Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media
Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media the Center for History and New Media is a research institution in the George Mason University in Fairfax County, Virginia specializing in history and information technology. It was established by Roy Rosenzweig in 1994 to research and use digital media and information technology in historical research, digital tools and resources, digital preservation, outreach. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Center for History and New Media in partnership with the American Social History Project at the City University of New York organized the September 11 Digital Archive with funding from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. With the September 11 Digital Archive, CHNM and ASHP utilized electronic media to collect and present the past, with a digital repository of material including more than 150,000 first-hand accounts, emails and other digital materials; this project has inspired a new project, the Hurricane Digital Memory Bank, collecting the stories and digital artefacts related to the Hurricane Katrina and Wilma.
CHNM continues to explore methods and technologies for archiving and preserving information and documents digitally. The Center for History and New Media worked in partnership with the American Social History Project at the City University of New York, to develop an online resource directed at American History teachers, along with online resources about the French Revolution. More recent projects have focused on developing online educational resources about World History, a project on historical thinking, in partnership with the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History. CHNM is involved with educational outreach with teachers in Virginia school districts. CHNM has developed a number of online databases and other resources for historians and history teachers, including a listing of 1,200 history departments worldwide, a practical guide to Digital History, a collection of essays on history and new media. Another online database is Making the History of 1989, which chronicles the fall of communism in Eastern Europe.
Created in collaboration with the German Historical Institute and the National Endowment for the Humanities, the 1989 Project is powered by CHNM's Omeka software, includes resources for teachers and students, ranging from lesson plans to an archive of primary source materials. CHNM collaborated with the Jewish Women's Archive on Katrina's Jewish Voices, a virtual archive of stories and reflections about the New Orleans and Gulf Coast Jewish communities before and after Hurricane Katrina. CHNM is responsible for the development of two notable open source software projects: Zotero and Omeka. Zotero is reference management software, used by academics to read and cite the academic literature. Omeka is a content management system that uses the Dublin Core metadata standard to build digital collections and publish digital exhibits. Both projects are free, reflect CHNM's dedication to democratizing the practice of history; the Center for History and New Media distributes a set of free additional digital tools for historians and teachers, including Web Scrapbook, Survey Builder, Poll Builder, H-Bot, Syllabus Finder, which allows you to find and compare syllabi from thousands of universities and colleges on any topic, using the Google search engine.
In 2017, with financial support of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, CHNM released Tropy, a free and open-source desktop knowledge organization application to manage and describe photographs of research materials. Projects like Zotero provide tools for historians to analyze the past, but will digital media change the nature of scholarly argument and publication? In order to encourage experimentation in this arena, American Quarterly in collaboration with the American Studies Crossroads Project and CHNM organized an experiment in hypertext publishing. Four essays, covering such diverse topics as photos, as legal evidence, the Spanish–American War in film, early comic strips, Arnold Schwarzenegger, offer contrasting approaches to using digital media for scholarly presentations. Imaging the French Revolution is another experiment in digital scholarship. In a series of essays, seven scholars analyze forty-two images of crowds and crowd violence in the French Revolution. Offering the most relevant examples and comments from an on-line forum, those same scholars consider issues of interpretation and the impact of digital media on scholarship.
Interpreting the Declaration of Independence by Translation is a roundtable of historians brought together to discuss the translation and reception of the Declaration of Independence in Japan, Russia, Poland, Germany and Israel. In addition to these reflections, the site includes actual translations of the Declaration into several different languages and "re-translations" back into English to illustrate the effects of translation on how a key historical document has been understood. CHNM has developed some projects with an explicit focus on broad, public audiences. Gulag: Many Days, Many Lives is a web-based exhibit funded by NEH and being developed in collaboration with the Gulag Museum in Perm, will provide a multifaceted consideration of the human struggle for survival in the Gulag, the brutal and lethal Soviet system of forced labor concentration camps. History News Network features articles, placing current events in historical perspective, written by historians of all political persuasions.
