Law Courts (Vancouver)
The Law Courts building is part of the landmark Robson Square complex in downtown Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It was designed by renowned Canadian architect Arthur Erickson; the Law Courts building occupies the southern block of the three city block complex, provincial government offices the middle block, the Vancouver Art Gallery the northern block. The building is used by the two higher courts of the Province of British Columbia: the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeal; the project began as The British Columbia Centre, a provincial government project to replace the neo-Classical courthouse forming the northern of the three Robson Square blocks which now houses the Vancouver Art Gallery. The proposed 50-storey tower, at 208 metres, would have been the tallest skyscraper in the city. In 1972 the provincial government of WAC Bennett was defeated by the NDP government of Dave Barrett. Just as the tower's construction phase was about to begin the plan was scrapped and Arthur Erickson Architects was commissioned to create a new design in 1973.
The concept was revised into a "horizontal highrise", "B. C. Centre on its back." The inspiration for this has been credited both to the architect and to the government minister responsible for the courts. The building opened in 1980; the building is 42 metres in height. It is covered by a roof of green-tinted glass over a space-frame structure covering 50,000 square feet, more than one acre, of occupied space; the entry and public circulation spaces are open to this roof, forming a large skylit indoor public atrium. Access is directly from the street and by an upper-level walkway connecting to the Robson Square rooftop garden to the north, forming a three-block accessible-for-all roof integrated into the city core, its innovative architecture and urban design have been recognized as one of the world-renowned landmarks of downtown Vancouver, incorporating "a style that remains connected to the surroundings, with a sensitivity for nature and the environment."Erickson described his concept as: "This won’t be a corporate monument.
Let’s turn it on its side and let people walk all over it."The tan-coloured concrete structure is exposed on the exterior and interior of the building. The other main exterior material is green-tinted glass; the late-modernist geometric form and hard materials are softened by an extensive use of landscaping around the building, in a series of horizontal planters terracing up from street level into the large public indoor atrium, on the rooftop terrace. The landscape design was undertaken in Erickson's office by landscape architect Cornelia Oberlander. Incorporating trees and landscaping into a building was a new concept for Vancouver at the time; the architecture and landscape architecture have received acclaim for excellence in design. In 2011 the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada awarded its Prix du XXe siècle Award to the complex, describing the concept of a "linear urban park, importing nature into the city", as "a bold, contemplative work of urban design." In 1982 the RAIC's awarded the Governor General's Gold Medal to the complex.
In 1979 The American Society of Landscape Architects awarded its President's Award for Excellence, noting the project's "extraordinary integration of landscape architecture with architecture". Courts of British Columbia Great Buildings Online - images and architectural drawings Map of Law Courts in downtown Vancouver Arthur Erickson - images of the building Knowledge Network Life and Times of Arthur Erickson Architectural Institute of BC, Architectural Heritage of Vancouver Emporis Buildings "ARCHITECTURE VIEW.
Kristallnacht or Reichskristallnacht referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or Pogromnacht, Novemberpogrome, was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and civilians. The German authorities looked on without intervening; the name Kristallnacht comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after the windows of Jewish-owned stores and synagogues were smashed. Estimates of the number of fatalities caused by the pogrom have varied. Early reports estimated. Modern analysis of German scholarly sources by historians such as Sir Richard Evans puts the number much higher; when deaths from post-arrest maltreatment and subsequent suicides are included, the death toll climbs into the hundreds. Additionally, 30,000 Jewish men were incarcerated in concentration camps. Jewish homes and schools were ransacked, as the attackers demolished buildings with sledgehammers; the rioters destroyed 267 synagogues throughout Germany and the Sudentenland, over 7,000 Jewish businesses were either destroyed or damaged.
