Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
The Atrebates were a Belgic tribe of Gaul and Britain before the Roman conquests. However it is possible that the Atrebates were a family of rulers, cognate with Old Irish aittrebaid meaning inhabitant, Atrebates comes from proto-Celtic *ad-treb-a-t-es, inhabitants. The Celtic root is treb- building, which has linked to the root of English thorpe. Edith Wightman suggested that their name may be intended to mean the people of the earth to contrast with that of the neighbouring coastal Morini, the Gaulish Atrebates lived in or around modern Artois in northern France. Their capital, Nemetocenna, is now the city of Arras, the place-name Arras is the result of a phonetic evolution from Atrebates and replaced the original name in the Late Empire, according to a well-known tradition in Gaul. The name Artois is the result of a different phonetic evolution from Atrebates, in 57 BC, they were part of a Belgic military alliance in response to Julius Caesars conquests elsewhere in Gaul, contributing 15,000 men.
Caesar took this build-up as a threat and marched against it, but the Belgae had the advantage of position, when no battle was forthcoming, the Belgic alliance broke up, determining to gather to defend whichever tribe Caesar attacked. Caesar subsequently marched against several tribes and achieved their submission, the Atrebates joined with the Nervii and Viromandui and attacked Caesar at the battle of the Sabis, but were there defeated. After thus conquering the Atrebates, Caesar appointed one of their countrymen, Commius was involved in Caesars two expeditions to Britain in 55 and 54 BC and negotiated the surrender of Cassivellaunus. In return for his loyalty, he was given authority over the Morini. However, he turned against the Romans and joined in the revolt led by Vercingetorix in 52 BC. After Vercingetorixs defeat at the Siege of Alesia, Commius had further confrontations with the Romans, negotiated a truce with Mark Antony, and ended up fleeing to Britain with a group of followers. Ptolemys 2nd century Geography refers to the Atribati living on the coast of Belgic Gaul, near the river Sequana, Commius soon established himself as king of the British Atrebates, a kingdom he may have founded.
Their territory comprised modern Hampshire, West Sussex and Berkshire, centred on the capital Calleva Atrebatum and they were bordered to the north by the Dobunni and Catuvellauni, to the east by the Regnenses, and to the south by the Belgae. The settlement of the Atrebates in Britain was not a population movement. Archaeologist Barry Cunliffe argues that they seem to have comprised a series of tribes, possibly with some intrusive Belgic element. After this time, the Atrebates were recognized as a client kingdom of Rome, coins stamped with Commiuss name were issued from Calleva from ca.30 BC to 20 BC. Three kings of the British Atrebates name themselves on their coins as sons of Commius, Eppillus, Tincomarus seems to have ruled jointly with his father from about 25 BC until Commiuss death in about 20 BC
Sleaford is a market town and civil parish in Lincolnshire, England. It is on the edge of the fertile Fenlands, about 11 miles north-east of Grantham,16 miles west of Boston, with a population of 17,671 at the 2011 Census, the town is the largest settlement in the North Kesteven district. Bypassed by the A17 and the A15, it is connected to Lincoln, Peterborough, Sleaford railway station is on the Nottingham to Skegness and Peterborough to Lincoln Lines. The first settlement formed in the Iron Age where a prehistoric track crossed the River Slea and it was a tribal centre and home to a mint for the Corieltauvi in the 1st centuries BC and AD. Evidence of Roman and Anglo-Saxon settlement has been uncovered, and by the late Saxon period the town was an economic and jurisdictional centre with a court and market. In the medieval period, records differentiate between Old and New Sleaford, the emerging in the areas around the present day market place. Sleaford Castle was constructed in the 12th century for the Bishops of Lincoln, granted the right to hold a market in the mid-12th century, New Sleaford developed into a market town and became locally important in the wool trade, while Old Sleaford declined.
From the 16th century, the landowners were the Carre family, who operated tight control over the town, the manor passed from the Carre family to the Hervey family by the marriage of Isabella Carre to John Hervey, 1st Earl of Bristol, in 1688. The Sleaford Navigation brought economic growth until it was superseded by the railways in the mid-1850s, in the 20th century, the sale of farmland around Sleaford by Bristol Estates led to the development of large housing estates. The subsequent availability of affordable housing combined with the educational facilities. As a result, the population underwent the fastest growth of any town in the county in the 1990s. The arrival of the made the town favourable for malting. Industry has declined, and in 2011 the most common occupations are in wholesale and retail trade and social care, public administration and defence and manufacturing. Regeneration of the centre has led to the redevelopment of the old industrial areas. The earliest records of the place-name Sleaford are found in a charter of 852 as Slioford, in the Domesday Book, it is recorded as Eslaforde and in the early 13th century as Sliforde.