On April 15, 2011, the Center for History and New Media became the Roy Rosenzweig Cen
Pewex was a chain of hard currency shops in the People's Republic of Poland. They sold otherwise unobtainable Western goods in exchange for Western currencies, most the United States dollar or with Bon Towarowy PeKaO issued by Bank Pekao. By the late 1960s, it had become apparent that the socialist centrally-planned economy of Poland was inefficient; the rule of Edward Gierek led to a short period of economic prosperity. With the aid of foreign loans, Gierek instituted a programme to modernise industry and increase the availability of consumer goods; the standard of living increased markedly and for a time he was hailed a miracle-worker. The economy, began to falter during the 1973 oil crisis and by 1976 price increases became necessary to ease the repayment of these loans. In order to obtain much needed foreign currency from Polish society, authorities permitted in 1972 the creation of a network of shops under a state-owned bank named Pekao. There, the foreign hard currency could be exchanged for both foreign and domestic goods, many of which were unavailable to Poles at that time.
Since ownership of hard currency as cash was forbidden and all dollars and Deutschmarks had to be deposited to dollar bank accounts, authorities introduced Bon PeKaO cheques, which were tied to the U. S. Dollar in a 1:1 ratio and could be used as currency in Pekao shops. On the Pekao bank created a separate company, Przedsiębiorstwo Eksportu Wewnętrznego - the Pewex. While the letter x is not present in the Polish alphabet, it was used so that the name would sound somehow exotic and Western-like in the ears of the pro-American society. For years, the Pewex shops were the most common way for people in Poland to purchase unavailable consumer products. Pewex offered a large variety of products unavailable otherwise to the Polish population; these included jeans, Coca-Cola, sweets, cigarettes and colour TV sets. In addition, Pewex offered a number of Polish-made products that were otherwise intended for export only, including vodka and Krakus ham. Moreover, the Pewex chain was popular among foreign tourists and diplomats, who could buy Western articles at reasonable prices and tax free.
During the 1980s' economic crisis, when the state-owned shops for ordinary people offered anything, the Pewex shops were sometimes the only places where one could buy basic foodstuffs and other basic articles like toilet paper. In the 1980s, Pewex shops became one of the few places in Poland where cars and flats could be bought without having to wait for several years; as part of the peaceful transition of the economic system in Poland after 1989's revolution in Poland, the Polish economy was privatised and the ownership of foreign currency was deregulated. This made the Pekao cheques obsolete and soon afterwards most of the goods that had only been available from Pewex stores started to be sold in private shops as well. In the mid-1990s, the chain was mismanaged privatised but soon afterwards went bankrupt; the destruction of the Pewex brand, one of the most recognizable in the People's Republic of Poland, is considered a good example of brand mismanagement. Intershop Shortage economy Eastern Bloc economies Zlot a lot of dollars.
The Economist, May, 1988 Atlantyda Ludowa, czyli jak zmarnowano najlepszą markę PRL-u Ewa Cander-Karolewska, Painted advertisement for Pewex, 01.08.2007
Kinder Surprise known as Kinder Egg or Ovetto Kinder or Kinder Surprise Egg, is a candy manufactured by the Italian company Ferrero since 1974. It was co-created by Michele Ferrero and William Salice, is one of several candies sold under the Kinder brand; each chocolate egg surrounds a plastic capsule. Kinder Surprise was created with children in mind, replicating an Italian Easter family tradition in which adults give children large chocolate eggs with a toy inside. However, Kinder Surprise toys have become collectible for adults as well. Since 1974, 30 billion Kinder Surprise eggs have been sold worldwide. Kinder Surprise is a hollow milk chocolate egg, lined with a layer of sweet milk-flavored cream. Inside each egg is a plastic capsule that contains a small surprise toy, which sometimes requires assembly; the capsule case is yellow to resemble an egg's yolk. The chocolates have foil packaging with warning labels advising parents to avoid giving the eggs to children under three years old, encouraging supervision during consumption.
