An adhesive known as glue, mucilage, or paste, is any non metallic substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation. Adjectives may be used in conjunction with the word "adhesive" to describe properties based on the substance's physical or chemical form, the type of materials joined, or conditions under which it is applied; the use of adhesives offers many advantages over binding techniques such as sewing, mechanical fastening, thermal bonding, etc. These include the ability to bind different materials together, to distribute stress more efficiently across the joint, the cost effectiveness of an mechanized process, an improvement in aesthetic design, increased design flexibility. Disadvantages of adhesive use include decreased stability at high temperatures, relative weakness in bonding large objects with a small bonding surface area, greater difficulty in separating objects during testing. Adhesives are organized by the method of adhesion.
These are organized into reactive and non-reactive adhesives, which refers to whether the adhesive chemically reacts in order to harden. Alternatively they can be organized by whether the raw stock is of natural or synthetic origin, or by their starting physical phase. Adhesives may be found or produced synthetically; the earliest human use of adhesive-like substances was 200,000 years ago, when Neanderthals produced tar from the dry distillation of birch bark for use in binding stone tools to wooden handles. The first references to adhesives in literature first appeared in 2000 BC; the Greeks and Romans made great contributions to the development of adhesives. In Europe, glue was not used until the period AD 1500–1700. From until the 1900s increases in adhesive use and discovery were gradual. Only since the last century has the development of synthetic adhesives accelerated and innovation in the field continues to the present; the earliest use of adhesives was discovered in central Italy when two stone flakes covered with birch-bark tar and a third uncovered stone from the Middle Pleistocene era were found.
This is thought to be the oldest discovered human use of tar-hafted stones. The birch-bark-tar adhesive is a one-component adhesive. Although sticky enough, plant-based adhesives are brittle and vulnerable to environmental conditions; the first use of compound adhesives was discovered in South Africa. Here, 70,000-year-old stone segments that were once inserted in axe hafts were discovered covered with an adhesive composed of plant gum and red ochre as adding ochre to plant gum produces a stronger product and protects the gum from disintegrating under wet conditions; the ability to produce stronger adhesives allowed middle stone age humans to attach stone segments to sticks in greater variations, which led to the development of new tools. More recent examples of adhesive use by prehistoric humans have been found at the burial sites of ancient tribes. Archaeologists studying the sites found that 6,000 years ago the tribesmen had buried their dead together with food found in broken clay pots repaired with tree resins.
Another investigation by archaeologists uncovered the use of bituminous cements to fasten ivory eyeballs to statues in Babylonian temples dating to 4000 BC. In 2000, a paper revealed the discovery of a 5,200-year-old man nicknamed the "Tyrolean Iceman" or "Ötzi", preserved in a glacier near the Austria-Italy border. Several of his belongings were found with him including two arrows with flint arrowheads and a copper hatchet, each with evidence of organic glue used to connect the stone or metal parts to the wooden shafts; the glue was analyzed as pitch. The retrieval of this tar requires a transformation of birch bark by means of heat, in a process known as pyrolysis; the first references to adhesives in literature first appeared in 2000 BC. Further historical records of adhesive use are found from the period spanning 1500–1000 BC. Artifacts from this period include paintings depicting wood gluing operations and a casket made of wood and glue in King Tutankhamun's tomb. Other ancient Egyptian artifacts employ animal glue for lamination.
Such lamination of wood for bows and furniture is thought to have extended their life and was accomplished using casein -based glues. The ancient Egyptians developed starch-based pastes for the bonding of papyrus to clothing and a plaster of Paris-like material made of calcined gypsum. From AD 1 to 500 the Greeks and Romans made great contributions to the development of adhesives. Wood veneering and marquetry were developed, the production of animal and fish glues refined, other materials utilized. Egg-based pastes were used to bond gold leaves incorporated various natural ingredients such as blood, hide, cheese and grains; the Greeks began the use of slaked lime as mortar while the Romans furthered mortar development by mixing lime with volcanic ash and sand. This material, known as pozzolanic cement, was used in the construction of the Roman Colosseum and Pantheon; the Romans were the first people known to have used tar and beeswax as caulk and sealant between the wooden planks of their boats and ships.
