Stillorgan a village in its own right, is now a suburban area of Dublin in Ireland. Stillorgan is located in Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, contains many housing estates and other facilities, with the old village centre still present. Stillorgan neighbours other southside districts such as Kilmacud, Mount Merrion, Leopardstown, Blackrock and Foxrock; the suburban region defined as the Stillorgan ward of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown, an area larger than Stillorgan village, had a population of 19,840 at the 2006 census. It is popularly believed that the name Stillorgan is either a Danish or Anglo Norman corruption of Teach Lorcan,'the house or church of Lorcan' signifying St. Laurence O'Toole. Another belief is that it is named after a Danish or Irish chief of a similar name: what may have been his burial chamber was discovered in Stillorgan Park in 1716; the original Celtic name for Stillorgan was Athnakill –'Place of the Church'. In the fourteenth century the manor of Stillorgan was held by the Cruise family, from whom it passed to the Derpatrick family, subsequently to the Fitzwilliams.
The local Roman Catholic parish church of St. Laurence is presumed to be named after St. Laurence O'Toole, or Lorcán Ua Tuathail, born at Castledermot, County Kildare in 1128, died at Eu, France, on November, was canonized in 1225 by Pope Honorius, he was one of four sons of an O'Byrne princess and Murtagh O'Tuathail, King of the Uí Muirdeaigh III. In the 1930s, 60 houses were built at Beaufield Park; the Merville Estate was subsequently built in the 1950s on land belonging to the Jolly family dairy farm. St Laurence's Park was completed in October 1954; the first bowling alley in Ireland, the Stillorgan Bowl opened in December 1963. The first shopping centre to be built in Ireland opened in Stillorgan in 1966, it was opened by Dickey Rock. It had three supermarkets, Powers and Quinnsworth; the road in front of the shopping centre was lined with cottages built during the early 19th century and, to enable the construction of the centre, they were knocked down. They extended from the Christian Brothers' school Oatlands College to the end of the Dublin Road and up the Lower Kilmacud road.
The rubble was used to fill in and level the lands that are now Páirc De Burca, the playing field of Kilmacud Crokes. Discussions have been ongoing for many years about updating the centre, it was planned to be redeveloped by Treasury Holdings in 2008. The'Blakes'/'Burn Nightclub' site has planning permission for a multi-story apartment complex with some commercial units; the Leisureplex area to the Library is due to be redeveloped. The location of Stillorgan Castle became the House of St John of God when the Hospitaller Order moved there in 1883, it is now a psychiatric hospital. One of the most prominent architectural features is the large 18th century obelisk designed by Edward Lovett Pearce for the second Viscount Allen; the present St. Brigid's Church of Ireland was built in 1706 on the site of an earlier church, thought to have been linked to St. Brigid's Monastery in Kildare; the current Rector is Rev. Ian Gallagher. A large open reservoir, called Stillorgan Reservoir, is situated near the Sandyford Industrial Estate.
The water is piped from the Vartry Reservoir near Roundwood in County Wicklow. It was built in the 19th century as part of Dublin Corporation’s waterworks on the lands of an 18th-century house called Rockland known as Clonmore. Stillorgan's oldest pub is Bolands, latterly styled Bolands on the Hill. While it was reopened as'McGowan's' following a change of lease-holder in 2010, it reverted to'Bolands' in 2012. In its older manifestation it was a local drinking refuge of many South Dublin writers, among them Brian O Nuallain and Maurice Walsh; the first Ormonde Cinema was built and opened in 1954, seating 980 people with a large car park to the side. It was demolished in 1978, the site being occupied by the AIB Bank at Stillorgan Plaza; the new Ormonde Cinema opened in the early 1980s as a smaller multi screen venue. In summer 2011, the Ormonde Cinema was refurbished and opened as a UCI cinema, Odeon. Henry Darley's brewery was opened in the 1800s and located near what is now The Grange, Brewery Road.