The British historian Martin Gilbert wrote that no event in the history of German Jews between 1933 and 1945 was so reported as it was happening, the accounts from the foreign journalists working in Germany sent shock waves around the world. The British newspaper The Times wrote at the time: "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults on defenseless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday."The attacks were retaliation for the assassination of the Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a seventeen-year-old German-born Polish Jew living in Paris. Kristallnacht was followed by additional economic and political persecution of Jews, it is viewed by historians as part of Nazi Germany's broader racial policy, the beginning of the Final Solution and The Holocaust. In the 1920s, most German Jews were integrated into German society as German citizens, they served in the German army and navy and contributed to every field of German business and culture.
Conditions for the Jews began to change after the appointment of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January 1933, the Enabling Act assumption of power by Hitler after the Reichstag fire of 27 February 1933. From its inception, Hitler's régime moved to introduce anti-Jewish policies. Nazi propaganda singled out the 500,000 Jews in Germany, who accounted for only 0.86% of the overall population, as an enemy within who were responsible for Germany's defeat in the First World War and for its subsequent economic disasters, such as the 1920s hyperinflation and Wall Street Crash Great Depression. Beginning in 1933, the German government enacted a series of anti-Jewish laws restricting the rights of German Jews to earn a living, to enjoy full citizenship and to gain education, including the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service of 7 April 1933, which forbade Jews to work in the civil service; the subsequent 1935 Nuremberg Laws stripped German Jews of their citizenship and forbade Jews to marry non-Jewish Germans.
These laws resulted in the exclusion of Jews from German political life. Many sought asylum abroad; the international Évian Conference on 6 July 1938 addressed the issue of Jewish and Gypsy immigration to other countries. By the time the conference took place, more than 250,000 Jews had fled Germany and Austria, annexed by Germany in March 1938; as the number of Jews and Gypsies wanting to leave increased, the restrictions against them grew, with many countries tightening their rules for admission. By 1938, Germany "had entered a new radical phase in anti-Semitic activity"; some historians believe that the Nazi government had been contemplating a planned outbreak of violence against the Jews and were waiting for an appropriate provocation. In a 1997 interview, the German historian Hans Mommsen claimed that a major motive for the pogrom was the desire of the Gauleiters of the NSDAP to seize Jewish property and businesses. Mommsen stated: The need for money by the party organization stemmed from the fact that Franz Xaver Schwarz, the party treasurer, kept the local and regional organizations of the party short of money.
In the fall of 1938, the increased pressure on Jewish property nourished the party's ambition since Hjalmar Schacht had been ousted as Reich minister for economics. This, was only one aspect of the origin of the November 1938 pogrom; the Polish government threatened to extradite all Jews who were Polish citizens but would stay in Germany, thus creating a burden of responsibility on the German side. The immediate reaction by the Gestapo was to push the Polish Jews—16,000 persons—over the borderline, but this measure failed due to the stubbornness of the Polish customs officers; the loss of prestige as a result of this abortive operation called for some sort of compensation. Thus, the overreaction to Herschel Grynszpan's attempt against t
Ryerson University is a public research university in Toronto, Canada. Its urban campus surrounds the Yonge-Dundas Square, located at one of the busiest intersections in downtown Toronto; the majority of its buildings are in the blocks northeast of the Yonge-Dundas Square in Toronto's Garden District. Ryerson's business school, Ted Rogers School of Management, is on the southwest end of the Yonge-Dundas Square, located on Bay Street north of Toronto's Financial District and is attached to the Toronto Eaton Centre; the university has expanded in recent years with new buildings such as the Mattamy Athletic Centre, in the historical Maple Leaf Gardens arena, former home of the Toronto Maple Leafs. The university's administration services are housed in 1 Dundas and 495 Yonge Street; the university is composed of 39,000+ undergraduate students, 2,600 graduate students, 12,000 continuing education students. Ryerson is ranked 10th in Canada by student enrollment. Ryerson University is home to Canada's largest undergraduate business school, the Ted Rogers School of Management, Canada's third largest undergraduate engineering school, the Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science, as well as the Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Communication & Design, Faculty of Community Services, the Faculty of Science.