In Central Asia, the rise of the Mongols in AD 1000 can be attributed to the good range and power of the bows of Genghis Khan's hordes. These bows were constructed with laminated bullhorn bonded by an unknown adhesive. In Europe, glue fell into disuse until the period AD 1500–1700. At this time, world-renowned cabinet and furniture makers such
A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which can increase the viscosity of a liquid without changing its other properties. Edible thickeners are used to thicken sauces and puddings without altering their taste. Thickeners may improve the suspension of other ingredients or emulsions which increases the stability of the product. Thickening agents are regulated as food additives and as cosmetics and personal hygiene product ingredients; some thickening agents are gelling agents, forming a gel, dissolving in the liquid phase as a colloid mixture that forms a weakly cohesive internal structure. Others act as mechanical thixotropic additives with discrete particles adhering or interlocking to resist strain. Thickening agents can be used when a medical condition such as dysphagia causes difficulty in swallowing. Thickened liquids play a vital role in reducing risk of aspiration for dysphagia patients. Food thickeners are based on either polysaccharides, or proteins. A flavorless powdered starch used for this purpose is a fecula.
This category includes starches as arrowroot, katakuri starch, potato starch, sago and their starch derivatives. Microbial and Vegetable gums used as food thickeners include alginin, guar gum, locust bean gum, xanthan gum. Proteins used as food thickeners include collagen, egg whites, gelatin. Sugar polymers include agar, carboxymethyl cellulose and carrageenan. Other thickening agents act on the proteins present in a food. One example is sodium pyrophosphate, which acts on casein in milk during the preparation of instant pudding. Different thickeners may be more or less suitable in a given application, due to differences in taste and their responses to chemical and physical conditions. For example, for acidic foods, arrowroot is a better choice than cornstarch, which loses thickening potency in acidic mixtures. At pH levels below 4.5, guar gum has reduced aqueous solubility, thus reducing its thickening capability. If the food is to be frozen, tapioca or arrowroot are preferable over cornstarch, which becomes spongy when frozen.
Many other food ingredients are used as thickeners in the final stages of preparation of specific foods. These thickeners are not markedly stable, thus are not suitable for general use. However, they are convenient and effective, hence are used. Functional flours are produced from specific cereal variety conjugated to specific heat treatment able to increase stability and general functionalities; these functional flours are resistant to industrial stresses such as acidic pH, freeze conditions, can help food industries to formulate with natural ingredients. For the final consumer, these ingredients are more accepted because they are shown as "flour" in the ingredient list. Flour is used for thickening gravies and stews, it must be cooked in to avoid the taste of uncooked flour. Roux, a mixture of flour and fat cooked into a paste, is used for gravies and stews. Cereal grains are used to thicken soups. Yogurt is popular in Middle East for thickening soups. Soups can be thickened by adding grated starchy vegetables before cooking, though these will add their own flavour.
Tomato puree adds thickness as well as flavour. Egg yolks are a traditional sauce thickener in professional cooking. Overheating ruins such a sauce, which can make egg yolk difficult to use as a thickener for amateur cooks. Other thickeners used by cooks are glaces made of meat or fish. Many thickening agents require extra care in cooking; some starches lose their thickening quality when cooked for at too high a temperature. Higher viscosity causes foods to burn more during cooking; as an alternative to adding more thickener, recipes may call for reduction of the food's water content by lengthy simmering. When cooking, it is better to add thickener cautiously. Gelling agents are food additives used to thicken and stabilize various foods, like jellies and candies; the agents provide the foods with texture through formation of a gel. Some stabilizers and thickening agents are gelling agents. Typical gelling agents include natural gums, pectins, agar-agar and gelatin, they are based on polysaccharides or proteins.
Examples are: Alginic acid, sodium alginate, potassium alginate, ammonium alginate, calcium alginate - polysaccharides from brown algae Agar Carrageenan Locust bean gum Pectin Gelatin Commercial jellies used in East Asian cuisines include the glucomannan polysaccharide gum used to make "lychee cups" from the konjac plants, aiyu or ice jelly from the Ficus pumila climbing fig plant. Food thickening can be important for people facing medical issues w
Corn oil is oil extracted from the germ of corn. Its main use is in cooking, it is a key ingredient in some margarines. Corn oil is less expensive than most other types of vegetable oils. One bushel of corn contains 1.55 pounds of corn oil. Corn agronomists have developed high-oil varieties. Corn oil is a feedstock used for biodiesel. Other industrial uses for corn oil include soap, paint, rustproofing for metal surfaces, textiles and insecticides, it is sometimes used as a carrier for drug molecules in pharmaceutical preparations. All corn oil is expeller-pressed solvent-extracted using hexane or 2-methylpentane; the solvent is evaporated from the corn oil, re-used. After extraction, the corn oil is refined by degumming and/or alkali treatment, both of which remove phosphatides. Alkali treatment neutralizes free fatty acids and removes color. Final steps in refining include winterization, deodorization by steam distillation of the oil at 232–260 °C under a high vacuum; some specialty oil producers manufacture 100 % - expeller-pressed corn oil.