Cullen's was a grocery shop as well as a pub in the 1930s. It is now the site of the Stillorgan Orchard, thatched in the 1980s, it was called The Stillorgan Inn. Samuel Lewis' Topographical Dictionary of Ireland lists a number of "handsome seats and pleasing villas" in the area; these included Stillorgan House, Carysfort House, Mount Eagle, several other large residences. Primary and secondary schools in the area include Oatlands College, Mount Anville, St. Benildus College, St. Brigid's, St. Laurence's, St. Raphaela's School. Third level institutions in Stillorgan include Stillorgan College of Further Education. Stillorgan is home to the Kilmacud Crokes Gaelic Athletic Association club, whose clubhouse and grounds, are located directly opposite the shopping centre, it is home to Stillorgan Rugby Club. The N11 road leads out from the city, passing through Stillorgan, towards the major commuter town of Bray, it has bypassed Stillorgan centre since the mid-1970s when the Stillorgan B
Ireland international rules football team
This article concerns the men's team. The Ireland international rules football team is the representative team for Ireland in international rules football, a compromise between Gaelic football and Australian rules football; the team is made up of Irish players from the Gaelic Athletic Association and Australian Football League. Prior to 2006, an under-19 and under-17 team had participated in a similar series, while a women's representative team participated in 2006 only; the Ireland team plays at least one of its home games at Croke Park, with recent alternative venues being Pearse Stadium in Galway in 2006, the Gaelic Grounds in Limerick in 2010 and Breffni Park in Cavan in 2013. At present the only team Ireland plays is the Australia international rules football team, on an annual basis in the International Rules Series; as of 2015, Ireland have won ten of 19 series, won 21 of 40 test matches played and participated in two draws, all since the inaugural 1984 Series. Aidan O'Shea – Captain Conor McManus – Vice Captain Niall Morgan – Goalkeeper Chris Barrett Gary Brennan Eoin Cadogan Killian Clarke Peter Crowley Kevin Feely Paul Geaney Niall Grimley Pearce Hanley Brendan Harrison Darren Hughes Michael Murphy Niall Murphy Paul Murphy Karl O'Connell Seán Powter Ciarán Sheehan Niall Sludden Enda Smith Conor Sweeney Zach Tuohy Shane Walsh Manager: Joe Kernan Bernard Brogan – Captain Lee Keegan – Vice Captain Niall Morgan – Goalkeeper Colm Begley Gary Brennan Eoin Cadogan Mattie Donnelly Eoin Doyle Peter Harte Darren Hughes Paul Kerrigan Jack McCaffrey Ciarán McDonald Philip McMahon Conor McManus Rory O'Carroll John O'Loughlin Aidan O'Shea Michael Quinn Colm Cooper Diarmuid Connolly Paul Cribbin Paddy McBrearty Manager: Joe Kernan Michael Murphy – Captain Aidan Walsh – Vice Captain Paddy O'Rourke – Goalkeeper Cathal Cregg Mattie Donnelly Finian Hanley Pearce Hanley Darren Hughes Lee Keegan James McCarthy Ciarán McDonald Neil McGee Chrissy McKaigue Kevin McKernan Kevin McLoughlin Conor McManus David Moran Niall Morgan Ross Munnelly Colm Begley Colm O'Neill Padraig O'Neill Sean Cavanagh Colm Boyle Aidan O'Shea Manager: Paul Earley Michael Murphy – Captain Aidan Walsh – Vice Captain Paddy O'Rourke – Goalkeeper Colm Begley Colm Boyle Ciarán Byrne Sean Cavanagh Paul Conroy Paul Flynn Finian Hanley Lee Keegan Ciarán Kilkenny Paddy McBrearty Jack McCaffrey Neil McGee Chrissy McKaigue Kevin McLoughlin Conor McManus Ross Munnelly Aidan O'Shea Ciarán Sheehan Michael Shields Zach Tuohy Manager: Paul Earley Changes ahead of second Test Ciaran McKeever for Finian Hanley Johnny Doyle for Aidan O'Shea Stephen Cluxton Ciaran McKeever Pearce Hanley Eoin Cadogan Kieran Donaghy Leighton Glynn Finian Hanley Emmet Bolton Darren Hughes Tadhg Kennelly Steven McDonnell Kevin McKernan Joe McMahon Neil McGee Michael Murphy Karl Lacey Kevin Reilly Aidan Walsh Zach Tuohy Colm Begley Brendan Murphy Eamonn Callaghan Tommy Walsh Patrick Kelly Manager: Anthony Tohill *Ireland won series 130-65 on aggregate Steven McDonnell Finian Hanley Colm Begley Bernard Brogan Graham Canty Sean Cavanagh Martin Clarke Stephen Cluxton Brendan Donaghy Leighton Glynn Daniel Goulding James Kavanagh Paddy Keenan Tadhg Kennelly Sean McDermott Ciaran McKeever Kevin McKernan Brendan Murphy Michael Murphy Kevin Reilly Michael Shields Tommy Walsh Benny Coulter Niall McNamee Emmet Bolton Manager: Anthony Tohill *Ireland lost series 102-92 on aggregate Source David Gallagher goalkeeper Aidan O'Mahony Finian Hanley John Keane Bryan Cullen Kevin Reilly Ciaran McKeever Graham Canty Colm Begley Enda McGinley Seán Cavanagh - Captain Joe McMahon Steven McDonnell Kieran Donaghy Killian Young Benny Coulter Paddy Bradley Leighton Glynn Aaron Kernan Ciarán Lyng Justin McMahon Michael Meehan John Miskella Pearse O'Neill Tom Parsons Paul Finlay Manager: Sean Boylan *Ireland won series 102-97 on aggregate Kieran McGeeney Tadhg Kennelly Aidan O'Mahony Marc Ó Sé Kieran Donaghy Paul Galvin Kevin Reilly Anthony Moyle
A postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate qualification awarded after a university degree. It can be contrasted with a graduate diploma. Countries that award postgraduate diplomas include but are not limited to Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Spain, South Africa, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Republic of Panama the Philippines, Russia, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, Sri Lanka and Trinidad and Tobago. Level of education and recognition differ per issuing country. Australian equivalent of post graduate diploma is called Graduate Diploma. AQF level of the graduate diploma is eight. New Zealand universities offer postgraduate diplomas. NZQA level of post graduate diploma is eight. A postgraduate diploma indicates master's-level studies, it constitutes as the first year of a two-year master's degree. A university degree is required. In Canada, a postgraduate certificate program consists of two to three semesters, which can be completed in less than one year in some instances.
A University's degree or a master's degree is required to be accepted in this type of program. It offers the advantage of to focus on a concise subject, it is recommended for students wishing to enhance their professional skills as it concentrates on a more practical application in order to enter the labor market. Depending on the province, the title can vary: Post-Graduate Diploma, Post-Graduate Certification, Post-Baccalaureate or D. E. S. S.. See links to the Canadian education system. In India, there are a number of universities offering postgraduate diploma programs; these post-graduate diploma programs are one-year programs that are divided into two to four semesters, depending on hands-on training, field work, credit requirements. These are master's level programs; these programs are targeted to offer professional education and training to the candidates for the better employment opportunity and industry readiness. It is designed to provide in-depth exposure to concepts, scientific principles, implementation methodology of new approaches.
Post-graduate diplomas in Management, Post-graduate diploma in Banking & Finance, Remote Sensing & GIS, Industrial Maintenance Engineering and Advanced Manufacturing Technology, are examples of courses offered in India. Certain institutes provide postgraduate diploma programs which satisfies the credit requirement for a master's program with increased number of lower credit courses for 2 years, this programs are provisionally considered equivalent to a master's level. Postgraduate diploma programs are meant for those with a bachelor's degree to gain an advanced technical grasp and to those with a master's degree to enhance their interdisciplinary/translation grasp. Referred to as PgD, the postgraduate diploma has been awarded by the Higher Education and Training Awards Council, since June 2005 in institutions associated with and accredited by the council; this postgraduate qualification is awarded for a wide range of programmes in the sciences and humanities, among others. Entry requirement is a Level 8 Honours Degree in line with EQF standards, including Bachelor's degree or vocational degrees, such as the Meister or Staatlich Geprüfter Betriebswirt in Germany.
Most institutions operate under the Recognition of Prior Experiential Learning scheme meaning applicants who do not meet the normal academic requirements may be considered based on publications, relevant work or research experience, which will involve an assessment centre or interview process. In Ireland, the vast majority of postgraduate diplomas require the same duration and level of studies as a Master's degree, namely EQF Level 9, yet additional coursework or an independent research project replace the thesis. While progression to doctoral study is only possible at selected universities in Ireland, the Irish postgraduate diploma is accepted for entry to EQF Level 8 doctoral degree's in most countries. In Portugal a postgraduate diploma can be awarded under two circumstances: 1) as part of an independent program of studies; the postgraduate diploma is a postgraduate academic qualification taken after a bachelor's degree. It is awarded by a university or a graduate school, it takes two or more study terms to complete, a wide variety of courses are offered.