In the 13th century Book of Fees the name appears as Lafford, the name is formed from the Old English words sliow and ford, which together mean ford over a muddy or slimy river. Archaeological material from the Bronze Age and earlier has been recovered and excavations have shown there was unsustained late-Neolithic. The earliest known permanent settlement dates from the Iron Age and began where a track running northwards from Bourne crossed the River Slea, during the Roman occupation of Britain, the settlement was extensive and of considerable importance
Roman roads in Britannia
Roman roads in Britain are long roads, mainly designed for military use, created by the Roman Army during the nearly four centuries that Britain was a province of the Roman Empire. It is estimated that the Romans constructed and maintained about 2,000 mi of paved roads throughout the province. The primary function of the network was to allow movement of troops and military supplies, but it provided vital infrastructure for commerce, trade. A considerable number of Roman roads remained in use as core trunk roads for centuries after the Romans withdrew from Britain in AD410. Some routes are now part of the UKs national road network in modern times, others have been lost or are of archeological and historical interest only. After the Romans departed, systematic construction of paved highways in the UK did not resume until the early 18th century, the Roman road network remained the only nationally-managed highway system within Britain until the establishment of the Ministry of Transport in the early 20th century.
Prior to the Roman conquest of Britain, pre-Roman Britons mostly used unpaved trackways for travel and these routes, many of which had prehistoric origins, followed elevated ridge lines across hills, e. g. Although most routes were unpaved tracks, some British tribes had begun engineering roads during the first century BC, beginning in 43 AD, the Romans quickly created a national road network. Engineers from the Roman Army - in most cases - surveyed, key locations, both strategic and administrative, were connected by the most direct routes possible. Main roads were gravel or paved, had constructed in stone or wood. The roads impermeable design permitted travel in all seasons and weather, following the withdrawal of the Roman Legions in 410 AD, the road system soon fell into disrepair. Parts of the network were retained by the Anglo-Saxons, eventually becoming integral routes in Anglo-Saxon Britain, however large sections were abandoned and lost. The Fosse Way, from Exeter to Lincoln, was built at this time to connect these bases with each other.
During the Flavian period, the roads to Lincoln and Gloucester were extended to the new bases at York, Chester. By 96 further extensions from York to Corbridge, and from Chester to Carlisle and Caernarfon, were completed as Roman rule was extended over Wales and northern England. Stanegate, the road from Carlisle to Corbridge, was built under the Emperor Trajan along the line of the future Hadrians Wall. However, the Romans maintained a system of forts in the region ca. 80–220 AD to control the population beyond Hadrians Wall and annexed the Lowlands briefly with the construction of the Antonine Wall in 164
The Brigantes were a Celtic tribe who in pre-Roman times controlled the largest section of what would become Northern England. Their territory, often referred to as Brigantia was centred in what was known as Yorkshire. To the North was the territory of the Votadini, which straddled the present day border between England and Scotland, in modern Welsh the word braint means privilege and comes from the same root *brigantī. The name Bridget from Old Irish Brigit comes from Brigantī, from the same origin stems the name of the Italian sub-region of Brianza. In chronostratigraphy, the British sub-stage of the Carboniferous period, the Brigantian derives its name from the Brigantes. There are no records of the Brigantes before the Roman conquest of Britain. The names Portus Setantiorum and Coria Lopocarum suggest other groups, the Setantii and the Lopocares located on the Lancashire coast, the Carvetii who occupied what is now Cumbria may have been another sub-tribe, or they may have been separate from the Brigantes.
This is often disputed as the Carvetii made up a separate civitas under Roman rule, a few of those who had taken up arms were killed and the rest were pardoned. In 51, the resistance leader Caratacus sought sanctuary with the Brigantian queen, Cartimandua. She and her husband Venutius are described as loyal and defended by Roman arms, during the governorship of Aulus Didius Gallus he gathered an army and invaded her kingdom. The Romans sent troops to defend Cartimandua, and they defeated Venutius rebellion, after the divorce, Cartimandua married Venutius armour-bearer and raised him to the kingship. Venutius staged another rebellion in 69, taking advantage of Roman instability in the Year of four emperors and this time the Romans were only able to send auxiliaries, who succeeded in evacuating Cartimandua but left Venutius and his anti-Roman supporters in control of the kingdom. After the accession of Vespasian, Quintus Petillius Cerialis was appointed governor of Britain and it seems to have taken many decades to complete.
