Glucose syrup known as confectioner's glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch. Glucose is a sugar. Maize is used as the source of the starch in the US, in which case the syrup is called "corn syrup", but glucose syrup is made from potatoes and wheat, less from barley and cassava.p. 21Glucose syrup containing over 90% glucose is used in industrial fermentation, but syrups used in confectionery contain varying amounts of glucose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade, can contain 10% to 43% glucose. Glucose syrup is used in foods to soften texture and add volume. By converting some of the glucose in corn syrup into fructose, a sweeter product, high fructose corn syrup can be produced, it was first made in 1811 in Russia. Depending on the method used to hydrolyse the starch and on the extent to which the hydrolysis reaction has been allowed to proceed, different grades of glucose syrup are produced, which have different characteristics and uses; the syrups are broadly categorised according to their dextrose equivalent.
The further the hydrolysis process proceeds, the more reducing sugars are produced, the higher the DE. Depending on the process used, glucose syrups with different compositions, hence different technical properties, can have the same DE; the original glucose syrups were manufactured by acid hydrolysis of corn starch at high temperature and pressure. The typical product had a DE of 42, but quality was variable due to the difficulty of controlling the reaction. Higher DE syrups made by acid hydrolysis tend to have a bitter taste and a dark colour, due to the production of hydroxymethylfurfural and other byproducts.p. 26 This type of product is now manufactured using a continuous process and is still used due to the low cost of acid hydrolysis. The sugar profile of a confectioner's syrup can be mimicked by enzyme hydrolysis. A typical confectioner's syrup contains 19% glucose, 14% maltose, 11% maltotriose and 56% higher molecular mass carbohydrates.p. 464 A typical 42 DE syrup has about half the sweetness of sugar,p. 71 and increasing DE leads to increased sweetness, with a 63 DE syrup being about 70%, pure dextrose about 80% as sweet as sugar.p.
71 By using β-amylase or fungal α-amylase, glucose syrups containing over 50% maltose, or over 70% maltose can be produced.p. 465 This is possible because these enzymes remove two glucose units at a time from the end of the starch molecule. High-maltose glucose syrup has a great advantage in the production of hard candy: at a given moisture level and temperature, a maltose solution has a lower viscosity than a glucose solution, but will still set to a hard product. Maltose is less humectant than glucose, so candy produced with high-maltose syrup will not become sticky as as candy produced with a standard glucose syrup.p. 81 Irrespective of the feedstock or the method used for hydrolysis, certain steps are common to the production of glucose syrup: Before conversion of starch to glucose can begin, the starch must be separated from the plant material. This includes removing protein. Protein produces off-flavours and colours due to the Maillard reaction, fibre is insoluble and has to be removed to allow the starch to become hydrated.
The plant material needs to be ground as part of this process to expose the starch to the water. The starch needs to be swelled to allow the enzymes or acid to act upon it; when grain is used, sulfur dioxide is added to prevent spoilage. By heating the ground, cleaned feedstock, starch gelatinization takes place: the intermolecular bonds of the starch molecules are broken down, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites to engage more water; this irreversibly dissolves the starch granule, so the chains begin to separate into an amorphous form. This prepares the starch for hydrolysis. Glucose syrup can be produced by enzyme hydrolysis, or a combination of the two. However, a variety of options are available. Glucose syrup was only produced by combining corn starch with dilute hydrochloric acid, heating the mixture under pressure. Glucose syrup is produced by first adding the enzyme α-amylase to a mixture of corn starch and water. Α-amylase is secreted by various species of the bacterium Bacillus. The enzyme breaks the starch into oligosaccharides, which are broken into glucose molecules by adding the enzyme glucoamylase, known as "γ-amylase".
