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Corio Bay

Corio Bay is one of numerous internal bays in the southwest corner of Australia's Port Phillip, is the bay on which abuts the City of Geelong. The nearby suburb of Corio takes its name from Corio Bay; when Hamilton Hume and William Hovell arrived at the bay in 1824 they met with the local Wautharong people who referred to the bay as "Jillong" and the surround land "Corayo", but by the time the area was surveyed in the late 1830s the Aboriginal names had been swapped. The names "Corayo" and "Jillong" had since been Anglicised to "Corio" and "Geelong"; the Port of Geelong is located on the shores of Corio Bay, is the sixth largest port in Australia by tonnage. Before the initial settlement of Geelong, a sandbar across the bay from Point Lillias to Point Henry prevented ships from entering the inner harbour. Ships were required to drop anchor in the bay, cargo was brought into Geelong on small barges. At times it was possible to walk across the bay on the sandbar at low tide; the first channel through the sandbar was started in 1853, providing less than 4 metres draught for ships.

This channel was dredged at a depth of 6 metres in the 1860s. In 1881 a new channel started, it was named the Hopetoun Channel after Lord Hopetoun who opened it on December 20, 1893. Management of the channels and port was the responsibility of the Geelong Harbour Trust, formed in December 1905. In 1981, the Port of Geelong Authority took over from the trust; the authority was privatised by the State Government in mid 1996, being sold to TNT Logistics for $49.6 million. It was re-branded as'GeelongPort'; the shores of Corio Bay have been a popular playground for Geelong residents. Since the 1930s Eastern Beach has been a popular swimming location. Boating is popular, with a number of public boat ramps and piers provided; the bay is the home of the Royal Geelong Yacht Club, established in 1859, the adjacent Bay City Marina, constructed in the 1980s. Sometimes and dolphins can be seen in the bay. Commercial net fishing in Corio Bay ended in 2018 after campaigning by recreational fishing groups. Industrial activity around Corio bay has resulted in pollution to the bay: In 1974, severe cadmium contamination of mussels from Corio Bay was reported.

Levels as high as 41.5 µg/g had been found. The Corio Bay contamination was traced to an industrial effluent which ceased. After that time, cadmium levels in Corio Bay mussels decreased to below the NH&MRC limits. Lead levels were high in mussels in Corio Bay in 1977-78 and remained above the maximum permitted concentration of 2.5 µg/g up to the last measurements made prior to 1992 In 2002, Shell Australia was fined for three separate oil spills into Corio Bay. In 2003, Shell refinery had 63 spills to the bay up until September 8 of that year. In 2004 Shell Australia was ordered to pay $75,000 towards an environmental project near its Geelong refinery after it was convicted of polluting Corio Bay during three oil spills in 2003. In 2009 Shell Australia was fined over oil leaks on land. In 2014, spills of 3500 litres and 6300 litres of an ammonia derivative chemical used in oil refining by Viva Energy from the bayside oil refinery occurred. In 2016, Incitec Pivot was fined twice for illegally discharging about 1.7 million litres of treated wastewater and untreated stormwater into Corio Bay.

In 2015, Impact Fertilisers was fined for two illegal discharges of contaminated liquid. During its investigations EPA found out, it is that this second discharge would have reached Corio Bay. In 2017, Midway Limited was fined for permitting a significant amount of contaminated water, the company's third spill in 12 months, to leave its site and enter Corio Bay. Eastern Beach Waterfront Geelong Limeburners Bay Timeline of Geelong history

Gold (Scorpions album)

Gold is a compilation album by German hard rock band Scorpions. It was released in 2006 on Hip-O Records; the record, released as part of the Gold album series, is one of the group's few career-spanning sets. It features the Scorpions' better-known Mercury Records material, as well as earlier tunes with Uli Jon Roth. Although Gold was released in 2006, it spanned the era between 1972 and 2002, it culled at least one song from all but two studio albums during that period, while adding several studio tracks released on compilations and one live track. Songs from the album Pure Instinct and Eye II Eye were not represented in this release. All tracks are written by Klaus Meine, except noted. All tracks are written by Rudolf Schenker and Klaus Meine, except noted