It is possible for graduate diploma holders to progress to a master's degree. Only postgraduate diplomas that are registered with the Ministry of Education are recognised by the industry; the postgraduate diploma is awarded by a variety of Spain universities and follows the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System grading system. For example, Pablo de Olavide University offers an English-language PgDip in the Integral Protection of Human Rights Defenders and Social Activists in cooperation with Protection International; the University of the Basque Country offers an English-language PgDip in International Election Observation and Electoral Assistance, run in cooperation with many organisations in the field of election monitoring, such as The Carter Center, Electoral Reform I
Queen's University Belfast
Queen's University Belfast is a public research university in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The university was chartered in 1845, opened in 1849 as "Queen's College, Belfast", it offers academic degrees at various levels and across a broad subject range, with over 300 degree programmes available. Its president and vice-chancellor is Ian Greer; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £369.2 million of which £91.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £338.4 million. Queen's is a member of the Russell Group of leading research intensive universities, the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, Universities Ireland and Universities UK; the university is associated with one Turing Award laureate. Queen's University Belfast has its roots in the Belfast Academical Institution, founded in 1810 and which remains as the Royal Belfast Academical Institution; the present university was first chartered as "Queen's College, Belfast" in 1845, when it was associated with the founded Queen's College and Queen's College, Galway, as part of the Queen's University of Ireland – founded to encourage higher education for Catholics and Presbyterians, as a counterpart to Trinity College, Dublin an Anglican institution.
Queen's College, opened in 1849. Its main building, the Lanyon Building, was designed by Sir Charles Lanyon. At its opening, it had 195 students; some early students at Queen's University Belfast took University of London examinations. The Irish Universities Act, 1908 dissolved the Royal University of Ireland, which had replaced the Queen's University of Ireland in 1879, created two separate universities: the current National University of Ireland and Queen's University of Belfast; the university was one of only eight United Kingdom universities to hold a parliamentary seat in the House of Commons at Westminster until such representation was abolished in 1950. The university was represented in the Parliament of Northern Ireland from 1920 to 1968, when graduates elected four members. On 20 June 2006, the university announced a £259 million investment programme focusing on facilities and research. One of the outcomes of this investment has been a new university library; the building has been named in honour of Sir Allen McClay, a major benefactor of Queen's University and of the Library.
In June 2010, the university announced the launch of a £7.5m Ansin international research hub with Seagate Technologies. Queen's is one of the largest employers in Northern Ireland, with a total workforce of 3,903, of whom 2,414 were members of academic, academic-related and research staff and 1,489 were administrative employees. In addition to the main campus on the southern fringes of Belfast city centre, the university has two associated university colleges, St Mary's and Stranmillis located in the west and south-west of the city respectively; these colleges offer teacher training for those who wish to pursue teaching careers and a range of degree courses, all of which are centred around a liberal arts core. While the university refers to its main site as a campus, the university's buildings are in fact spread over a number of public streets in South Belfast, principally Malone Road, University Road, University Square and Stranmillis Road, with other departments located further afield. Academic life at Queen's is organised into fifteen schools across three faculties.
The three faculties are the Faculty of Arts, Humanities & Social Sciences, the Faculty of Engineering & Physical Sciences and the Faculty of Medicine, Health & Life Sciences. Each of the schools operates as a primary management unit of the university and the schools are the focus for education and research for their respective subject areas. School of Biological Sciences School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science School of Arts and Languages School of History, Anthropology and Politics School of Law Queen's Management School School of Mathematics and Physics School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences School of Nursing and Midwifery School of Pharmacy School of Natural and Built Environment School of Psychology School of Social Sciences and Social Work Gibson Institute- involved in education and research in the areas of sustainability, rural development, environmental management, food marketing, renewable energy, physical activity and public health Institute for Collaborative Research in the Humanities – established in 2012, supports interdisciplinary research in the Humanities at all levels.