This is a more expensive product since it has a much lower yield than the combination expeller and solvent process, as well as a smaller market share. Of the saturated fatty acids, 80% are palmitic acid, 14% stearic acid, 3% arachidic acid. Over 99% of the monounsaturated fatty acids are oleic acid 98% of the polyunsaturated fatty acids are the omega-6 linoleic acid. Corn wet-milling Dupont J. "Food uses and health effects of corn oil". J Am Coll Nutr. 9: 438–470. PMID 2258533. Institute of Shortening and Edible Oils The Maize Page
Transparency and translucency
In the field of optics, transparency is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered. On a macroscopic scale, the photons can be said to follow Snell's Law. Translucency is a superset of transparency: it allows light to pass through, but does not follow Snell's law. In other words, a translucent medium allows the transport of light while a transparent medium not only allows the transport of light but allows for image formation. Transparent materials appear clear, with the overall appearance of one color, or any combination leading up to a brilliant spectrum of every color; the opposite property of translucency is opacity. When light encounters a material, it can interact with it in several different ways; these interactions depend on the nature of the material. Photons interact with an object by some combination of reflection and transmission; some materials, such as plate glass and clean water, transmit much of the light that falls on them and reflect little of it.
Many liquids and aqueous solutions are transparent. Absence of structural defects and molecular structure of most liquids are responsible for excellent optical transmission. Materials which do not transmit light are called opaque. Many such substances have a chemical composition which includes what are referred to as absorption centers. Many substances are selective in their absorption of white light frequencies, they absorb certain portions of the visible spectrum while reflecting others. The frequencies of the spectrum which are not absorbed are either reflected or transmitted for our physical observation; this is. The attenuation of light of all frequencies and wavelengths is due to the combined mechanisms of absorption and scattering. Transparency can provide perfect camouflage for animals able to achieve it; this is easier in turbid seawater than in good illumination. Many marine animals such as jellyfish are transparent. With regard to the absorption of light, primary material considerations include: At the electronic level, absorption in the ultraviolet and visible portions of the spectrum depends on whether the electron orbitals are spaced such that they can absorb a quantum of light of a specific frequency, does not violate selection rules.
For example, in most glasses, electrons have no available energy levels above them in range of that associated with visible light, or if they do, they violate selection rules, meaning there is no appreciable absorption in pure glasses, making them ideal transparent materials for windows in buildings. At the atomic or molecular level, physical absorption in the infrared portion of the spectrum depends on the frequencies of atomic or molecular vibrations or chemical bonds, on selection rules. Nitrogen and oxygen are not greenhouse gases because there is no absorption, but because there is no molecular dipole moment. With regard to the scattering of light, the most critical factor is the length scale of any or all of these structural features relative to the wavelength of the light being scattered. Primary material considerations include: Crystalline structure: whether or not the atoms or molecules exhibit the'long-range order' evidenced in crystalline solids. Glassy structure: scattering centers include fluctuations in density or composition.
Microstructure: scattering centers include internal surfaces such as grain boundaries, crystallographic defects and microscopic pores. Organic materials: scattering centers include fiber and cell structures and boundaries. Diffuse reflection - Generally, when light strikes the surface of a solid material, it bounces off in all directions due to multiple reflections by the microscopic irregularities inside the material, by its surface, if it is rough. Diffuse reflection is characterized by omni-directional reflection angles. Most of the objects visible to the naked eye are identified via diffuse reflection. Another term used for this type of reflection is "light scattering". Light scattering from the surfaces of objects is our primary mechanism of physical observation. Light scattering in liquids and solids depends on the wavelength of the light being scattered. Limits to spatial scales of visibility therefore arise, depending on the frequency of the light wave and the physical dimension of the scattering center.
