Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments within the more general category of wind instruments. There are two main types of woodwind instruments: reed instruments. What differentiates these instruments from other wind instruments is the way in which they produce their sound. All woodwinds produce sound by splitting an exhaled air stream on a sharp edge, such as a reed or a fipple. A woodwind may be made of any material, not just wood. Common examples include brass, cane, as well as other metals such as gold and platinum. Woodwinds are made out of earthen materials ocarinas. Common examples include flute, clarinet and saxophone. Flutes produce sound by directing a focused stream of air below the edge of a hole in a cylindrical tube; the flute family can be divided into two sub-families: closed flutes. To produce a sound with an open flute, the player is required to blow a stream of air across a sharp edge that splits the airstream; this split airstream acts upon the air column contained within the flute's hollow causing it to vibrate and produce sound.
Examples of open flutes are the transverse flute and shakuhachi. Ancient flutes of this variety were made from tubular sections of plants such as grasses and hollowed-out tree branches. Flutes were made of metals such as tin, copper, or bronze. Modern concert flutes are made of high-grade metal alloys containing nickel, copper, or gold. To produce a sound with a closed flute, the player is required to blow air into a duct; this duct acts as a channel bringing the air to a sharp edge. As with the open flutes, the air is split. Examples of this type of flute include the recorder and organ pipes. Reed instruments produce sound by focusing air into a mouthpiece which causes a reed, or reeds, to vibrate. Similar to flutes, Reed pipes are further divided into two types: single reed and double reed. Single-reed woodwinds produce sound by placing a reed onto the opening of a mouthpiece; when air is forced between the reed and the mouthpiece, the reed causes the air column in the instrument to vibrate and produce its unique sound.
Single reed instruments include the clarinet and others such as the chalumeau. Double-reed instruments use two cut, small pieces of cane bound together at the base; this form of sound production has been estimated to have originated in the middle to late Neolithic period. The finished, bound reed is inserted into the instrument and vibrates as air is forced between the two pieces; this family of reed pipes is subdivided further into another two sub-families: exposed double reed, capped double reed instruments. Exposed double-reed instruments are played by having the double reed directly between the player's lips; this family includes instruments such as the oboe, cor anglais and bassoon, many types of shawms throughout the world. On the other hand, Capped double-reed instruments have the double reed covered by a cap; the player blows through a hole in this cap that directs the air through the reeds. This family includes the crumhorn. Bagpipes are unique reed pipe instruments since they use two or more single reeds.
However, bagpipes are functionally the same as a capped double reed instruments since the reeds are never in direct contact with player's lips. Free reed aerophone instruments are unique since sound is produced by'free reeds' – small metal tongues arranged in rows within a metal or wooden frame; the airflow necessary for the instruments sound is generated either by a player's breath, or by bellows. The modern orchestra's woodwind section includes: flutes, oboes and bassoons; the piccolo, cor anglais, bass clarinet, E-flat clarinet, contrabassoon are used supplementary woodwind instruments. The section may on occasion be expanded by the addition of saxophone; the concert band's woodwind section is much larger and more diverse than the orchestra's. The concert band's woodwind section includes piccolos, oboes, B♭ clarinets, bass clarinets, alto saxophones, tenor saxophones, baritone saxophones; the cor anglais, E♭ clarinet, alto clarinet, contra-alto clarinet, contrabass clarinet and soprano saxophone are used, but not as as the other woodwinds.
Brass instrument Musical instrument Wind instrument Percussion instrument How do Woodwind Instruments work Woodwind Fingering Chart Woodwind Reference – ClassicalMusicHomepage.com
The cornett, cornetto, or zink is an early wind instrument that dates from the Medieval and Baroque periods, popular from 1500 to 1650. It was used in, it is not to be confused with the trumpet-like cornet. The sound of the cornett is produced by lip vibrations against a cup mouthpiece. A cornett consists of a conical wooden pipe covered in leather, is about 24 inches long, has finger holes and a small horn or ivory mouthpiece; the ordinary treble cornett is made by splitting a length of wood and gouging out the two halves to make the conical, curved bore. The halves are glued together, the outside planed to an octagonal cross section, the whole being bound in thin black leather. Six front finger holes and a thumb hole on the back are bored in the instrument, are undercut; the socket for the mouthpiece at the narrow end is reinforced with a brass collar concealed by an ornamental silver or brass mount. The separate cup mouthpiece is made of horn, ivory, or bone, with a thin rim and thread-wrapped shank.
