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Cordite

Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom since 1889 to replace gunpowder as a military propellant. Like gunpowder, cordite is classified as a low explosive because of its slow burning rates and low brisance; these produce a subsonic deflagration wave rather than the supersonic detonation wave produced by brisants, or high explosives. The hot gases produced by burning gunpowder or cordite generate sufficient pressure to propel a bullet or shell to its target, but not so as to destroy the barrel of the gun. Cordite was used in the.303 British, Mark I and II, standard rifle cartridge between 1891 and 1915. Cordite was used for large weapons, such as tank guns and naval guns, it has been used for this purpose since the late 19th century by the UK and British Commonwealth countries. Its use was further developed before World War II, as 2-and-3-inch-diameter Unrotated Projectiles for launching anti-aircraft weapons. Small cordite rocket charges were developed for ejector seats made by the Martin-Baker Company.

Cordite was used in the detonation system of the Little Boy atomic bomb dropped over Hiroshima in August 1945. The term "cordite" disappeared from official publications between the wars. During World War II, double based propellants were widely used, there was some use of triple based propellants by artillery. Triple based propellants were used in post-war ammunition designs and remain in production for UK weapons. For small arms it has been replaced by other propellants, such as the Improved Military Rifle line of extruded powder or the WC844 ball propellant in use in the 5.56×45mm NATO. Production ceased in the United Kingdom around the end of the 20th century, with the closure of the last of the World War II cordite factories, ROF Bishopton. Triple base propellant for UK service is now manufactured in Germany. Gunpowder, an explosive mixture of sulfur and potassium nitrate, was the original propellant employed in firearms and fireworks, it was used from about the 10th or 11th century onwards, but it had disadvantages, including the large quantity of smoke it produced.

With the 19th-century development of various "nitro explosives", based on the reaction of nitric acid mixtures on materials such as cellulose and glycerine, a search began for a replacement for gunpowder. The first smokeless powder was developed in 1865 by Major Johann F. E. Schultze of the Prussian artillery, his formulation was composed of nitrolignose impregnated with barium nitrate. In 1882 the Explosive Company of Stowmarket introduced EC Powder, which contained nitro-cotton and nitrates of potassium and barium in a grain gelatinesed by ether alcohol, it had coarser grains than other nitrocellulose powders. It proved unsuitable for rifles, but it remained in long use for shotguns and was used for grenades and fragmentation bombs. In 1884, the French chemist Paul Vieille produced a smokeless propellant, it was made out of collodion, resulting in a plastic colloidal substance, rolled into thin sheets dried and cut up into small flakes. It was adopted by the French military for their Mle 1886 infantry rifle and called Poudre B to distinguish it from black powder.

The rifle and the cartridge developed to use this powder were known generically as the 8mm Lebel, after the officer who developed its 8 mm full metal jacket bullet. The following year, 1887, Alfred Nobel invented and patented a smokeless propellant he called Ballistite, it was composed of 45 % nitroglycerine and 45 % collodion. Over time the camphor tended leaving an unstable explosive. A United Kingdom government committee, known as the "Explosives Committee", chaired by Sir Frederick Abel, monitored foreign developments in explosives and obtained samples of Poudre B and Ballistite. Abel, Sir James Dewar and W Kellner, on the committee and jointly patented in 1889 a new ballistite-like propellant consisting of 58% nitroglycerine, by weight, 37% guncotton and 5% petroleum jelly. Using acetone as a solvent, it was extruded as spaghetti-like rods called "cord powder" or "the Committee's modification of Ballistite", but this was swiftly abbreviated to "Cordite". Cordite began as a double-base propellant.

In the 1930s triple-base was developed by including a substantial proportion of nitroguanidine. Triple-based propellant reduced the disadvantages of double-base propellant - its high temperature and significant flash. Imperial Chemical Industries's World War 2 double-base AN formulation had a much lower temperature, but it lacked the flash reduction properties of N and NQ triple-base propellants. Whilst cordite is classified as an explosive, it is not employed as a high explosive, it is designed to burn, to produce high pressure gases. Alfred Bernhard Nobel sued Dewar over an alleged patent infringement, his patent specified that the nitrocellulose should be "of the well-known soluble kind". After losing the case, it went to the Court of Appeal; this dispute reached the House of Lords, in 1895, but

EY Tower

The EY Tower is a skyscraper in Toronto, Canada at 100 Adelaide Street West. The building was designed by WZMH Architects. At its 1928 opening, 100 Adelaide Street West, was the Concourse Building, a 14-story Art Deco structure; the building tenant was the Toronto Industrial Commission, which promoted the city as a hub of finance and business in Ontario. The building was famous for its mosaics by Group of Seven member J. E. H. MacDonald; the Concourse was designed by the firm of Greene. Oxford Properties took control of the building in 1998 and released plans to replace the Concourse Building with a new tower; the Concourse’s defenders tried to find a buyer for the building, though Oxford refused to sell the site. The decision to demolish the Concourse Building was controversial, but the Toronto and East York community councils voted in favor of the demolition in May 2000, with a vote of 38 to 12. Oxford released plans for the new building on 17 June 2013; the new proposal announced that the building would be renamed from 100 Adelaide Street West, the street address of the site, to Ernst & Young Tower.

Ernst and Young, the primary tenant of the new building, will be leasing 20,900 square metres of office space. EY Tower is 188 m high, with a total area of 84,000 square metres; the base of the new tower includes the south and east walls of the original Concourse Building and is integrated into the PATH as part of Oxford’s Richmond-Adelaide Centre. The main tenants of the building are OMERS and TMX Group. In addition to a new public space and renovated entrance through the Concourse Building, the tower features a 460 m2 outdoor terrace on the 14th floor; the building is LEED Platinum certified. The building was completed in 2017. After many stages of planning, the tower's construction started in July 2014. On 23 April 2015, a worker fell 5 metres near the construction site and was pronounced dead at the scene; the Tower was topped-out in June 2016 and opened in May 2017. Ernst & Young Richmond-Adelaide Centre 100 Adelaide Street West, Oxford Properties Ernst & Young Tower on Emporis

Arado E.654

The Arado E.654 was a German heavy fighter project by Arado Flugzeugwerke. The E.654 used a widened variant on the fuselage of the Arado Ar 240 so that it could mount two DB 614 or DB 627 engines inside the fuselage, similar to the Arado E.561. It had a single vertical tailfin with a tailplane. Like the E.561, it was abandoned due to technical issues with the transmission to the wings. It used straight wings with tapering on trailing edges, it used three wheels with a tricycle arrangement, all of which could retract into their specific parts of the aircraft. The cockpit was located between the nose, had two crew members sitting back-to-back. Data from General characteristics Crew: 2 Length: 12.81 m Wingspan: 14.34 m Height: 3.95 m Wing area: 31.3 m2 Powerplant: 2 × Daimler-Benz DB 614 liquid-cooled V-12 piston engines, 1,500 kW each or 2x 3,000 hp Daimler-Benz DB 627Performance Armament Guns: Six fixed MK 103 cannons in the nose and four turreted MG 131 cannons above the fuselage