Arthur Hill-Trevor, 1st Viscount Dungannon

Arthur Hill-Trevor, 1st Viscount Dungannon, was an Irish politician. Born Arthur Hill, he adopted the surname Hill-Trevor in 1759, he was the second son of Michael Hill of Hillsborough, M. P. and Privy Councillor, Anne Trevor. His maternal grandfather was the leading seventeenth-century statesman Sir John Trevor. Arthur's elder brother was Trevor Hill. 1st Viscount Hillsborough, father of the 1st Marquess of Downshire. He represented Hillsborough in the Irish House of Commons from November 1715 and County Down from 1727 until he was raised to the Irish House of Lords when created Viscount Dungannon and Baron Hill of Olderfleet in the Peerage of Ireland on 17 February 1766, he was appointed High Sheriff of Down for 1736 and appointed to the Privy Council of Ireland on 13 August 1750. He married firstly Barbara Deane, of Crumlin, daughter of Joseph Deane, Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer who died young, secondly in 1737 Anne Stafford of Brownstown, County Meath, by whom he had three children, their only son predeceased his father and the title passed to their grandson, Arthur Hill-Trevor, 2nd Viscount Dungannon.

Through his daughter, who married Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, Lord Dungannon was grandfather of the 1st Duke of Wellington. Https://

Political law

Political law is an established legal practice area encompassing the intersection of politics and law. Political law comprises election law, voting rights law, campaign finance law, laws governing lobbying and lobbyists, open government laws and executive branch ethics codes, legislative procedure, administrative procedure, constitutional law, legislative and regulatory drafting. Political laws are applied to government officials, advocacy groups, businesses, nonprofit organizations, trade unions. At the federal level, the Federal Election Commission enforces campaign finance law with respect to races for the United States House of Representatives, United States Senate, the office of President of the United States. Campaigns for federal office are subject to contribution limits and certain contributions are prohibited; the Department of Justice's Public Integrity Section has jurisdiction involving alleged criminal violations of many political laws. At the state level, most states have administrative agencies to enforce state law with respect to campaign finance and ethics rules.

The attorney general of the state may play a role in enforcement. Some local governments maintain ethics agencies. At the state and local level these agencies might provide for disclosure of campaign finance registration and reporting forms, or they may provide an enforcement scheme. "Pay-to-play" restrictions are an example of political law. For instance, in the context of municipal securities dealers, rules promulgated by the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board prohibit certain individuals from contributing to the political funds of officials of issuers. Election law Akin Gump Political law and government ethics page Arent Fox Political law page Bell, McAndrews & Hiltachk Bopp, Coleson & Bostrom Bryan Cave Clark Hill Political law page Covington & Burling Political law page Dickstein Shapiro political law page Foley & Lardner Political law page The Gober Group Harmon, Spielberg & Eisenberg, LLP Holland & Knight political law page HoltzmanVogel PLLC K&L Gates public policy and law page LeClairRyan McGuireWoods political law page McKenna Long & Aldridge Political law page McDermott Will & Emery election and political law page National Lawyers Guild Nielsen Merksamer political law page O'Melveny & Myers Political law page Perkins Coie Political law page Patton Boggs Political law page Sandler Reiff & Young Skadden Arps Political law page Trister, Schadler & Gold Venable LLP political law page Wiley Rein election law and government ethics page Womble Carlyle Political law page Rick Pildes biography Samuel Issacharoff biography Election law blog Political activity law blog


Biaktea Lalbiakhlua is an Indian professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Aizawl in the I-League on loan from Mizoram Police. Born in Mizoram, Lalbiakhlua started his career with Dinthar of the Mizoram Premier League before joining Mizoram Police. While with Mizoram Police, he represented Mizoram in the winning Santosh Trophy side in 2014. Lalbiakhlua joined newly promoted I-League side, Aizawl, in the summer of 2015 on a season-long loan, he made his professional debut for Aizawl on 16 January 2016 against Bengaluru FC. He started the match and played 79 minutes as Aizawl lost 0–1; as of 12 March 2016 Aizawl Football Club Profile

Soviet–Afghan War

The Soviet–Afghan War was a conflict wherein insurgent groups known collectively as the mujahideen, as well as smaller Maoist groups, fought a guerrilla war against the Soviet Army and the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan government. It was fought over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989 in the Afghan countryside; the mujahideen groups were backed by the United States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, making it a Cold War proxy war. Between 562,000 and 2,000,000 civilians were killed and millions of Afghans fled the country as refugees to Pakistan and Iran; the war derives from a 1978 coup when Afghanistan's communist party took power, initiating a series of radical modernization reforms throughout the country. These reforms were unpopular among the more traditional rural population and established power structures; the repressive nature of Soviet Afghanistan, which vigorously suppressed opposition including the execution of thousands of political prisoners, led to the rise of anti-government armed groups and by April 1979 large parts of the country were in open rebellion.