Gnaeus Julius Agricola appears to have engaged in warfare in Brigantian territory, the Roman poet Juvenal, writing in the early 2nd century, depicts a Roman father urging his son to win glory by destroying the forts of the Brigantes. There appears to have been a rebellion in the sometime in the early reign of Hadrian. A rising of the Brigantes has often been posited as the explanation for the disappearance of the Ninth Legion, stationed at York. It is possible that one of the purposes of Hadrians Wall was to keep the Brigantes from making discourse with the tribes in what is now the lowlands of Scotland on the other side. Tacitus, in a speech put into the mouth of the Caledonian leader Calgacus, refers to the Brigantes, under a womans leadership, almost defeating the Romans
The Iceni or Eceni were a Brittonic tribe of eastern Britain during the Iron Age and early Roman era. Their territory included present-day Norfolk and parts of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire, and bordered the area of the Corieltauvi to the west, in the Roman period, their capital was Venta Icenorum at modern-day Caistor St Edmund. The Iceni were a significant power in eastern Britain during Claudius conquest of Britain in AD43, increasing Roman influence on their affairs led to revolt in 47, though they remained nominally independent under king Prasutagus until his death around AD60. Roman encroachment after Prasutagus death led his wife Boudica to launch a revolt from 60–61. Boudicas uprising seriously endangered Roman rule in Britain and resulted in the burning of Londinium, the Romans finally crushed the rebellion, and the Iceni were increasingly incorporated into the Roman province. The meaning of the name Iceni is unknown and this difference, Allen posits, tells archaeologists and historians when Prasutagus started his reign because the coins did not start reading the name of the tribe until around AD47.
Archaeological evidence of the Iceni includes torcs — heavy rings of gold, silver or electrum worn around the neck, the Iceni began producing coins around 10 BC. Their coins were an adaptation of the Gallo-Belgic face/horse design, and in some early issues, most numerous near Norwich. Some coins are inscribed ECENI, making them the only coin-producing group to use their name on coins. The earliest personal name to appear on coins is Antedios, and other abbreviated names like AESU and it has been discovered that the name of Antedios’ succeeding ruler Prasutagus appears on the coins as well. Sir Thomas Browne, the first English archaeological writer, said of the Roman occupation and Iceni coins, That Britain was notably populous is undeniable, from that expression of Caesar. That the Romans themselves were early in no small Numbers, Seventy Thousand with their associates slain by Bouadicea, and no small number of silver pieces near Norwich, with a rude head upon the obverse, an ill-formed horse on the reverse, with the Inscriptions Ic.
Whether implying Iceni, Tascia, or Trinobantes, we leave to higher conjecture, the Icknield Way, an ancient trackway linking East Anglia to the Chilterns, may be named after the Iceni. John A. Davies and Tony Gregory conducted archaeological surveys of Roman coins that appeared during the period of Roman occupation of Norfolk and their study showed that the bulk of the coins circulating before AD60 was Icenian rather than Roman. They speculated that Roman coins were not adapted into the Iceni area until after AD60, in certain rural regions of Norfolk and Gregory speculate that the Iceni farmers were impacted very little by the civitas, seeing as there is a scarce presence of coinage and treasures. However, they rose against them in 47 after the governor, Publius Ostorius Scapula, threatened to disarm them. D. F. Allen explains in detail, in his article The Coins of the Iceni. Allen informs readers that this was how Prasutagus had come to full control over the Iceni
Brut y Brenhinedd
Brut y Brenhinedd Chronicle of the Kings is a collection of variant Middle Welsh versions of Geoffrey of Monmouths Latin Historia Regum Britanniae. About 60 versions survive, with the earliest dating to the mid-13th century, Geoffreys Historia Regum Britanniae purports to narrate the history of the Kings of Britain from its eponymous founder Brutus of Troy to Cadwaladr, the last in the line. Geoffrey professed to have based his history on a very ancient book written in britannicus sermo which he had received from Walter of Oxford. The influence is most clearly evidenced by the existence of several translations into Welsh from the 13th century onwards, the manuscript history of these texts is a rich and long one attesting to the production of several translations and new redactions, most of which were copied many times over. One notable area in which Welsh translators have corrected or adapted Geoffrey based on native traditions is that of personal names, Geoffreys Hely, for instance, was substituted for Beli Mawr, an ancestor figure who appears in Branwen ferch Llŷr and elsewhere in Middle Welsh literature.