The university has been approved by the Federation of Law Societies of Canada to begin working towards establishing a social justice and innovation focused law school. The school will mark the third law school in Toronto after York's Osgoode program and University of Toronto's Law degree. In addition to offering full-time and part-time undergraduate and graduate programs leading to Bachelor's, Master's and Doctoral degrees, the university offers part-time degrees, distance education, certificates through the G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education. In 1852, at the core of the present main campus, the historic St. James Square, Egerton Ryerson founded Ontario's first teacher training facility, the Toronto Normal School, it housed the Department of Education and the Museum of Natural History and Fine Arts, which became the Royal Ontario Museum. An agricultural laboratory on the site led to the founding of the Ontario Agricultural College and the University of Guelph. St. James Square went through various other educational uses before housing a namesake of its original founder.
Egerton Ryerson was a leading educator and Methodist minister. He is known as the father of Ontario's public school system, he is a founder of the first publishing company in Canada in 1829, The Methodist Book and Publishing House, renamed The Ryerson Press in 1919 and today is part of McGraw-Hill Ryerson, a Canadian publisher of educational and professional books, which still bears Egerton Ryerson's name for its Canadian operations. Advances in science and technology brought on by World War II, continued Canadian industrialization interrupted by the Great Depression, created a demand for a more trained population. Howard Hillen Kerr was given control of nine Ontario Training and Re-establishment centres to accomplish this, his vision of what these institutions would do was broader than. In 1943, he visited the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and was convinced Canada could develop its own MIT over one hundred years. Along the way, such an institution could respond to the society's needs.
When the Province approved the idea of technical institutes in 1946, it proposed to found several. It turned out all but one would be special purpose schools, such as the mining school. Only the Toronto retraining centre, which became the Ryerson Institute of Technology in 1948, would become a multi-program campus, Kerr’s future MIT of Canada; the Toronto Training and Re-establishment Institute was created in 1945 on the former site of the Toronto Normal School at St James Square, bounded by Gerrard, Church and Gould. The Gothic-Romanesque building was designed by architects Thomas Ridout and Frederick William Cumberland in 1852; the site had been used as a Royal Canadian Air Force training facility during World War II. The institute was a joint venture of the federal and provincial government to train ex-servicemen and women for re-entry into civilian life; the Ryerson Institute of Technology was founded in 1948, inheriting the staff and facilities of the Toronto Training and Re-establishment Institute.
In 1966, it became the Ryerson Polytechnical Institute. In 1971, provincial legislation was amended to permit Ryerson to grant university degrees accredited by provincial government legislation and by the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada; that year, it became a member of the Council of Ontario Universities. In 1992, Ryerson became Toronto’s second school of engineering to receive accreditation from the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board; the following year, Ryerson formally became a University, via an Act of the Ontario Legislature. In 1993, Ryerson received approval to grant graduate degrees; the same year, the Board of Governors changed the institution's name to Ryerson Polytechnic University to reflect a stronger emphasis on research associated with graduate programs and its expansion from being a university offering undergraduate degrees. Students occupied the university's administration offices in March 1997, protesting escalating tuition hikes. In June 2001, the school assumed its name as Ryerson University.
Today, Ryerson University offers programs in aerospace, civil, industrial, electrical and computer engineering. The B. Eng biomedical engineering program is the first stand-alone unde
A pogrom is a violent riot aimed at the massacre or persecution of an ethnic or religious group one aimed at Jews. The Russian term entered the English language in order to describe 19th and 20th century attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire. Similar attacks against Jews at other times and places became retrospectively known as pogroms; the word is now sometimes used to describe publicly sanctioned purgative attacks against non-Jewish ethnic or religious groups. The characteristics of a pogrom vary depending on the specific incidents, at times leading to, or culminating in, massacres. Significant pogroms in the Russian Empire included the Odessa pogroms, Warsaw pogrom, Kishinev pogrom, Kiev Pogrom, Białystok pogrom, after the 1917 Russian Revolution, the Lwów pogrom and Kiev Pogroms; the most significant pogrom in Nazi Germany was the Kristallnacht of 1938 in which 91 Jews were killed, a further 30,000 arrested and subsequently incarcerated in concentration camps, 1,000 synagogues burned, over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged.