Glucoamylase is secreted by various species of the fungus Aspergillus. The glucose can be transformed into fructose by passing the glucose through a column, loaded with the enzyme D-xylose isomerase, an enzyme, isolated from the growth medium of any of several bacteria. After hydrolysis, the dilute syrup can be passed through columns to remove impurities, improving its colour and stability; the dilute glucose syrup is evaporated under vacuum to raise the solids concentration. Its major uses in commercially prepared food products are as a thickener and humectant. Glucose syrup is widely used in the manufacture of a variety of candy products. In the United States, domestically produced corn syrup and high-fructose corn syrup are used in American-made processed and mass-produced foods, soft drinks and fruit drinks to increase profit margins. Glucose syrup was the primary corn sweetener in the
Blue corn is several related varieties of flint corn grown in Mexico, the Southwestern United States, the Southeastern United States. It is one of the main types of corn used for the traditional Southern and Central Mexican food known as tlacoyo, it was developed by the Hopi, the Pueblo Indians of the Rio Grande in New Mexico, several Southeastern Tribes, including the Cherokee. It remains an essential part of Hopi dishes like piki bread. Blue corn meal is a corn meal, ground from whole blue corn and has a sweet flavor, it is a staple of New Mexican cuisine used to make tortillas. Five Hopi blue corn cultivars identified in the 1950s showed significant differences for several traits, such as plant height, kernel weight, width of kernel, thickness of kernel; the different varieties have a color range from nearly black to blue-grey, with names derived from the "standard" blue, hard blue, grey-blue. The traditional Hopi blue corn varieties are drought tolerant, deep rooted, somewhat short plants exceeding 4 to 5 feet in height.
The Rio Grande pueblo blue corn varieties are taller, reaching 5-7 feet, higher yielding, not as drought tolerant as the Hopi varieties. Both varieties of blue corn prefer sandy soils. Other native varieties of blue corn include Yoeme Blue, a small kernel, short and heat tolerant low desert blue corn variety cultivated on the Salt River Pima Reservation in Arizona, the Tarahumara northern Mexican variety Tarahumara Maiz Azul, cultivated in the high deserts bordering the Sierra Madre in Northern Mexico. Tarahumara Maiz Azul is used to make tortillas and tamales in Mexico, as well as tesgüino, a Tarahumaran corn beer. A Cherokee heirloom variety of blue corn which originated from the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is called Cherokee White Eagle Corn and is distributed to Cherokee tribal members from the Cherokee Nation Seed Bank, it is a tall variety, reaching 5 to 7 feet, is high yielding. In 100 grams of blue corn tortilla, the protein content is 7.8%, compared to 5.7% in yellow corn tortillas.
Varieties of blue corn cultivated in the Southwestern United States vary in their respective contents of anthocyanins, the polyphenol pigment giving the corn its unique color. Anthocyanins having the highest contents are cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside. Aside from its use in traditional Southwestern dishes of tortillas and cereal, blue corn is used commercially in products such as blue corn chips and blue corn pancake mix; the Hopi used corn in religious rituals, placing blue corn in a framework of directional associations in which yellow corn was associated with the Northwest. List of maize dishes Purple corn
Maple syrup is a syrup made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can be made from other maple species. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their roots before winter. Maple trees are tapped by drilling holes into their trunks and collecting the exuded sap, processed by heating to evaporate much of the water, leaving the concentrated syrup. Maple syrup was first collected and used by the indigenous peoples of North America, the practice was adopted by European settlers, who refined production methods. Technological improvements in the 1970s further refined syrup processing; the Canadian province of Quebec is by far the largest producer, responsible for 70 percent of the world's output. Maple syrup is graded according to the Canada, United States, or Vermont scales based on its density and translucency. Sucrose is the most prevalent sugar in maple syrup. In Canada, syrups must be made from maple sap to qualify as maple syrup and must be at least 66 percent sugar.
In the United States, a syrup must be made entirely from maple sap to be labelled as "maple", though states such as Vermont and New York have more restrictive definitions. Maple syrup is used as a condiment for pancakes, French toast, oatmeal or porridge, it is used as an ingredient in baking and as a sweetener or flavouring agent. Culinary experts have praised its unique flavour, although the chemistry responsible is not understood. Three species of maple trees are predominantly used to produce maple syrup: the sugar maple, the black maple, the red maple, because of the high sugar content in the sap of these species; the black maple is included as a subspecies or variety in a more broadly viewed concept of A. saccharum, the sugar maple, by some botanists. Of these, the red maple has a shorter season because it buds earlier than sugar and black maples, which alters the flavour of the sap. A few other species of maple are sometimes used as sources of sap for producing maple syrup, including the box elder or Manitoba maple, the silver maple, the bigleaf maple.