Visible light has a wavelength scale on the order of a half a micrometer. Scattering centers as small. Optical transparency in polycrystalline materials is limited by the amount of light, scattered by their microstructural features. Light scattering depends on the wavelength of the light. Limits to spatial scales of visibility therefore arise, depending on the frequency of the light wave and the physical dimension of the scattering center. For example, since visible light has a wavelength scale on the order of a micrometer, scattering centers will have dimensions on a similar spatial scale. Primary scattering centers in polycrystalline materi
Jersey City, New Jersey
Jersey City is the second most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey, after Newark. It is the seat of Hudson County as well as the county's largest city; as of 2017, the Census Bureau's Population Estimates Program calculated that Jersey City's population was 270,753, with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since 2010, an increase of about 9.4% from the 2010 United States Census, when the city's population was at 247,597. Ranking the city the 75th-most-populous in the nation. Part of the New York metropolitan area, Jersey City is bounded on the east by the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay and on the west by the Hackensack River and Newark Bay. A port of entry, with 30.7 miles of waterfront and extensive rail infrastructure and connectivity, the city is an important transportation terminus and distribution and manufacturing center for the Port of New York and New Jersey. Jersey City shares significant mass transit connections with Manhattan. Redevelopment of the Jersey City waterfront has made the city one of the largest centers of banking and finance in the United States and has led to the district being nicknamed Wall Street West.
After a peak population of 316,715 measured in the 1930 Census, the city's population saw a half-century-long decline to a nadir of 223,532 in the 1980 Census. Since the city's population has rebounded, with the 2010 population reflecting an increase of 7,542 from the 240,055 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 11,518 from the 228,537 counted in the 1990 Census; the land comprising what is now Jersey City was inhabited by a collection of tribes. In 1609, Henry Hudson, seeking an alternate route to East Asia, anchored his small vessel Halve Maen at Sandy Hook, Harsimus Cove and Weehawken Cove, elsewhere along what was named the North River. After spending nine days surveying the area and meeting its inhabitants, he sailed as far north as Albany. By 1621, the Dutch West India Company was organized to manage this new territory and in June 1623, New Netherland became a Dutch province, with headquarters in New Amsterdam. Michael Reyniersz Pauw received a land grant as patroon on the condition that he would establish a settlement of not fewer than fifty persons within four years.
He purchased the land from the Lenape. This grant is dated November 22, 1630 and is the earliest known conveyance for what are now Hoboken and Jersey City. Pauw, was an absentee landlord who neglected to populate the area and was obliged to sell his holdings back to the Company in 1633; that year, a house was built at Communipaw for Jan Evertsen Bout, superintendent of the colony, named Pavonia. Shortly after, another house was built at Harsimus Cove and became the home of Cornelius Van Vorst, who had succeeded Bout as superintendent, whose family would become influential in the development of the city. Relations with the Lenape deteriorated, in part because of the colonialist's mismanagement and misunderstanding of the indigenous people, led to series of raids and reprisals and the virtual destruction of the settlement on the west bank. During Kieft's War eighty Lenapes were killed by the Dutch in a massacre at Pavonia on the night of February 25, 1643. Scattered communities of farmsteads characterized the Dutch settlements at Pavonia: Communipaw, Paulus Hook, Hoebuck and other lands "behind Kill van Kull".
The first village established on what is now Bergen Square in 1660, is considered to be the oldest town in what would become the state of New Jersey. The flag of the city is a variation on the Prince's Flag from the Netherlands. Among the oldest surviving houses in Jersey City are the Newkirk House, the Van Vorst Farmhouse, the Van Wagenen House. During the American Revolutionary War, the area was in the hands of the British who controlled New York. In the Battle of Paulus Hook Major Light Horse Harry Lee attacked a British fortification on August 19, 1779. After this war, Alexander Hamilton and other prominent New Yorkers and New Jerseyeans attempted to develop the area that would become historic downtown Jersey City and laid out the city squares and streets that still characterize the neighborhood, giving them names seen in Lower Manhattan or after war heroes. During the 19th century, former slaves reached Jersey City on one of the four routes of the Underground Railroad that led to the city.
The City of Jersey was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 28, 1820, from portions of Bergen Township, while the area was still a part of Bergen County. The city was reincorporated on January 23, 1829, again on February 22, 1838, at which time it became independent of North Bergen and was given its present name. On February 22, 1840, it became part of the newly created Hudson County. Soon after the Civil War, the idea arose of uniting all of the towns of Hudson County east of the Hackensack River into one municipality. A bill was approved by the state legislature on April 2, 1869, with a special election to be held October 5, 1869. An element of the bill provide. While a majority of the voters across the county approved the merger, the only municipalities that had approved the consolidation plan and that adjoined Jersey City were Hudson City and Bergen City; the consolidation began on March 17, 1870, taking effect on May 3, 1870. Three years the present outline of Jersey City was completed when Greenville agreed to m
Wheat is a grass cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain, a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis. Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.
Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, high compared to other major cereals but low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids; when eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of dietary fiber. In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, noncoeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis. Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, as mutant forms of wheat were preferentially chosen by farmers. In domesticated wheat, grains are larger, the seeds remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting. In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to shatter and disperse the spikelets. Selection for these traits by farmers might not have been deliberately intended, but have occurred because these traits made gathering the seeds easier.
As the traits that improve wheat as a food source involve the loss of the plant's natural seed dispersal mechanisms domesticated strains of wheat cannot survive in the wild. Cultivation of wheat began to spread beyond the Fertile Crescent after about 8000 BCE. Jared Diamond traces the spread of cultivated emmer wheat starting in the Fertile Crescent sometime before 8800 BCE. Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant, with finds dating back as far as 9600 BCE. Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey. Dated archeological remains of einkorn wheat in settlement sites near this region, including those at Abu Hureyra in Syria, suggest the domestication of einkorn near the Karacadag Mountain Range. With the anomalous exception of two grains from Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 date for einkorn wheat remains at Abu Hureyra is 7800 to 7500 years BCE. Remains of harvested emmer from several sites near the Karacadag Range have been dated to between 8600 and 8400 BCE, that is, in the Neolithic period.
With the exception of Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 dated remains of domesticated emmer wheat were found in the earliest levels of Tell Aswad, in the Damascus basin, near Mount Hermon in Syria. These remains were dated by Willem van Zeist and his assistant Johanna Bakker-Heeres to 8800 BCE, they concluded that the settlers of Tell Aswad did not develop this form of emmer themselves, but brought the domesticated grains with them from an as yet unidentified location elsewhere. The cultivation of emmer reached Greece and Indian subcontinent by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. "The early Egyptians were developers of bread and the use of the oven and developed baking into one of the first large-scale food production industries." By 3000 BCE, wheat had reached Scandinavia. A millennium it reached China; the oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE, recovered from Çatalhöyük.
The first identifiable bread wheat with sufficient gluten for yeasted breads has been identified using DNA analysis in samples from a granary dating to 1350 BCE at Assiros in Macedonia. From Asia, wheat continued to spread across Europe. In the British Isles, wheat straw was used for roofing in the Bronze Age, was in common use until the late 19th century. Technological advances in soil preparation and seed placement at planting time, use of crop rotation and fertilizers to improve plant growth, advances in harvesting methods have all combined to promote wheat as a viable crop; when the use of seed drills replaced broadcasting sowing of seed in the 18th century, another great increase in productivity occurred. Yields of pure wheat per unit area increased as methods of crop rotation were applied to long cultivated land, the use of fertilizers became widespread. Improved agricultural husbandry has more included threshing machines and reaping machines, tractor-drawn cultivators and planters, better varieties.
Great expansion of wheat production occurred as new arable land was farmed in the Americas and Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Leaves emerge from the shoot apical meristem in a telescoping fashion until the transition to reprod
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, crocheting, knotting or tatting, felting, or braiding; the related words "fabric" and "cloth" and "material" are used in textile assembly trades as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles. A fabric is a material made through weaving, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is a piece of fabric, processed; the word'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning'woven', from textus, the past participle of the verb texere,'to weave'. The word'fabric' derives from Latin, most from the Middle French fabrique, or'building, thing made', earlier as the Latin fabrica'workshop.
The word'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and much earlier, were made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the ice ages. At some point people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles; the discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made in prehistoric times. The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, coverings for tables and other flat surfaces, in art.
In the workplace they are used in scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, tents, handkerchiefs, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites and parachutes. Textiles are used in many traditional crafts such as sewing and embroidery. Textiles for industrial purposes, chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles, agrotextiles, protective clothing. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met. Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements. Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal, plant and synthetic; the first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze-like gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond. Animal textiles are made from hair, skin or silk. Wool refers to the hair of the domestic sheep or goat, distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and crimped, the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin, waterproof and dirtproof. Woollen refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is used for warm clothing. Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool, llama wool, camel hair used in the production of coats, ponchos and other warm coverings.
Angora refers to the long, soft hair of the angora rabbit. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox. Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia 1000~1500 CE. Sea silk is an fine and valuable fabric, made from the silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells. Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm, spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main ty