There are about sixty attestations of the Welsh Brut in the manuscripts, the Brut in NLW, Llanstephan MS1, is a relatively close translation of Geoffreys Historia. The Brut in NLW, Peniarth MS44 and this text becomes increasingly more condensed towards the end, omitting Merlins prophecy in the process on stated grounds that it lacks credibility. Yet it has the quality of being the first Brut to incorporate the tale Lludd. Brut Dingestow, now in MS Aberystwyth, NLW5266, once appears to have been in MS6 of the Dingestow court collection, the text is a relatively faithful translation, aided by its occasional reliance on Llanstephan MS1. A revised version, presumably from south Wales, was produced which follows the Dingestow version up to the end of Merlins prophecy, copied in numerous MSS, this conflated version is most famously represented by the text in the Llyfr Coch Hergest or Red Book of Hergest. In most every manuscript, it is preceded by the Ystorya Dared, i. e. a Welsh translation of the De Excidio Troiae ascribed to Dares Phrygius, and followed by the Brut y Tywysogion.
In this way, the text is made the piece in a world history extending from the Trojan War up to events close to the redactors own time. It seems that the Ystorya Dared, which has no independent existence in the manuscripts, was composed to serve as its prologue. The Brut in NLW Peniarth MS23 and elsewhere, a fresh, the Brut in BL Cotton Cleopatra B. v, NLW MS7006 and elsewhere, appears to have circulated in north-east Wales. It represents a freer and more piquant version than was previously attempted and draws on some material, notably Waces Roman de Brut. In the manuscripts, it is sandwiched between the Ystorya Dared and the Brenhinoedd y Saeson, a version of the Brut y Tywysogyon which incorporates material from English chronicles, included is a condensed version of the Lludd and Llefelys tale. This Brut is the used for the Welsh historical compilation attributed to the late 15th-century poet Gutun Owain. Oxford, Jesus College MS28, transcript from Jesus College MS61 made by Hugh Jones in 1695, the editors did not place much faith in the attribution to Tysilio, using that title merely to distinguish it from another Welsh Brut entitled Brut Gruffudd ap Arthur
Claudius Ptolemy was a Greek writer, known as a mathematician, geographer and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Koine Greek, beyond that, few reliable details of his life are known. His birthplace has been given as Ptolemais Hermiou in the Thebaid in a statement by the 14th-century astronomer Theodore Meliteniotes. This is a very late attestation and there is no reason to suppose that he ever lived elsewhere than Alexandria. Ptolemy wrote several treatises, three of which were of importance to Byzantine and European science. The first is the astronomical treatise now known as the Almagest, although it was entitled the Mathematical Treatise. The second is the Geography, which is a discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. The third is the treatise in which he attempted to adapt horoscopic astrology to the Aristotelian natural philosophy of his day. This is sometimes known as the Apotelesmatika but more known as the Tetrabiblos from the Greek meaning Four Books or by the Latin Quadripartitum.
The name Claudius is a Roman nomen, the fact that Ptolemy bore it indicates he lived under the Roman rule of Egypt with the privileges and political rights of Roman citizenship. It would have suited custom if the first of Ptolemys family to become a citizen took the nomen from a Roman called Claudius who was responsible for granting citizenship, if, as was common, this was the emperor, citizenship would have been granted between AD41 and 68. The astronomer would have had a praenomen, which remains unknown and it occurs once in Greek mythology, and is of Homeric form. All the kings after him, until Egypt became a Roman province in 30 BC, were Ptolemies, abu Mashar recorded a belief that a different member of this royal line composed the book on astrology and attributed it to Ptolemy. The correct answer is not known”, Ptolemy wrote in Greek and can be shown to have utilized Babylonian astronomical data. He was a Roman citizen, but most scholars conclude that Ptolemy was ethnically Greek and he was often known in Arabic sources as the Upper Egyptian, suggesting he may have had origins in southern Egypt.