Notorious pogroms of World War II included the 1941 Farhud in Iraq, the July 1941 Iaşi pogrom in Romania – in which over 13,200 Jews were killed – as well as the Jedwabne pogrom in Poland. Post-World War II pogroms included the 1945 Tripoli pogrom, the 1946 Kielce pogrom and the 1947 Aleppo pogrom. First recorded in 1882, the Russian word pogrom is derived from the common prefix po- and the verb gromit' meaning "to destroy, to wreak havoc, to demolish violently", its literal translation is "to harm". The noun "pogrom", which has a short history, is used in English and many other languages as a loanword borrowed from Yiddish, its widespread circulation in today's world began with the antisemitic excesses in the Russian Empire in 1881–1883. Anti-Jewish riots had taken place in Europe during the Middle Ages. Jewish communities were targeted in the Black Death Jewish persecutions of 1348–1350, in Toulon in 1348, in Barcelona as well as in other Catalan cities, during the Erfurt massacre, the Basel massacre, massacres in Aragon and in Flanders, as well as the "Valentine's Day" Strasbourg pogrom of 1349.
Some 510 Jewish communities were destroyed during this period, extending further to the Brussels massacre of 1370. On Holy Saturday of 1389, a pogrom began in Prague that led to the burning of the Jewish quarter, the killing of many Jews, the suicide of many Jews trapped in the main synagogue; the brutal murders of the Jews together with the Poles occurred during the Khmelnytsky Uprising of 1648–1657 in present-day Ukraine. Modern historians give estimates of the scale of the murders by Khmelnytsky's Cossacks ranging between 40,000 and 100,000 men and children, or many more; the outbreak of violence against Jews occurred at the beginning of the 19th century as a reaction to Jewish emancipation in the German Confederation. The Russian Empire, which had few Jews, acquired territories with large Jewish populations during the military partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795. In conquered territories, a new political entity called the Pale of Settlement was formed in 1791 by Catherine the Great.
Most Jews from the former Commonwealth were allowed to reside only within the Pale, including families expelled by royal decree from St. Petersburg and other large Russian cities; the 1821 Odessa pogroms marked the beginning of the 19th century pogroms in Tsarist Russia. Following the assassination of Alexander II in 1881 by Narodnaya Volya – blamed on the Jews by the Russian government, anti-Jewish events turned into a wave of over 200 pogroms by their modern definition, which lasted for several years. Jewish self-governing Kehillah were abolished by Tsar Nicholas I in 1844; the first in 20th-century Russia was the Kishinev pogrom of 1903 in which 47 Jews were killed, hundreds wounded, 700 homes destroyed and 600 businesses pillaged. In the same year, pogroms took place in Gomel, Smela and Melitopol. Extreme savagery was typified by mutilations of the wounded, they were followed by the Zhitomir pogrom, the Kiev pogrom of October 1905 resulting in a massacre of 100 Jews. In three years between 1903 and 1906, about 660 pogroms were recorded in Bessarabia.
At about that time, the Jewish Labor Bund began organizing armed self-defense units ready to shoot back, the pogroms subsided for a number of years. According to professor Colin Tatz, between 1881 and 1920 there were 1,326 pogroms in Ukraine which took the lives of 70,000 to 250,000 civilian Jews, leaving half a million homeless. Large-scale pogroms, which began in the Russian Empire several decades earlier, intensified during the period of the Russian Civil War and the Revolution of 1917. Professor Zvi Gitelman estimated that only in 1918–1919 over 1,200 pogroms took place in Ukraine, thus amounting to the greatest slaughter of Jews in Eastern Europe since 1648. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in his book Two Hundred Years Together provided additional statistics from research conducted by Nahum Gergel. Gergel counted 1,236 incidents of anti-Jewish violence and estimated that 887 mass pogroms occurred, the remainder being classified as "excesses" not assuming
National Gallery of Canada
The National Gallery of Canada, located in the capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, is Canada's premier art gallery. The Gallery is now housed in a glass and granite building on Sussex Drive with a notable view of the Canadian Parliament buildings on Parliament Hill; the building was designed by Moshe Safdie and opened in 1988. The Gallery's former director, Jean Sutherland Boggs, was chosen by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to oversee construction of the national gallery and museums. Marc Mayer was named the museum's director, succeeding Pierre Théberge, on 19 January 2009; the Gallery was first formed in 1880 by Canada's Governor General, John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll, and, in 1882, moved into its first home on Parliament Hill in the same building as the Supreme Court. In 1911, the Gallery moved to the Victoria Memorial Museum, now the home of the Canadian Museum of Nature. In 1913, the first National Gallery Act was passed. In 1962, the Gallery moved to the Lorne Building site, a rather nondescript office building on Elgin Street.