Similar syrups may be produced from walnut, birch or palm trees, among other sources. Indigenous peoples living in northeastern North America were the first groups known to have produced maple syrup and maple sugar. According to aboriginal oral traditions, as well as archaeological evidence, maple tree sap was being processed into syrup long before Europeans arrived in the region. There are no authenticated accounts of how maple syrup production and consumption began, but various legends exist. Other stories credit the development of maple syrup production to Nanabozho, Glooskap, or the squirrel. Aboriginal tribes developed rituals around sugar-making, celebrating the Sugar Moon with a Maple Dance. Many aboriginal dishes replaced the salt traditional in European cuisine with maple syrup; the Algonquians recognized maple sap as a source of nutrition. At the beginning of the spring thaw, they used stone tools to make V-shaped incisions in tree trunks; the maple sap was concentrated either by dropping hot cooking stones into the buckets or by leaving them exposed to the cold temperatures overnight and disposing of the layer of ice that formed on top.
In the early stages of European colonization in northeastern North America, local Indigenous peoples showed the arriving colonists how to tap the trunks of certain types of maples during the spring thaw to harvest the sap. André Thevet, the "Royal Cosmographer of France", wrote about Jacques Cartier drinking maple sap during his Canadian voyages. By 1680, European settlers and fur traders were involved in harvesting maple products. However, rather than making incisions in the bark, the Europeans used the method of drilling tapholes in the trunks with augers. During the 17th and 18th centuries, processed maple sap was used as a source of concentrated sugar, in both liquid and crystallized-solid form, as cane sugar had to be imported from the West Indies. Maple sugaring parties began to operate at the start of the spring thaw in regions of woodland with sufficiently large numbers of maples. Syrup makers first bored holes in the trunks more than one hole per large tree; the buckets were made by cutting cylindrical segments from a large tree trunk and hollowing out each segment's core from one end of the cylinder, creating a seamless, watertight container.
Sap filled the buckets, was either transferred to larger holding vessels mounted on sledges or wagons pulled by draft animals, or carried in buckets or other convenient containers. The sap-collection buckets were returned to the spouts mounted on the trees, the process was repeated for as long as the flow of sap remained "sweet"; the specific weather conditions of the thaw period were, still are, critical in determining the length of the sugaring season. As the weather continues to warm, a maple tree's normal early spring biological proce
Mizuame is a sweetener from Japan, translated to "water candy". A clear, sticky liquid, it is made by converting starch to sugars. Mizuame is added to wagashi to give them a sheen, eaten in ways similar to honey, can be a main ingredient in sweets. Mizuame is produced in a similar fashion to corn syrup and is similar in taste. Two methods are used to convert the starches to sugars; the traditional method is to take glutinous rice mixed with malt and let the natural enzymatic process take place, converting the starch to syrup. The second and more common method uses potatoes or sweet potatoes as the starch source, added acid, such as hydrochloric, sulfuric or nitric acids. If done by the first method, the final product, known as mugi mizuame, is considered more flavorful than the potato version. Barley malt syrup Corn syrup List of syrups Davidson, Alan. Oxford Companion to Food. "Mizuame", p. 510 ISBN 0-19-211579-0 Media related to Mizuame at Wikimedia Commons
Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide. Aspergillus was first catalogued in 1729 by biologist Pier Antonio Micheli. Viewing the fungi under a microscope, Micheli was reminded of the shape of an aspergillum, from Latin spargere, named the genus accordingly. Aspergillum is an asexual spore-forming structure common to all Aspergillus species. Aspergillus consists of a few hundred species. Aspergillus is defined as a group of conidial fungi --; some of them, are known to have a teleomorph in the Ascomycota, so with DNA evidence forthcoming, members of the genus Aspergillus can tentatively be considered members of the Ascomycota. Members of the genus possess the ability to grow. Aspergillus species are aerobic and are found in all oxygen-rich environments, where they grow as molds on the surface of a substrate, as a result of the high oxygen tension. Fungi grow on carbon-rich substrates like monosaccharides and polysaccharides. Aspergillus species are common contaminants of starchy foods, grow in or on many plants and trees.
In addition to growth on carbon sources, many species of Aspergillus demonstrate oligotrophy where they are capable of growing in nutrient-depleted environments, or environments with a complete lack of key nutrients. Aspergillus niger is a prime example of this. Aspergillus are found in millions in pillows. Species of Aspergillus are important medically and commercially; some species can cause infection in other animals. Some infections found in animals have been studied for years, while other species found in animals have been described as new and specific to the investigated disease, others have been known as names in use for organisms such as saprophytes. More than 60 Aspergillus species are medically relevant pathogens. For humans, a range of diseases such as infection to the external ear, skin lesions, ulcers classed as mycetomas are found. Other species are important in commercial microbial fermentations. For example, alcoholic beverages such as Japanese sake are made from rice or other starchy ingredients, rather than from grapes or malted barley.
