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Corn Belt

The Corn Belt is a region of the Midwestern United States that, since the 1850s, has dominated corn production in the United States. More the concept of the "Corn Belt" connotes the area of the Midwest dominated by farming and agriculture. There is lack of consensus regarding the constituents of the Corn Belt, although it includes: Iowa, Indiana, southern Michigan, western Ohio, eastern Nebraska, eastern Kansas, southern Minnesota, parts of Missouri, it sometimes includes: South Dakota, North Dakota, all of Ohio, all of Michigan, Kentucky. The region is characterized by level land, deep fertile soils, a high organic soil concentration; as of 2008, the top four corn-producing states were Iowa, Illinois and Minnesota, accounting for more than half of the corn growth in the United States. On account of new agricultural technology developments between 1860 and 1970, the Corn Belt went from producing mixed crops and livestock into becoming an area focused on wheat-cash planting. After 1970, increased crop and meat production required an export outlet, but global recession and a strong dollar reduced exports and created serious problems for the best farm managers.

In 1956, former Vice President Henry A. Wallace, a pioneer of hybrid seed, declared that the Corn Belt has developed the "most productive agricultural civilization the world has seen". Most corn grown today is fed to livestock hogs and poultry. In recent decades soybeans have grown in importance; the U. S. produces 40% of the world crop. By 1950, 99% of corn has been grown from hybrids. In 1997, the USEPA published its report on United States' ecoregions, in part based on "land use", its "Level III" region classification contains three contiguous "Corn Belt" regions, Western and Eastern, stretching from Indiana to eastern Nebraska. Breadbasket Canadian Prairies, Canada's'Breadbasket' Central Black Earth Region, segment of the Eurasian chernozem belt that lies within Central Russia Palliser's Triangle, Canada's semi-arid grain production region Peak wheat Banana Belt Anderson, J. L. Industrializing the Corn Belt: Agriculture and Environment, 1945-1972 238 pp. ISBN 978-0-87580-392-0 Bogue, Allan.

From Prairie to Corn Belt: Farming on the Illinois and Iowa Prairies in the Nineteenth Century excerpt and text search Cayton, Andrew, et al. eds. The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia excerpt and text search Hart, John Fraser. "Change in the Corn Belt", Geographical Review, Jan 1986, Vol. 76#1 pp. 51–72 Hudson, John C. Making the Corn Belt: A Geographical History of Middle-Western Agriculture Power, Richard Lyle. Planting Corn Belt Culture: The Impress of the Upland Southerner and Yankee in the old Northwest Snapp, Roscoe R. Beef Cattle Their Feeding and Management in the Corn Belt States Smith, C. Wayne, et al. Corn: Origin, History and Production online edition Wallace, Henry Agard. Henry A. Wallace's Irrigation Frontier: On the Trail of the Corn Belt Farmer 1909 15 articles written by Wallace in 1909.

Leopardus guttulus

Leopardus guttulus, the southern tiger cat or southern tigrina, is a wild cat species native to Brazil and Paraguay. Felis guttula was the scientific name used in 1872 by Hensel when he described a tiger cat from the jungles of the Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil, it was long considered to be a subspecies of the oncilla Leopardus tigrinus. It was recognized as a distinct species in 2013, it is related to Geoffroy's cat L. geoffroyi, with which it interbreeds in southern Brazil. The small neotropical cat has a yellowish-ocre coat patterned with open black rosettes. Physically, the southern tigrina can be distinguished from the oncilla by its darker background coloring, larger rosette pattern, shorter tail. However, it is difficult to distinguish between the two species by appearance alone, since more genetic variation tends to occur within each species than between the two species. An adult southern tigrina weighs anywhere between 2.4 kg. The southern tigrina occurs from central to southern Brazil in Minas Gerais and Goiás states, in the Atlantic forest, eastern Paraguay and northeastern Argentina below elevations of 2,000 m.

The population is estimated to comprise around 6,000 mature individuals. It inhabits dense tropical and subtropical rainforests and mixed pine forests, open savannahs, beach vegetation. At the margins of its range, the southern tigrina interbreeds with Geoffroy's cats, L. geoffroyi, but it does not appear to interbreed with the oncilla population in northeastern Brazil, which in contrast has a history of interbreeding with L. colocolo. Because of habitat differentiation, interbreeding does not occur between oncilla and southern tigrina. In contrast and introgression occurs between southern tigrina and Geoffroy's cat at their contact zone in southern Brazil. Many southern tigrinas and Geoffrey's cats are thought to be partial hybrids, because of the high level of interbreeding, occurring; the southern tigrina preys on small mammals and lizards. Average prey weighs less than 100 g, but includes larger sized prey up to 1 kg; the southern tigrina inhabits the same habitat as the ocelot. In areas with a high ocelot concentration, the southern tigrina populations are smaller, due to competition.