On Feb 18th 2016 BBC Northern Ireland reported. Institute for Global Food Security Institute for the Study of Conflict Transformation and Social Justice Institute of Cognition and Culture- Founded in 2004, this is one of the world's first centres for research in the cognitive science of culture, it has brought together a range of cutting-edge cognitive scientists via a series of visiting fellowships. Institute of Electronics and Information Technology - established in 2003 to commercialise world-class research and expertise in a variety of enabling digital communications technologies at the School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Queen's University Belfast. Institute of Irish Studies- It was the first of its kind to be established in the world and is one of the lead
Gaelic football referred to as football or Gaelic, is an Irish team sport. It is played between two teams of 15 players on a rectangular grass pitch; the objective of the sport is to score by kicking or punching the ball into the other team's goals or between two upright posts above the goals and over a crossbar 2.5 metres above the ground. Players advance the football, a spherical leather ball, up the field with a combination of carrying, kicking, hand-passing, soloing. In the game, two types of scores are possible: goals. A point is awarded for kicking or hand-passing the ball over the crossbar, signalled by the umpire raising a white flag. A goal is awarded for kicking the ball under the crossbar into the net, signalled by the umpire raising a green flag. Positions in Gaelic football are similar to that in other football codes, comprise one goalkeeper, six backs, two midfielders, six forwards, with a variable number of substitutes. Gaelic football is one of four sports controlled by the Gaelic Athletic Association, the largest sporting organisation in Ireland.
Along with hurling and camogie, Gaelic football is one of the few remaining amateur sports in the world, with players and managers prohibited from receiving any form of payment. Gaelic football is played on the island of Ireland, although units of the Association exist in other areas of the British Isles and continents such as North America and Australia; the final of the All-Ireland Senior Championship, held annually at Croke Park, draws crowds of more than 80,000 people. Outside Ireland, football is played among members of the Irish diaspora. Gaelic Park in New York City is the largest purpose-built Gaelic sports venue outside Ireland. Three major football competitions operate throughout the year: the National Football League and the All-Ireland Senior Championship operate on an inter-county basis, while the All-Ireland Club Championship is contested by individual clubs; the All-Ireland Senior Championship is considered the most prestigious event in Gaelic football. Under the auspices of the GAA, Gaelic football is a male-only sport.
Similarities between Gaelic football and Australian rules football have allowed the development of international rules football, a hybrid sport, a series of Test matches has been held since 1998. While Gaelic football as it is known today dates back to the late 19th century, various kinds of football were played in Ireland before this time; the first legal reference to football in Ireland was in 1308, when John McCrocan, a spectator at a football game at Novum Castrum de Leuan was charged with accidentally stabbing a player named William Bernard. A field near Newcastle, South Dublin is still known as the football field; the Statute of Galway of 1527 allowed the playing of "foot balle" and archery but banned "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves" as well as other sports. By the 17th century, the situation had changed considerably; the games had grown in popularity and were played. This was due to the patronage of the gentry. Now instead of opposing the games it was the gentry and the ruling class who were serving as patrons of the games.
Games were organised between landlords with each team comprising 20 or more tenants. Wagers were commonplace with purses of up to 100 guineas; the earliest record of a recognised precursor to the modern game date from a match in County Meath in 1670, in which catching and kicking the ball was permitted. However "foot-ball" was banned by the severe Sunday Observance Act of 1695, which imposed a fine of one shilling for those caught playing sports, it proved difficult, if not impossible, for the authorities to enforce the Act and the earliest recorded inter-county match in Ireland was one between Louth and Meath, at Slane, in 1712, about which the poet James Dall McCuairt wrote a poem of 88 verses beginning "Ba haigeanta". A six-a-side version was played in Dublin in the early 18th century, 100 years there were accounts of games played between County sides. By the early 19th century, various football games, referred to collectively as caid, were popular in Kerry the Dingle Peninsula. Father W. Ferris described two forms of caid: the "field game" in which the object was to put the ball through arch-like goals, formed from the boughs of two trees, and.