Later Arabic astronomers and physicists referred to him by his name in Arabic, Ptolemys Almagest is the only surviving comprehensive ancient treatise on astronomy. Ptolemy presented his models in convenient tables, which could be used to compute the future or past position of the planets. The Almagest contains a catalogue, which is a version of a catalogue created by Hipparchus
The Hallaton Treasure, the largest hoard of British Iron Age coins, was discovered in 2000 near Hallaton in southeast Leicestershire, England, by volunteers from the Hallaton Fieldwork Group. The initial find was made by Ken Wallace on 19 November 2000, the hoard includes over 5,000 silver and gold coins, a silver-gilt Roman parade helmet and other objects. Most of the date to around the time of the Roman Conquest of Britain in the 1st century AD. Of the coins from the site,4,835 can be attributed to the local tribe and this find more than doubled the total number of Corieltauvian coins previously recorded. A silver Roman coin from the hoard has been dated by local museums to 211 BC, some archaeologists have however speculated that it found its way into Britain before the Roman conquest in 43 AD and is evidence of exchange through trade or diplomacy. The site of the proved to be an internationally important ritual site dating mostly to the generations before. Archaeologists believe that the site is a type of open air shrine that is the first of its kind to have discovered in the UK.
It was located on a hilltop in the Welland valley and was enclosed by a ditch. It indicates there was contact between this region and the Roman Empire despite the distance between the East Midlands and the parts of Britain the Romans arrived in, like Colchester and Chichester, finds from the Treasure are displayed at Harborough Museum. The Roman Hallaton Helmet underwent 9 years of conservation at the British Museum, in January 2011, it was announced that the skeleton of a dog believed to have been sacrificed to guard the treasure would go on display at Harborough Museum. In 2012 a silver ring inscribed TOT was found in the area that the Hallaton Treasure was discovered. The inscription is believed to refer to the Celtic god Toutatis, corresponding to the Roman god Mars, who Adam Daubney, Leicestershire County Council have acquired the ring for display at the Harborough Museum. List of hoards in Britain The Hallaton Treasure interactive display
The Catuvellauni were a Celtic tribe or state of southeastern Britain before the Roman conquest, attested by inscriptions into the 4th century. The fortunes of the Catuvellauni and their kings before the conquest can be traced through ancient coins and they are mentioned by Cassius Dio, who implies that they led the resistance against the conquest in AD43. Their territory was bordered to the north by the Iceni and Corieltauvi, to the east by the Trinovantes, to the west by the Dobunni and Atrebates, and to the south by the Regnenses and Cantiaci. The Catuvellauni are part of the Aylesford-Swarling archaeological group in Southern England often linked to Belgic Gaul, john T. Koch conjectures that the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains and the modern name of Châlons-en-Champagne. Cassivellaunus, who led the resistance to Julius Caesars first expedition to Britain in 54 BC, is taken to have belonged to the Catuvellauni. His tribal background is not mentioned by Caesar, but his territory, north of the Thames and to the west of the Trinovantes, the extensive earthworks at Devils Dyke near Wheathampstead, Hertfordshire are thought to have been the tribes original capital.
Tasciovanus was the first king to mint coins at Verlamion, beginning ca 20 BC and he appears to have expanded his power at the expense of the Trinovantes to the east, as some of his coins, ca 15–10 BC, were minted in their capital Camulodunum. This advance was given up, possibly under pressure from Rome, Camulodunum was retaken, either by Tasciovanus or by his son Cunobelinus, who succeeded him ca AD9 and ruled for about 30 years. Little is known of Cunobelinuss life, but his name survived into British legend, geoffrey of Monmouth says he was brought up at the court of Augustus and willingly paid tribute to Rome. Archaeology indicates increased trading and diplomatic links with the Roman Empire, under Cunobelinus and his family, the Catuvellauni appear to have become the dominant power in south-eastern Britain. His brother Epaticcus gained territory to the south and west at the expense of the Atrebates until his death ca AD35, the grave of the Druid of Colchester dates to this period, providing evidence of medical practices and technology within the Catuvellauni tribe.