Adjacent to the British High Commission, the building has since been demolished for a 17-storey office building, to house the Federal Finance Department. The museum moved into its current building beside Nepean Point. In 1985, the newly created Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography the Stills Photography Division of the National Film Board of Canada, was affiliated to the National Gallery; the CMCP's mandate and staff moved to its new location in 1992, at 1 Rideau Canal, next to the Château Laurier. In 1998, the CMCP's administration was amalgamated to that of the National Gallery's. In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada chose the National Gallery as one of the top 500 buildings produced in Canada during the last millennium; the Gallery has a large and varied collection of paintings, drawings and photographs. Although its focus is on Canadian art, it holds works by many noted European artists, it has a strong contemporary art collection with some of Andy Warhol's most famous works.
In 1990 the Gallery bought Barnett Newman's Voice of Fire for $1.8 million, igniting a storm of controversy. Since that time its value has appreciated sharply. In 2005, the Gallery acquired a painting by Italian Renaissance painter Francesco Salviati for $4.5 million. Its most famous painting is The Death of General Wolfe by Anglo-American artist Benjamin West. In 2005, a sculpture of a giant spider, Louise Bourgeois's Maman, was installed in the plaza in front of the Gallery. In 2011 the gallery installed Canadian sculptor Joe Fafard's Running Horses next to the Sussex Drive entrance, American artist Roxy Paine's stainless steel sculpture One Hundred Foot Line in Nepean Point behind the gallery; the Canadian collection, the most comprehensive in Canada, holds works by Louis-Philippe Hébert, Tom Thomson, the Group of Seven, Emily Carr, Alex Colville, Jean-Paul Riopelle and Jack Bush. The Gallery organizes its own exhibits which travel across Canada and beyond, hosts shows from around the world co-sponsored with other national art galleries and museums.
The Gallery's collection has been built up through purchase and donations. Much of the collection was donated, notably the British paintings donated by former Governor General Vincent Massey and that of the Southam family; the museum features Canadian and Inuit art and European painting, sculpture and drawings, modern and contemporary art and photographs. The largest work in the Gallery is the entire interior of the Rideau Street Chapel, which formed part of the Convent of Our Lady Sacred Heart, The interior decorations of the Rideau Street Chapel were designed by Georges Couillon in 1887. After the convent was demolished in 1972, the chapel was dismantled and reconstructed within the gallery as a work of art in 1988. Auguste Rodin, Age of Bronze, 1875–1876, cast in 1901. M. C. Escher, Stars, 1948. Barnett Newman, Voice of Fire, 1967; the Museum is affiliated with: CMA, Ontario Association of Art Galleries, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada. Ord, The National Gallery of Canada: ideas, architecture, McGill-Queen's University Press, ISBN 0-7735-2509-2 Robert Fulford, "Turning the absurd into an art form: Canada's National Gallery has a history filled with bizarre decisions," National Post, 9 September 2003, http://www.robertfulford.com/2003-09-09-gallery.html Official website
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
Dalhousie University is a public research university in Nova Scotia, with three campuses in Halifax, a fourth in Bible Hill, medical teaching facilities in Saint John, New Brunswick. Dalhousie offers more than 4,000 courses, 180 degree programs in twelve undergraduate and professional faculties; the university is a member of a group of research-intensive universities in Canada. Dalhousie was established as a nonsectarian college in 1818 by the eponymous Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie; the college did not hold its first class until 1838, until operating sporadically due to financial difficulties. It reopened for a third time in 1863 following a reorganization that brought a change of name to "The Governors of Dalhousie College and University"; the university formally changed its name to "Dalhousie University" in 1997 through the same provincial legislation that merged the institution with the Technical University of Nova Scotia. There are two student unions that represent student interests at the university: the Dalhousie Student Union and the Dalhousie Association for Graduate Students.