Kinder Surprise was created with children in mind, replicating an Italian Easter family tradition in which adults give children a large chocolate egg with a toy inside. However, Kinder Surprise toys have become collectible for adults as well. Collectors try to acquire all toys within a themed set; some share their egg openings on social media, or create their own toys and re-wrap them in Kinder Surprise packaging. More than 100 new toys are distributed each year. Around 12,000 different toys had been included within Kinder Surprise as of 2016. According to CNNMoney, Kinder Surprise is most popular in Germany and the United Kingdom. Michele Ferrero and William Salice have been credited as co-creators of the candy. In 1968, Michele Ferrero raised the idea with his employees of a product that could be given to children so they could have a little "surprise" every day, based on the Italian tradition of large chocolate eggs given to children by their parents at Easter. Ferrero said that at first his attempt to follow through this idea was unsuccessful after employees questioned the order he placed for a machine to make the chocolate eggs.
They thought. Ferrero said that he wanted the product to have a higher milk content and make that a key part of its promotion. Ferrero commissioned William Salice to realize the concept; the Italian company Ferrero began manufacturing Kinder Surprises in 1974. Since around 30 billion eggs have been sold worldwide. Salice, credited as the inventor of Kinder Surprise but insisted he was just "material executor", died in Italy in December 2016, at the age of 83; the toys within Kinder Surprise have been themed for various popular children's characters. Collections of Kinder Surprise toys have included Asterix, Fantasmini and Minions. Ferrero and Kinder have partnered with various companies and people to promote Kinder Surprise, including The Walt Disney Company and Smart. In 2000, three families who had lost children to choking on toys inside edible eggs campaigned for the products to be withdrawn from the European Union. Ten children worldwide have died from choking on parts of the Kinder toy surprises after they had eaten the chocolate egg.
Defenders of the chocolates said. This was discussed in the House of Commons and by the Department of Trade and Industry which said, "The child’s tragic death was caused by the ingestion of a small part of the egg’s contents. Many other products and toys with small parts are available in the market place. If we were to start banning every product that could be swallowed by a child, there would be few toys left in the market”; the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act prohibits confectionery products which contain a “non-nutritive object”, unless the non-nutritive object has functional value. The Act bans "the sale of any candy that has embedded in it a toy or trinket". In 1997, the staff of the Consumer Product Safety Commission examined and issued a recall for some Kinder Surprise illegally brought into the US with foreign labels; the staff determined. The staff presumed that Kinder Surprise, being a chocolate product, was intended for children of all ages, including those under three years of age. On this basis, the staff took the position that Kinder Surprise was in violation of the small parts regulation and should be banned from importation into the US.
Kinder Surprise eggs are legal in Canada and Mexico, but are illegal to import into the US. In January 2011, the US Customs and Border Protection threatened a Manitoba resident with a $300 fine for carrying one egg across the US border into Minnesota. In June 2012, CBP held two Seattle men for two and a half hours after discovering six Kinder Surprise eggs in their car upon returning to the US from a trip to Vancouver. According to one of the men detained, a border guard quoted the potential fine as US $2,500 per egg. In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration re-issued their import alert stating “The embedded non-nutritive objects in these confectionery products may pose a public health risk as the consumer may unknowingly choke on the object”. Kinder Surprise bears warnings advising the consumer that the toy is "not suitable for children under three years, due to the presence of small parts", that "adult supervision is recommended". Since 2017, Kinder Joy eggs (where a toy is not encased in chocolate shel
Eurozine is a network of European cultural magazines based in Vienna, linking up more than 90 partner journals and just as many associated magazines and institutions from nearly all European countries. Eurozine is an online magazine which publishes original articles and selected articles from its partner journals with additional translations into one of the major European languages. By providing a Europe-wide overview of current themes and discussions, Eurozine offers a rich source of information for an international readership and facilitates communication and exchange between authors and intellectuals from Europe and worldwide. Eurozine is a non-profit institution, its office is based in Vienna and headed by managing director Filip Zielinski. Since November 2018 Réka Kinga Papp is Editor-in-chief. Eurozine emerged from an informal network dating back to 1983. Since that time, editors of various European cultural magazines have met once a year in European cities to exchange ideas and experiences.