The ruling party itself experienced deep rivalries, in September 1979 the President, Nur Mohammad Taraki, was murdered under orders of the second-in-command, Hafizullah Amin, which soured relations with the Soviet Union. The Soviet government, under leader Leonid Brezhnev, decided to deploy the 40th Army on December 24, 1979. Arriving in the capital Kabul, they staged a coup, killing president Amin and installing Soviet loyalist Babrak Karmal from a rival faction; the deployment had been variously called an "invasion" or a legitimate supporting intervention on the basis of the Brezhnev Doctrine. In January 1980, foreign ministers from 34 nations of the Islamic Conference adopted a resolution demanding "the immediate and unconditional withdrawal of Soviet troops" from Afghanistan; the UN General Assembly passed a resolution protesting the Soviet intervention by a vote of 104 to 18, with 18 abstentions and 12 members of the 152-nation Assembly absent or not participating in the vote. Afghan insurgents began to receive massive amounts of aid and military training in neighboring Pakistan and China, paid for by the United States and Gulf Cooperation Council countries.

Soviet troops occupied the cities and main arteries of communication, while the mujahideen waged guerrilla war in small groups operating in the 80 percent of the country, outside government and Soviet control exclusively being the rural countryside. The Soviets used their air power to deal harshly with both rebels and civilians, levelling villages to deny safe haven to the mujahideen, destroying vital irrigation ditches, laying millions of land mines; the international community imposed numerous sanctions and embargoes against the Soviet Union, the U. S. led a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics held in Moscow. The boycott and sanctions exacerbated Cold War tensions and enraged the Soviet government, which led a revenge boycott of the 1984 Olympics held in Los Angeles; the Soviets planned to secure towns and roads, stabilize the government under new leader Karmal, withdraw within six months or a year. But they were met with fierce resistance from the guerillas, were stuck in a bloody war that lasted nine years.

By the mid-1980s, the Soviet contingent was increased to 108,800 and fighting increased, but the military and diplomatic cost of the war to the USSR was high. By mid-1987 the Soviet Union, now under reformist leader Mikhail Gorbachev, announced it would start withdrawing its forces after meetings with the Afghan government; the final troop withdrawal started on May 15, 1988, ended on February 15, 1989, leaving the government forces alone in the battle against the insurgents, which continued until 1992 when the former Soviet-backed government collapsed. Due to its length, it has sometimes been referred to as the "Soviet Union's Vietnam War" or the "Bear Trap" by the Western media; the Soviets' failure in the war is thought to be a contributing factor to the fall of the Soviet Union. In 1885, Russian forces seized the disputed oasis at Panjdeh south of the Oxus River from Afghan forces, which became known as the Panjdeh Incident; the border was agreed by the joint Anglo-Russian Afghan Boundary Commission of 1885–87.

The Russian interest in the region continued on through the Soviet era, with billions in economic and military aid sent to Afghanistan between 1955 and 1978. In 1947, Prime Minister of Afghanistan, Mohammed Daoud Khan, had rejected the Durrand Line, accepted as international border by successive Afghan governments for over a half a century; the British Raj came to an end and British Crown colony of India was partitioned into the new nations of India and Pakistan, the latter which inherited the Durrand Line as its frontier with Afghanistan. Daoud Khan's irredentist foreign policy to reunite the Pashtun homeland caused much tension with Pakistan, a nation that allied itself with the United States. Daoud Khan's irredentist policy was fueled by his desire to unite his divided country. To unite his divided country, Daoud Khan started emulating policies of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan and for that he needed a popular cause to unite the Afghan people divided along the tribal lines and a modern, well equipped Afghan army which would be used to surpass anyone who would oppose the Afghan government.

Daoud Khan's policy to annex Pashtun areas of Pakistan had angered Non-Pashtun population of Afghanistan. Pashtun population in Pakistan were not interested in having their areas being