Three sons of Cunobelinus are known to history, two other sons and Caratacus, are named by Dio Cassius. No coins of Togodumnus are known, but Caratacuss rare coins suggest that he followed his uncle Epaticcus in completing the conquest of the lands of the Atrebates. It was the exile of the Atrebatic king, that prompted Claudius to launch an invasion, led by Aulus Plautius. Dio tells us that, by stage, Cunobelinus was dead. They were defeated by Plautius in two battles on the rivers Medway and Thames. He tells us that the Bodunni, a tribe or kingdom who were tributary to the Catuvellauni and this may be a misspelling of the Dobunni, who lived in Gloucestershire, and may give an indication of how far Catuvellaunian power extended. Togodumnus died shortly after the battle on the Thames, Plautius halted and sent word for the emperor to join him, and Claudius led the final advance to Camulodunum
Walkington is a village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It is situated approximately 3 miles to the south-west of the town of Beverley on the B1230 road, the civil parish is formed by the village of Walkington and the hamlet of Broadgate. According to the 2011 UK census, Walkington parish had a population of 2,337, the village is the former home of a mental asylum, named Broadgate Hospital, built on the grounds of a Broadgate Farm, and opened in 1871. The hospital closed in 1989 to make way for housing developments. Broadgate Farm which is located between the village of Walkington and the Broadgate housing estate has now developed into a complex of holiday cottages named Broadgate Farm Cottages. The village has three houses located along the main road, East End. From West to East, these are the Dog and Duck, the Ferguson Fawsitt Arms, in the centre of Walkington is the village pond, which can be seen to be a major focal point for the residents of the village. The village school is situated in Crake Wells, a street in the East End of the village.
Before the year 1999 the school was divided between two sites included the original school house at Northgate which dates back to the late 19th century. Before this, the street was called School Lane, after a costly extension to the Crake Wells building, the infant and junior sections were finally joined together in time for the 1999–2000 school year. The new building was opened by Education Secretary David Blunkett. The parish church of All Hallows is a Grade II* listed building, there is a Methodist church as well, it is situated next to West End. A few miles west of Walkington is the Bronze Age barrow complex of Walkington Wold, the remains there include the decapitated remains of Anglo-Saxon criminals. To the east of the village is one of the stone boundary markers for the sanctuary of Saint John of Beverley that is now a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The Walkington Hoard, and other coins of the Corieltauvi tribe were discovered in numbers between 2001 and 2008. They are now at the Yorkshire Museum, Walkington Village News Walkington Primary School The Walkington Society Walkington Blog Historic England
Ratae Corieltauvorum or simply Ratae was a town in the Roman province of Britannia. Today it is known as Leicester, located in the English county of Leicestershire, Ratae is a latinate form of the Brittonic word for ramparts, suggesting the site was an Iron Age oppidum. This generic name was distinguished by, the name of the Celtic tribe whose capital it served as under the Romans, the native settlement encountered by the Romans at the site seems to have developed in the 2nd or 1st centuries BC. This area of the Soar was split into two channels, a stream to the east and a narrower channel on the west. The settlement seems to have controlled a ford across the larger channel, two legionary fortresses were established, one at Isca in the southwest corner of the territory and the other at Lindum in the northeast. A road, now known as the Fosse Way, was established between the two to help control the border. The Fosse Way crossed the Soar close to the site of the British settlement, one of the enigmas of Rataes early development was whether or not there was ever a garrison stationed in the vicinity.
The location—at a river crossing on a road near a native settlement—would have been an ideal place for a fort. As yet, there is evidence of one, only a single V-shaped ditch with a drainage slot at the bottom. This ditch is similar in form to a type of military ditch known as a ditch, with one side steeper than the other. Although the suggestion that a Roman fort was established between two arms of the Soar around AD50 cannot be ruled out, there is no evidence yet discovered of an associated fort, Ratae seems to have remained a rather poor settlement. Although there was a rebuilding programme to develop larger shops and houses, there were few amenities. Instead of a forum, there was an open marketplace at the centre. However, in the early 2nd century, better-quality spacious stone houses were erected with central courtyards and it was not occupied for long and part of it became a factory for the manufacture of horn objects. Other industries in the town included pottery production and metal and glass working, the forum and basilica were built, though it did not fill the previous marketplace.
Public baths soon followed, placed just to the west around the year 145, fed by an aqueduct, they are of an unusual plan and had a large exercise room alongside. A second marketplace was laid out in the early 3rd century and its offices had decoratively-painted plaster ceilings. A stone defensive circuit surrounded Ratae by the end of the 3rd century, there were four gateways with cemeteries outside each and a suburb to the north