"Wrestling", "holding" opposing players, carrying the ball were all allowed. During the 1860s and 1870s, rugby football started to become popular in Ireland. Trinity College, Dublin was an early stronghold of rugby, the rules of the Football Association were codified in 1863 and distributed widely. By this time, according to Gaelic football historian Jack Mahon in the Irish countryside, caid had begun to give way to a "rough-and-tumble game", which allowed tripping. Association football started to take hold in Ulster, in the 1880s. Limerick was the stronghold of the native game around this time, the Commercials Club, founded by employees of Cannock's Drapery Store, was one of the first to impose a set of rules, adapted by other clubs in the city. Of all the Irish pastimes the GAA set out to preserve and promote, it is fair to say that Gaelic football was in the worst sh
All-Ireland Senior Football Championship
The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship, the premier competition in gaelic football, is an annual series of games played in Ireland and organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association. The All-Ireland Senior Football Championship Final is played by the "35th Sunday of the year" at Croke Park in Dublin, with the winning team receiving the Sam Maguire Cup. Contested by the top inter-county football teams in Ireland, the tournament has taken place every year since 1887, except in 1888, when the competition was not played due to a tour of the United States by would-be competitors; the first Championship to be held featured club teams who represented their respective counties after their county championship. The 21 a-side final was between Commercials of Young Irelands of Louth; the final was played in Beech Hill, Clonskeagh on 29 April 1888 with Commercials winning by 1–4 to 0–3. Unlike All-Ireland competitions, there were no provincial championships, the result was an open draw; the second Championship was unfinished owing to the American Invasion Tour.
The 1888 provincial championships had been completed but after the Invasion tour returned, the All-Ireland semi-final and final were not played. English team London reached the final four times in the early years of the competition. In 1892, inter-county teams were introduced to the All-Ireland Championship. Congress granted permission for the winning club to use players from other clubs in the county, thus the inter-county teams came into being; the rules of hurling and football were altered: goals were made equal to five points, teams were reduced from 21 to 17 a-side. The 1903 Championship brought Kerry's first All-Ireland title, they went on to become the most successful football team in the history of the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship. The first half of the twentieth century brought the rise of several teams who won two or more All-Ireland titles in that period, such as Kildare, Cavan and Roscommon. In the 1990s, a significant sea change took place, as the All-Ireland was claimed by an Ulster team in four consecutive years.
Since Ulster has produced more All-Ireland winning teams than any other province. The All-Ireland Qualifiers were introduced in 2001; that year, the 2001 final brought victory for Galway who became the first football team to win an All-Ireland by springing through "the back door." In 2013, Hawk-Eye was introduced. It was first used to confirm that Offaly substitute Peter Cunningham's attempted point had gone wide 10 minutes into the second half of a game against Kildare. 2013 brought the first Friday night game in the history of the Championship - a first round qualifier between Carlow and Laois.2018 saw the introduction of the All Ireland Super 8s. The county is a geographical region in Ireland, each of the thirty-two counties in Ireland organise their own gaelic games affairs through a County Board; the county teams play in their respective Provincial Championships in Connacht, Leinster and Ulster. Kilkenny is unique among the 32 Irish county associations in not participating in the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship.
The Provincial Championships operate through a knock-out cup competition format. They take place during the months of June; the winners of each of the four Provincial Championships earn a place in the All-Ireland Super 8s, a round robin group stage new to the 2018 Championship, which takes place in the months of July and August. Each provincial championship match is played as a single leg. If a match is drawn extra time is played. However, if both sides are still level at the end of extra time a replay takes place. In the case of a provincial final if matches end level a replay takes place without extra time; the twenty-nine teams that fail to win their respective Provincial Championships receive a second opportunity to reach the All-Ireland Series via the All Ireland Qualifiers. The qualifiers series takes place in the months of June and July and operates as follows: Qualifiers Round 1: All teams that fail to reach the semi-finals of their respective Provincial Championships compete in round one.
An open draw system is used to divide the teams into eight individual match-ups. The winning eight teams progress to Round 2, while the losing eight teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship. Round 2: Each of the eight winning teams of Round 1 are drawn against the eight losing teams from the semi-finals of the four Provincial Championships; the winning eight teams progress to Round 3, while the losing eight teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship. Round 3: The eight winning teams from Round 2 are divided into four individual match-ups. An open draw is made to determine the four pairings; the winning four teams progress to Round 4, while the losing four teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship. Round 4: Each of the four winning teams of Round 3 are drawn against the four losing teams from the finals of the four Provincial Championships; the winning four teams proceed to the All-Ireland Series, joining the four Provincial Champions, while the losing four teams are eliminated from the All Ireland Championship.