Typical microorganisms used to make alcohol, such as yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces, cannot ferment these starches. Therefore, koji mold such as Aspergillus oryzae is used to first break down the starches into simpler sugars. Members of the genus are sources of natural products that can be used in the development of medications to treat human disease; the largest application of Aspergillus niger is as the major source of citric acid. A. niger is commonly used for the production of native and foreign enzymes, including glucose oxidase and lactase. In these instances, the culture is grown on a solid substrate, although this is still common practice in Japan, but is more grown as a submerged culture in a bioreactor. In this way, the most important parameters can be controlled, maximal productivity can be achieved; this process makes it far easier to separate the chemical or enzyme of importance from the medium, is therefore far more cost-effective. A. nidulans has been used as a research organism for many years and was used by Guido Pontecorvo to demonstrate parasexuality in fungi.
A. nidulans was one of the pioneering organisms to have its genome sequenced by researchers at the Broad Institute. As of 2008, a further seven Aspergillus species have had their genomes sequenced: the industrially useful A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terreus, the pathogens A. clavatus, A. fischerianus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus. A. fischerianus is hardly pathogenic, but is closely related to the common pathogen A. fumigatus. Of the 250 species of aspergilli, about 64% have no known sexual state. However, many of these species have an as yet unidentified sexual stage. Sexual reproduction occurs in two fundamentally different ways in fungi; these are outcrossing in which two different individuals contribute nuclei, self-fertilization or selfing in which both nuclei are derived from the same individual. In recent years, sexual cycles have been discovered in numerous species thought to be asexual; these discoveries reflect recent experimental focus on species of particular relevance to humans. A. fumigatus is the most common species to cause disease in immunodeficient humans.
In 2009, A. fumigatus was shown to have a heterothallic functional sexual cycle. Isolates of complementary mating types are required for sex to occur. A. flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide. It is an opportunistic human and animal pathogen, causing aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. In 2009, a sexual state of this heterothallic fungus was found to arise when strains of opposite mating types were cultured together under appropriate conditions. A. Lentulus is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis with high mortality rates. In 2013, A. lentulus was found to have a heterothallic functional sexual breeding system. A. Terreus is co
Potassium bitartrate known as potassium hydrogen tartrate, with formula KC4H5O6, is a byproduct of winemaking. In cooking it is known as cream of tartar, it is the potassium acid salt of tartaric acid. It can be used as a cleaning solution. Potassium bitartrate crystallizes in wine casks during the fermentation of grape juice, can precipitate out of wine in bottles; the crystals will form on the underside of a cork in wine-filled bottles that have been stored at temperatures below 10 °C, will if dissolve into the wine. These crystals precipitate out of fresh grape juice, chilled or allowed to stand for some time. To prevent crystals forming in homemade grape jam or jelly, the prerequisite fresh grape juice should be chilled overnight to promote crystallization; the potassium bitartrate crystals are removed by filtering through two layers of cheesecloth. The filtered juice may be made into jam or jelly. In some cases they adhere to the side of the chilled container; the crude form is collected and purified to produce the white, acidic powder used for many culinary and other household purposes.
In food, potassium bitartrate is used for: Stabilizing egg whites, increasing their warmth tolerance and volume Stabilizing whipped cream, maintaining its texture and volume Anti-caking and thickening Preventing sugar syrups from crystallizing Reducing discoloration of boiled vegetablesAdditionally it is used as a component of: Baking powder, as an acid ingredient to activate baking soda Sodium-free salt substitutes, in combination with potassium chlorideA similar acid salt, sodium acid pyrophosphate, can be confused with cream of tartar because of their common function as a component of baking powder. Potassium bitartrate can be mixed with an acidic liquid such as lemon juice or white vinegar to make a paste-like cleaning agent for metals such as brass, aluminum or copper, or with water for other cleaning applications such as removing light stains from porcelain; this mixture is sometimes mistakenly made with vinegar and sodium bicarbonate, which react to neutralize each other, creating carbon dioxide and a sodium acetate solution.