Dalhousie's varsity teams, the Tigers, compete in the Atlantic University Sport conference of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Dalhousie's Faculty of Agriculture varsity teams are called the Dalhousie Rams, compete in the ACAA and CCAA. Dalhousie is a coeducational university with more than 18,000 students and 130,000 alumni around the world; the university's notable alumni include a Nobel Prize winner, 91 Rhodes Scholars, a range of other top government officials and business leaders. Dalhousie was founded as the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia George Ramsay, 9th Earl of Dalhousie desired a non-denominational college in Halifax. Financing came from customs duties collected by a previous Lieutenant Governor, John Coape Sherbrooke, during the War of 1812 occupation of Castine, Maine; the college was established in 1818, though it faltered shortly after as Ramsay left Halifax to serve as the Governor General of British North America. The school was structured upon the principles of the University of Edinburgh, where lectures were open to all, regardless of religion or nationality.
The University of Edinburgh was located near Ramsay's home in Scotland. In 1821 Dalhousie College was incorporated by the Nova Scotia House of Assembly under the 1821 Act of Incorporation; the college did not hold its first class until 1838. In 1841 an Act of the Nova Scotia House of Assembly conferred university powers on Dalhousie. In 1863 the college opened for a third time and was reorganized by another legislative act, which added "University" to the school's name: "The Governors of Dalhousie College and University". Dalhousie reopened with one tutor; when it awarded its first degrees in 1866 the student body consisted of 28 students working toward degrees and 28 occasional students. The first female graduate was Margaret Florence Newcome from Grafton, Nova Scotia, who earned her degree in 1885. Despite the reorganization and an increase in students, money continued to be a problem for the institution. In 1879, amid talks of closure due to the university's dire financial situation, a wealthy New York publisher with Nova Scotian roots, George Munro, began to donate to the university.
Munro is credited with rescuing Dalhousie from closure, in honour of his contributions Dalhousie observes a university holiday called George Munro Day on the first Friday of each February. Located at the space now occupied by Halifax City Hall, the college moved in 1886 to Carleton Campus and spread to Studley Campus. Dalhousie grew during the 20th century. From 1889 to 1962 the Halifax Conservatory was affiliated with and awarded degrees through Dalhousie. In 1920 several buildings were destroyed by fire on the campus of the University of King's College in Windsor, Nova Scotia. Through a grant from the Carnegie Foundation, King's College relocated to Halifax and entered into a partnership with Dalhousie that continues to this day. Dalhousie expanded on April 1, 1997 when provincial legislation mandated an amalgamation with the nearby Technical University of Nova Scotia; this merger saw reorganization of faculties and departments to create the Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science and the Faculty of Architecture and Planning.
From 1997 to 2000, the Technical University of Nova Scotia operated as a constituent college of Dalhousie called Dalhousie Polytechnic of Nova Scotia until the collegiate system was dissolved. The legislation that merged the two schools formally changed the name of the institution to its present form, Dalhousie University. On 1 September 2012 the Nova Scotia Agricultural College merged into Dalhousie to form a new Faculty of Agriculture, located in Bible Hill, Nova Scotia. Dalhousie has three campuses within the Halifax Peninsula and a fourth, the Agricultural Campus, in Bible Hill, Nova Scotia. Studley Campus in Halifax serves as the primary campus; the campus is surrounded by residential neighbourhoods. Robie Street divides it from the adjacent Carleton Campus, which houses the faculties of dentistry and other health profession departments; the campus is adjacent to two large teaching hospitals affiliated with the school: the IWK Health Centre and the Queen