When ocelots are scarce, it allows for smaller cat species, such as the southern tigrina, to have better opportunities for shelters and territory, which therefore allows for a larger population size and density of southern tigrina. This phenomenon is called the ocelot effect. In 2015, two juvenile southern tigrinas were recorded for the first time in the Atlantic forest while learning hunting skills and capturing a cavy; the mother plays an important role in teaching her cubs how to survive in the wild. During the fur trade, the southern tigrina was exploited. Today, the biggest threats of the southern tigrina include habitat loss and deforestation, hunting from local people, road kills, diseases spread from domestic dogs, the use of rodent poisoning; the southern tigrina occurs in protected areas, but at low densities. A push is on to better understand the biodiversity, ecology and genetics of the southern tigrina to orchestrate a more effective conservation strategy for the species. In addition, further research is being conducted to better understand the special differences between oncilla and southern tigrina.

Hunting is banned in Argentina and Paraguay. A demographic expansion following the last glacial maximum is thought to have led to the allopatric speciation of the southern tigrina. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group: Leopardus guttulus

San Marin High School

San Marin High School is a high school located in Novato, California, in the United States. San Marin High School opened in 1968 in Novato. Robert Vieth became principal in 2007, after the former principal was dismissed by the District's board, resulting in extended protests by parents and students. Vieth established the first code of conduct for student athletes and coaches in Marin County and began the San Marin Plus school-within-a-school program in 2010 for credit deficient students. Vieth announced plans for his retirement in March 2011; the school occupies 39.6 acres, with a total of 51 classrooms, one gymnasium and one mini-gym, a student center, library and career center, media room, art department and science lab. All the facilities have been upgraded thanks to the Facility Bond; the seniors have a tradition of chalking their graduating class year on a hill on the north side of the school named, "Senior Hill". Athletic facilities include tennis and basketball courts and softball diamonds, soccer field and a newly upgraded artificial turf football field and an all-weather track.

San Marin High School serves grades 9–12, offers a comprehensive program of study to 1040 students. San Marin has established educational objectives aimed at providing students with challenging learning experiences in academics, as well as providing assistance with choosing future educational and career choices. Students are given opportunities to take classes in performing arts, visual arts, Regional Occupational Program courses, Advanced Placement and Honors Courses, Sheltered Courses. In particular, R. O. P. A. P. and honors enrollment has climbed dramatically. STEM Programs - San Marin is notable for its strong and successful STEM programs. Both of San Marin's STEM programs focus on preparing students for college and career through rigorous, hands-on, project based learning experiences. San Marin's STEM programs include the Biotechnology Academy. STEM Marin was founded in 2013. STEM Marin enrolls 60 9th graders each year and students take two science or engineering courses each school year as well as math each year.

STEM Marin courses are blocked together in 9th and 10th grades so students take physics and engineering every day for two hours per day in 9th grade and biology and biotechnology during 10th grade. In 11th grade, students take chemistry and one STEM elective, in 12th grade, students take senior capstone engineering and one STEM elective. In 2015, STEM Marin teacher Nick Williams won the prestigious Milken Educator AwardBiotechnology Academy was founded in 2015 although there have been biotechnology courses at San Marin since 2009. Biotechnology Academy enrolls 60 9th graders each year and students are cohorted together for technology of biology and health/college and career readiness during 9th grade. Students are cohorted together for chemistry of biotechnology and English 10th grade, take biotechnology 1 during 11th grade and biotechnology 2 during 12th grade. San Marin High School was recognized as a 2017 California Gold Ribbon School for its STEM and arts programs; the school has 25 classified staff and a regional occupational program.

The school newspaper is called The Pony Express. San Marin offers a wealth of performance opportunities; the performing arts, visual arts program is called the SMART program. Drama Department The Drama Department offers drama and advanced drama programs and produces two full-length Drama productions, beginning drama winter play and various'cafe theaters.' Among many other awards, the Drama students won First Place in the Sacramento State Statewide Lenaea Drama Festival and first places in both Monologue and Scene Category at the Marin Theater Company Scene Fest. The Drama department was invited to perform at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival with AHSTF during the summer of 2009. Music Department An extensive music experience is provided. In addition to Concert/Jazz choirs and bands during normal school hours, the music department offers show choir, 3 Jazz Combos, Music theater, Music Technology, other small ensembles; the department presents two full-length musicals with tech crew. Students attend regional and international music festivals and won numerous awards.

Visual Art Department A variety of art classes using different media are offered. The classes are Art and Design, 3D Art, Glass Art, Photography 1, Photography 2 and AP Photography and Painting, AP Art, for which students can receive college credit for approved portfolios. San Marin students are involved in a wide range of co-curricular and extra-curricular activities with many opportunities for parent involvement. Parent organizations include PTSA, Sports Boosters, Music Boosters, Drama Boosters, Art Boosters, the English Language Advisory Committee; these groups are active in supporting the school. San Marin High School athletic teams participates in the North Coast Section, Marin County Athletic League programs; the school is known for its successful athletic program. San Marin has three seasons of sports for girls and boys; the Sports Boosters is instrumental for raising funds for the athletic and sports programs at San Marin. Fall Sports – Cross Country, Girls Tennis, Girls Volleyball, Water Polo, Girls Golf and Cheerleading (Boys