Cream of tartar was used in traditional dyeing where the complexing action of the tartrate ions was used to adjust the solubility and hydrolysis of mordant salts such as tin chloride and alum. Cream of tartar, when mixed into a paste with hydrogen peroxide, can be used to clean rust from some hand tools, notably hand files; the paste is applied and allowed to set for a few hours and washed off with a baking soda/water solution. After another rinse with water and thorough drying, a thin application of oil will protect the file from further rusting. Slowing the set time of plaster of Paris products is achieved by the simple introduction of any acid diluted into the mixing water. A commercial retardant premix additive sold by USG to trade interior plasterers includes at least 40% potassium bitartrate; the remaining ingredients are the same plaster of Paris and quartz-silica aggregate prominent in the main product. This means. For dyeing hair, potassium bitartrate can be mixed with henna as the mild acid needed to activate the henna.
Cream of tartar has been used internally as a purgative, but this is dangerous because an excess of potassium, or hyperkalemia, may occur. Potassium bitartrate is the National Institute of Standards and Technology's primary reference standard for a pH buffer. Using an excess of the salt in water, a saturated solution is created with a pH of 3.557 at 25 °C. Upon dissolution in acid, potassium bitartrate will dissociate into acid tartrate and potassium ions. Thus, a saturated solution creates a buffer with standard pH. Before use as a standard, it is recommended that the solution be filtered or decanted between 22 °C and 28 °C. Potassium carbonate can be made by burning cream of tartar, which produces "pearl ash"; this process is now obsolete but produced a higher quality than "potash" extracted from wood or other plant ashes. Tartrate Tartaric acid Potassium tartrate Description of Potassium Bitartrate at Monash Scientific Material Safety Data Sheet for Potassium Bitartrate at Fisher Scientific This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ward, Artemas.
The Grocer's Encyclopedia
A bushel is an imperial and US customary unit of weight or mass based upon an earlier measure of dry capacity. The old bushel was equal to 2 kennings, 4 pecks or 8 dry gallons and was used for agricultural products such as wheat. In modern usage, the volume is nominal, with bushels denoting a mass defined differently for each commodity; the name "bushel" is used to translate similar units in other measurement systems. The name comes from the Old French boissiel and buissiel, meaning "little box", it may further derive from Old French boise, thus meaning "little butt". The bushel is an intermediate value between the pound and ton or tun, introduced to England following the Norman Conquest. Norman statutes made the London bushel part of the legal measure of English wine and grains; the Assize of Bread and Ale credited to Henry III, c. 1266, defined this bushel in terms of the wine gallon, while the c. 1300 Assize of Weights and Measures credited to Edward I or II defined the London bushel in terms of the larger corn gallon.
In either case, the bushel was reckoned to contain 64 pounds of 12 ounces of 20 pence of 32 grains. These measures were based on the light tower pound and were used in Scotland, Ireland, or Wales during the Middle Ages; when the Tower system was abolished in the 16th century, the bushel was redefined as 56 avoirdupois pounds. The imperial bushel established by the Weights and Measures Act of 1824 described the bushel as the volume of 80 avoirdupois pounds of distilled water in air at 62 °F or 8 imperial gallons; this is the bushel in some use in the United Kingdom. Thus, there is no distinction between dry measure in the imperial system; the Winchester bushel was the volume of a cylinder 18.5 in in diameter and 8 in high, which gives an irrational number of cubic inches. The modern American or US bushel is a variant of this, rounded to 2150.42 cubic inches, less than one part per ten million less. It is somewhat in use in Canada. Bushels are now most used as units of mass or weight rather than of volume.
The bushels in which grains are bought and sold on commodity markets or at local grain elevators, for reports of grain production, are all units of weight. This is done by assigning a standard weight to each commodity, to be measured in bushels; these bushels depend on the commodities being measured, on the moisture content of the commodity. Some of the more common ones are: Oats: US: 32 lb Canada: 34 lb Barley: 48 lb Malted barley: 34 lb Shelled maize at 15.5% moisture by weight: 56 lb Wheat at 13.5% moisture by weight: 60 lb Soybeans at 13% moisture by weight: 60 lb Other specific values are defined for other grains, fruits, coal and many other commodities. Government policy in the United States is to phase out units such as the bushel and replace them with metric mass equivalents; the German bushel was the Scheffel. The Polish bushel was used as measure of dry capacity, it was divided into 4 quarters and in the early 19th century had a value of 128 litres in Warsaw and 501.116 litres in Kraków.
The Spanish bushel was used as a measure of dry capacity. It was equal to 55.5 litres in Castille. Coomb Lamp under a bushel Winchester measure U. S. Commercial Bushel Sizes for Agricultural Crops