Cornelius Vanderbilt was an American business magnate who built his wealth in railroads and shipping. After working with his father's business, Vanderbilt worked his way into leadership positions in the inland water trade and invested in the growing railroad industry. Nicknamed "The Commodore", he is known for owning the New York Central Railroad, his biographer T. J. Stiles says, "He vastly improved and expanded the nation's transportation infrastructure, contributing to a transformation of the geography of the United States, he embraced new technologies and new forms of business organization, used them to compete.... He helped to create the corporate economy that would define the United States into the 21st century." As one of the richest Americans in history and wealthiest figures overall, Vanderbilt was the patriarch of the wealthy and influential Vanderbilt family. He provided the initial gift to found Vanderbilt University in Tennessee. According to historian H. Roger Grant: "Contemporaries, too hated or feared Vanderbilt or at least considered him an unmannered brute.
While Vanderbilt could be a rascal and cunning, he was much more a builder than a wrecker being honorable and hard-working." Cornelius Vanderbilt's great-great-great-grandfather, Jan Aertson or Aertszoon, was a Dutch farmer from the village of De Bilt in Utrecht, who emigrated to New Amsterdam as an indentured servant in 1650. The Dutch van der was added to Aertson's village name to create "van der Bilt"; this was condensed to Vanderbilt. Cornelius Vanderbilt was born in Staten Island, New York on May 27, 1794 to Cornelius van Derbilt and Phebe Hand, he began working on his father's ferry in New York Harbor as a boy, quitting school at the age of 11. At the age of 16, Vanderbilt decided to start his own ferry service. According to one version of events, he borrowed $100 from his mother to purchase a periauger, which he christened the Swiftsure. However, according to the first account of his life, published in 1853, the periauger belonged to his father and the younger Vanderbilt received half the profit.
He began his business by ferrying freight and passengers on a ferry between Staten Island and Manhattan. Such was his energy and eagerness in his trade that other captains nearby took to calling him The Commodore in jest – a nickname that stuck with him all his life. While many Vanderbilt family members had joined the Episcopal Church, Cornelius Vanderbilt remained a member of the Moravian Church to his death. Along with other members of the Vanderbilt family, he helped erect a local Moravian parish church in his city. On December 19, 1813, at age 19 Vanderbilt married his first cousin, Sophia Johnson, daughter of Nathaniel Johnson and Elizabeth Hand, they moved into a boarding house on Broad Street in Manhattan. They had 13 children together, with 12 surviving into adulthood:• Phebe Jane Vanderbilt • Ethelinda Vanderbilt • Eliza Vanderbilt • William Henry Vanderbilt • Emily Almira Vanderbilt • Sophia Johnson Vanderbilt • Maria Louisa Vanderbilt • Frances Lavinia Vanderbilt • Cornelius Jeremiah Vanderbilt • George Washington Vanderbilt • Mary Alicia Vanderbilt • Catherine Juliette Vanderbilt • George Washington Vanderbilt In addition to running his ferry, Vanderbilt bought his brother-in-law John De Forest's schooner Charlotte and traded in food and merchandise in partnership with his father and others.
But on November 24, 1817, a ferry entrepreneur named Thomas Gibbons asked Vanderbilt to captain his steamboat between New Jersey and New York. Although Vanderbilt kept his own businesses running, he became Gibbons's business manager; when Vanderbilt entered his new position, Gibbons was fighting against a steamboat monopoly in New York waters, granted by the New York State Legislature to the politically influential patrician Robert Livingston and Robert Fulton, who had designed the steamboat. Though both Livingston and Fulton had died by the time Vanderbilt started working for Gibbons, the monopoly was held by Livingston's heirs, they had granted a license to Aaron Ogden to run a ferry between New Jersey. Gibbons launched his steamboat venture because of a personal dispute with Ogden, whom he hoped to drive into bankruptcy. To accomplish this, he undercut prices and brought a landmark legal case – Gibbons v. Ogden – to the United States Supreme Court to overturn the monopoly. Working for Gibbons, Vanderbilt learned to operate a complicated business.
He moved with his family to New Brunswick, New Jersey, a stop on Gibbons' line between New York and Philadelphia. There his wife Sophia operated a profitable inn, using the proceeds to feed and educate their children. Vanderbilt proved a quick study in legal matters, representing Gibbons in meetings with lawyers, he went to Washington, D. C. to hire Daniel Webster to argue the case before the Supreme Court. Vanderbilt appealed his own case against the monopoly to the Supreme Court, next on the docket after Gibbons v. Ogden; the Court never heard Vanderbilt's case, because on March 2, 1824, it ruled in Gibbons' favor, saying that states had no power to interfere with interstate commerce. The case is still considered a landmark ruling; the protection of competitive interstate commerce is considered the basis for much of the prosperity which the United States has generated. After Thomas Gibbons died in 1826, Vanderbilt worked for Gibbons' son William until 1829. Though he had always run his own businesses on the side, he now worked
The Government Sadiq College Women University is a public university located in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Government Sadiq College for Women was founded by Nawab Sir Sadiq Khan Abbasi V as an intermediate college in 1944. In 1957, it was upgraded as a degree college; the college was upgraded as a post graduate college in 2010 and master's programs were started. In December 2012, The Government Sadiq College Women University Bahawalpur act was passed by Provincial Assembly of the Punjab and assented by Governor of the Punjab on 3 January 2013, making it a full fledged university. GSCWU offers undergraduate and postgraduate programs in following disciplines: Information Technology Computer Science Botany Zoology English Education Urdu Economics Mathematics Business Administration Applied Psychology Home Economics and Fine arts Chemistry Physics Islamic Studies University of Sahiwal Government College Women University, Faisalabad Government College Women University, Sialkot University of Okara Women University Multan GSCWU official website
Isatuximab is a monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of cancer. It was developed by ImmunoGen and Sanofi-Aventis with the development name SAR-650984, it was given orphan drug status for multiple myeloma by the FDA in December 2016. In March 2020, it was approved for use in the United States in combination with pomalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of adults with multiple myeloma who have received at least two prior therapies including lenalidomide and a proteasome inhibitor. Isatuximab is an anti-CD38 mAb intended to treat refractory multiple myeloma; as of 2015, it is in phase II trials for multiple T-cell leukemia. A phase III combination trial for plasma cell myeloma is comparing pomalidomide and dexamethasone with and without isatuximab is in progress with an estimated completion date of 2021. Two additional phase III trials were launched in 2017; the first trial is assessing the benefit of isatuximab in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone versus bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma not eligible for transplant.
The second trial is assessing the benefit of isatuximab combined with carfilzomib and dexamethasone versus carfilzomib with dexamethasone in patients with relapse and/or refractory multiple myeloma treated with 1 to 3 prior lines. Daratumumab, another anti-CD38 antibody "Isatuximab". Drug Information Portal. U. S. National Library of Medicine