In 1995, the meeting took place in Vienna. The success of this meeting, in which numerous eastern European magazines participated for the first time, the rapid development of the Internet, encouraged the editors to reinforce the existing loose network with a virtual but more systematic one. Eurozine was established in 1998. Today, Eurozine hosts the "European Meeting of Cultural Journals" each year together with one or more of its partners; the magazines Kritika & Kontext, Mittelweg 36, Ord&Bild, Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais, Transit - Europäische Revue, Wespennest are Eurozine's founders. Official website
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe. Though the term Western Europe is used, there is no agreed-upon definition of the countries that it encompasses. Significant historical events that have shaped the concept of Western Europe include the rise of Rome, the adoption of Greek culture during the Roman Republic, the adoption of Christianity by Roman Emperors, the division of the Latin West and Greek East, the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the reign of Charlemagne, the Viking invasions, the East–West Schism, the Black Death, the Renaissance, the Age of Discovery, the Protestant Reformation as well as the Counter-Reformation of the Catholic Church, the Age of Enlightenment, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, the two world wars, the Cold War, the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the expansion of the European Union. Prior to the Roman conquest, a large part of Western Europe had adopted the newly developed La Tène culture; as the Roman domain expanded, a cultural and linguistic division appeared between the Greek-speaking eastern provinces, which had formed the urbanized Hellenistic civilization, the western territories, which in contrast adopted the Latin language.
This cultural and linguistic division was reinforced by the political east-west division of the Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire controlled the two divergent regions between the 3rd and the 5th centuries; the division between these two was enhanced during Late antiquity and the Middle Ages by a number of events. The Western Roman Empire collapsed. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire known as the Greek or Byzantine Empire and thrived for another 1000 years; the rise of the Carolingian Empire in the west, in particular the Great Schism between Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism, enhanced the cultural and religious distinctiveness between Eastern and Western Europe. After the conquest of the Byzantine Empire, center of the Eastern Orthodox Church, by the Muslim Ottoman Empire in the 15th century, the gradual fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire, the division between Roman Catholic and Protestant became more important in Europe than that with Eastern Orthodoxy.
In East Asia, Western Europe was known as taixi in China and taisei in Japan, which translates as the "Far West". The term Far West became synonymous with Western Europe in China during the Ming dynasty; the Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci was one of the first writers in China to use the Far West as an Asian counterpart to the European concept of the Far East. In Ricci's writings, Ricci referred to himself as "Matteo of the Far West"; the term was still in use in the late early 20th centuries. Christianity is still the largest religion in Western Europe, according to a 2018 study by the Pew Research Center, 71.0% of the Western European population identified themselves as Christians. The East–West Schism, which has lasted since the 11th century, divided Christianity in Europe, the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity. With certain simplifications, Western Europe is thus Catholic or Protestant and uses the Latin alphabet. Eastern Europe uses the Greek alphabet or Cyrillic script.
According to this definition, Western Europe is formed by countries with dominant Roman Catholic and Protestant churches, including countries which are considered part of Central Europe now: Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia, Sweden and United Kingdom. Eastern Europe, meanwhile is formed by countries with dominant Eastern Orthodox churches, including Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Ukraine for instance; the schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern and Western churches. This division dominated Europe for centuries, in opposition to the rather short-lived Cold War division of four decades. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West and the Eastern Orthodox Christian churches in the east. Due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however problematic.
During the four decades of the Cold War, the definition of East and West was rather simplified by the existence of the Eastern Bloc. Historians and social scientists view the Cold War definition of Western and Eastern Europe as outdated or relegating. During the final stages of World War II, the future of Europe was decided between the Allies in the 1945 Yalta Conference, between the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, the U. S. President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, the Premier of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin. Post-war Europe would be divided into two major spheres: the Western Bloc, influenced by the United States, the Eastern Bloc, influenced by the Soviet Union. With the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain; this term had been used during World War II by German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels and Count Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk in the last days of the war.