "Guadalajara Cafe" in Marysville. Early on the morning of February 25, 1970, a young man named José Romero Raya was brutally attacked with a machete in the restroom of the café, he was discovered by customers at 1:00 a.m. hacked about the head and face, Natividad called the police. Raya filed a lawsuit against Natividad, winning a judgment of $250,000, which prompted Natividad to sell his business and return to Mexico instead of paying; the attack occurred. In March 1970, Corona was again admitted to DeWitt State Hospital for treatment. A year in March 1971, he applied for welfare for the first time, as there was little ranch and/or farm work available, his application was denied, because he had too many assets, including two houses and some money in the bank.
On May 19, 1971, a farm owner who had used Corona to contract field workers noticed a freshly dug hole in his peach orchard. The next day, the hole was filled with dirt; the farmer called the police. When they investigated, they found a man's body, stabbed and hacked. In one grave, deputies found two meat receipts bearing Corona's signature. In another two graves, there were two crumpled Bank of America deposit slips printed with Corona's name and address; this circumstantial evidence gave an added boost to the case. Witnesses told police that some of the victims had been last seen riding in Corona's pickup truck. In the early morning hours of May 26, 1971, police entered Corona's Yuba City home with a search warrant and arrested him. Evidence indicating his guilt was discovered and seized, such as two bloodstained knives, a machete, a pistol and blood-stained clothing. There was a work ledger that contained 34 names and dates, including seven of the known victims; the ledger came to be referred to as a "death list" by the prosecution, who alleged it recorded the dates the men were murdered.
Corona had been supplying workers to the ranches. He housed many of the men who worked for him in a bunkhouse on the Sullivan Ranch, where most of the victims were discovered. Corona was provided legal aid and assigned a public defender, Roy Van den Heuvel, who hired several psychiatrists to perform a psychological evaluation. Although the sheriff, Roy Whiteaker, said the prisoner was in no apparent or immediate danger from his fellow townsmen, Corona was moved to the new and larger county jail in Marysville, on May 30, 1971, for "security reasons."On June 2, Corona was returned to Sutter County for arraignment, closed to the media and public. A plea of not guilty was entered and a date was set for Corona's preliminary hearing. By the time the search was terminated on June 4, a total of 25 male victims had been discovered. Four of them were unidentified. Whiteaker said he believed that more bodies might have been buried in the area. On June 14, Van den Heuvel was replaced by Richard Hawk, a retained defense attorney.
In return for his legal representation, an agreement was made granting Hawk exclusive literary and dramatic property rights to
Charles Milles Manson was an American criminal and cult leader. In mid-1967, he began forming what became known as the Manson Family, a quasi-commune based in California. Manson's followers committed a series of nine murders at four locations in July and August 1969. In 1971, he was convicted of first-degree murder and conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of seven people, all of which members of the group carried out at his instruction. Manson was convicted of first-degree murder for two other deaths. At the time the Manson Family began to form, Manson was an unemployed ex-convict who had spent half of his life in correctional institutions for a variety of offenses. Before the murders, he was a singer-songwriter on the fringe of the Los Angeles music industry, chiefly through a chance association with Dennis Wilson and founding member of the Beach Boys. In 1968, the group recorded one of Manson's songs, retitled "Never Learn Not to Love", as a B-sided single without Manson's credit. Manson was obsessed with the Beatles their 1968 self-titled album.
Guided by his interpretation of the band's lyrics, he adopted the term "Helter Skelter" to describe an impending apocalyptic race war. He and his followers, who were young women, believed that the murders would help precipitate that war. From the beginning of Manson's notoriety, a pop culture arose around him in which he became an emblem of insanity and the macabre. After he was charged with the crimes of which he was convicted, recordings of songs written and performed by Manson were released commercially, starting with Lie: The Love and Terror Cult. Various musicians have covered some of his songs. Manson was sentenced to death, but his sentence was commuted to life with the possibility of parole after California invalidated the state's death penalty statute in 1972, he served out his life sentence at California State Prison in Corcoran and died at age 83 in late 2017. Charles Manson was born on November 12, 1934 to 16-year-old Kathleen Manson-Bower-Cavender, née Maddox, in the University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center in Cincinnati, Ohio.
He was first named "no name Maddox". Within weeks, he was called Charles Milles Maddox.:136–7Manson's biological father appears to have been Colonel Walker Henderson Scott Sr. against whom Kathleen Maddox filed a paternity suit that resulted in an agreed judgment in 1937. Manson may never have known his biological father.:136–7 Scott worked intermittently in local mills, had a local reputation as a con artist. He allowed Maddox to believe he was an army colonel, although "Colonel" was his given name; when Maddox told Scott she was pregnant, he told her. In August 1934, before Manson's birth, Maddox married William Eugene Manson, whose occupation was listed on Charles's birth certificate as a "laborer" at a dry cleaning business. Maddox went on drinking sprees for days at a time with her brother Luther, leaving Charles with a variety of babysitters, they were divorced on April 30, 1937, when a court accepted Manson's charge of "gross neglect of duty". On August 1, 1939, Maddox and Luther's girlfriend Julia Vickers spent the evening drinking with Frank Martin, a new acquaintance who appeared to be wealthy.
Maddox and Vickers decided to rob him, Maddox phoned her brother to help. They were incompetent thieves, were found and arrested within hours. At the trial seven weeks Luther was sentenced to ten years in prison, Kathleen was sentenced to five years. Manson was placed in the home of an uncle in McMechen, West Virginia, his mother was paroled in 1942. Manson characterized the first weeks after she returned from prison as the happiest time in his life. Manson's family moved to Charleston, West Virginia, where Manson continually played truant and his mother spent her evenings drinking, she was arrested for grand larceny, but not convicted. After moving to Indianapolis, Maddox started attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings where she met an alcoholic named Lewis, whom she married in August 1943; as well as playing truant, Manson began stealing from stores and his home. In 1947, Maddox looked for a temporary foster home for Manson, but she was unable to find a suitable one, she decided to send him to the Gibault School for Boys in Terre Haute, Indiana, a school for male delinquents run by Catholic priests.
Manson soon fled home to his mother. He spent Christmas 1947 in McMechen, at his aunt and uncle's house, where he was caught stealing a gun. Manson ran away to Indianapolis ten months later. Instead of returning to his mother, he rented a room and supported himself by burgling stores at night, he was caught, a sympathetic judge sent him to Boys Town, a juvenile facility in Omaha, Nebraska. After four days, he and a student named Blackie Nielson somehow obtained a gun, they used it to rob a grocery store and a casino, as they made their way to the home of Nielson's uncle in Peoria, Illinois.:136–146Neilson's uncle was a professional thief, when the boys arrived he took them on as apprentices. Manson was arrested two weeks during a nighttime raid on a Peoria store. In the investigation that followed, he was linked to his two earlier armed robberies, he was sent to a strict reform school. He claimed that other students raped him with the encouragement of a staff member. Manson developed a self-defense technique he called the "insane game".
When he was physically unable t
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820