The All-Ireland Championship All-Ireland Super 8s: The four Provincial Champions and the winning four teams from Round 4 of the All-Ireland Qualifiers take part in a group stage that takes place in the months of July and August. The group stage is organised on a league basis with two groups of four
Table tennis known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using small rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. Except for the initial serve, the rules are as follows: players must allow a ball played toward them to bounce one time on their side of the table, must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side at least once. A point is scored. Play demands quick reactions. Spinning the ball alters its trajectory and limits an opponent's options, giving the hitter a great advantage. Table tennis is governed by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis Federation, founded in 1926. ITTF includes 226 member associations; the table tennis official rules are specified in the ITTF handbook. Table tennis has been an Olympic sport since 1988, with several event categories. From 1988 until 2004, these were women's singles, men's doubles and women's doubles. Since 2008, a team event has been played instead of the doubles.
The sport originated in Victorian England, where it was played among the upper-class as an after-dinner parlour game. It has been suggested that makeshift versions of the game were developed by British military officers in India in around 1860s or 1870s, who brought it back with them. A row of books stood up along the center of the table as a net, two more books served as rackets and were used to continuously hit a golf-ball; the name "ping-pong" was in wide use before British manufacturer J. Jaques & Son Ltd trademarked it in 1901; the name "ping-pong" came to describe the game played using the rather expensive Jaques's equipment, with other manufacturers calling it table tennis. A similar situation arose in the United States, where Jaques sold the rights to the "ping-pong" name to Parker Brothers. Parker Brothers enforced its trademark for the term in the 1920s making the various associations change their names to "table tennis" instead of the more common, but trademarked, term; the next major innovation was by James W. Gibb, a British enthusiast of table tennis, who discovered novelty celluloid balls on a trip to the US in 1901 and found them to be ideal for the game.
This was followed by E. C. Goode who, in 1901, invented the modern version of the racket by fixing a sheet of pimpled, or stippled, rubber to the wooden blade. Table tennis was growing in popularity by 1901 to the extent that tournaments were being organized, books being written on the subject, an unofficial world championship was held in 1902. In 1921, the Table Tennis Association was founded, in 1926 renamed the English Table Tennis Association; the International Table Tennis Federation followed in 1926. London hosted the first official World Championships in 1926. In 1933, the United States Table Tennis Association, now called USA Table Tennis, was formed. In the 1930s, Edgar Snow commented in Red Star Over China that the Communist forces in the Chinese Civil War had a "passion for the English game of table tennis" which he found "bizarre". On the other hand, the popularity of the sport waned in 1930s Soviet Union because of the promotion of team and military sports, because of a theory that the game had adverse health effects.
In the 1950s, paddles that used a rubber sheet combined with an underlying sponge layer changed the game introducing greater spin and speed. These were introduced to Britain by sports goods manufacturer S. W. Hancock Ltd; the use of speed glue increased the spin and speed further, resulting in changes to the equipment to "slow the game down". Table tennis was introduced as an Olympic sport at the Olympics in 1988. After the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, the ITTF instituted several rule changes that were aimed at making table tennis more viable as a televised spectator sport. First, the older 38 mm balls were replaced by 40 mm balls in October 2000; this increased the ball's air resistance and slowed down the game. By that time, players had begun increasing the thickness of the fast sponge layer on their paddles, which made the game excessively fast and difficult to watch on television. A few months the ITTF changed from a 21-point to an 11-point scoring system, effective in September 2001; this was intended to make games more exciting.
The ITTF changed the rules on service to prevent a player from hiding the ball during service, in order to increase the average length of rallies and to reduce the server's advantage, effective in 2002. For the opponent to have time to realize a serve is taking place, the ball must be tossed a minimum of 16 cm in the air; the ITTF states. The international rules specify that the game is played with a sphere having a mass of 2.7 grams and a diameter of 40 millimetres. The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24–26 cm when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm onto a standard steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92. Balls are now made of a polymer instead of celluloid as of 2015, colored white or orange, with a matte finish; the choice of ball color is made according to its surroundings. For example, a white ball is easier to see on a blue table than it is on a grey table. Manufacturers indicate the quality of the ball with a star rating system from one to three, three being the highest grade.
As this system is not standard across manufacturers, the only way a ball may be used in official competition is upon ITTF approval (the ITTF approval can be seen printed on the