Because it lacks a little-finger hole at the bottom, its lowest note is the A below middle C, though another tone lower could be produced by slackening the lips to flatten the note. At least three existing specimens of bass cornett reside in the collection of the Musée de la Musique, Paris. Two cornetts were used in consort with three sackbuts to double a church choir; this was popular in Venetian churches such as the Basilica San Marco, where extensive instrumental accompaniment was encouraged in use with antiphonal choirs. Giovanni Bassano was a virtuoso early player of the cornett, Giovanni Gabrieli wrote much of his polychoral music with Bassano in mind. Heinrich Schütz used the instrument extensively in his earlier work; the cornett was, like all Renaissance and Baroque instruments, made in a complete family. The serpent supplanted the bass cornett in the 17th century. Other versions include the mute cornett, a straight narrow-bore instrument with integrated mouthpiece, quiet enough to be used in a consort of viols or recorders.
The cornett was used as a virtuoso solo instrument, a large amount of solo music for the cornetto survives. The use of the instrument had declined by 1700, although the instrument was still common in Europe until the late 18th century. Johann Sebastian Bach, Georg Philipp Telemann and their German contemporaries used both the cornett and cornettino in cantatas to play in unison with the soprano voices of the choir; these composers allocated a solo part to the cornetto. Alessandro Scarlatti used the cornetto or pairs of cornetts in a number of his operas. Johann Joseph Fux used a pair of mute cornetts in a Requiem, it was scored for by Gluck, in his opera Orfeo ed Euridice and features in the TV theme music Testament by Nigel Hess, released in 1983. "At every stage of its development the cornett was an instrument of professional musicians."The cornett is agreed to be a difficult instrument to play—it requires a lot of practice. It embodies a design that survives today in rozhok; the main tube has only the length of a typical woodwind, but the mouthpiece is of the brass type, relying on a combination of the player's lips and the alteration of the length of the sound column via the opening and closing of the finger holes to alter the pitch of the musical sound.
Most modern brass instruments are longer than the cornett, which permits the use of harmonics, the sound being altered by slides or valves to control the pitch. The Baroque era was tolerant of bright or extroverted tonal quality, as the surviving pipe organs of the time attest, thus the Baroque theorist Marin Mersenne described the sound of the cornett as "a ray of sunshine piercing the shadows". Yet there is evidence that the cornett was sometimes badly played, although it seems to have been played much more expertly than any other woodwind instrument, its upper register sounded somewhat like a trumpet or modern cornet, the lower register resembling the sackbutts that accompanied it. Cornett intonation is flexible, which enabled it to be played in tune in a range of tonalities and temperaments; as a result of its design, the cornett requires a specialized embouchure, tiring to play for any length of time. Violins replaced cornetts in consort music, cornetts substituted for violins in consort music and sacred music.
The cornett and violin were considered interchangeable. Cornetts were used to reinforce the human voice in choirs, many commentators suggested that the sound of a well-played cornett, heard at a distance, could be mistaken for a "choice castrato"; the place of the cornett was never filled by any other instrument and it was not until the second half of the 20th century that the cornett revival gave music lovers a chance to hear the sound of this instrument again in its proper context. As a result of the recent informed performance movement the cornett has been rediscovered; the violin was the usual substitute for the cornetto in historical music. The recorder, modern B♭, C, or D trumpet, so
The post horn is a valveless cylindrical brass instrument with a cupped mouthpiece. The instrument was used to signal the departure of a post rider or mail coach, it was used by postilions of the 18th and 19th centuries. The post horn is sometimes confused with the coach horn, though the two types of horn served the same principal purpose, they differ in their physical appearance; the post horn has a cylindrical bore and was used on a coach pulled by two horses. The coach horn, on the other hand, has a conical was used on a coach pulled by four horses; the post horn is no more than 32 inches in length, whereas the coach horn can be up to 36 inches long. The latter has more of a funnel-shaped bell. Post horns need not be straight but can be coiled – they have a smaller bore – and they are made of brass. A post horn will have a slide for tuning, it is used in South East Asia including the Philippines. John Lloyd was one of the users of post horn in the 1900s; the instrument is an example of a natural horn.
The cornet was developed from the post horn through the addition of valves. Some uses of the post horn in modern-day culture can be found in screen plays. In the late 17th century, Johann Beer composed a Concerto à 4 in B♭, which paired a post horn with a corne de chasse as the two solo instruments, accompanied by violins and basso continuo. Mozart composed his Serenade No. 9, the "Post horn Serenade", in 1779. Mahler and others incorporated the post horn into their orchestras for certain pieces. On such occasions, the orchestra's horn player performs with the instrument. One example of post horn use in modern classical music is the famous off-stage solo in Mahler's Third Symphony. Due to the scarcity of this instrument, music written for it is played on a trumpet, cornet or flugelhorn. In 1844, the German cornet player Hermann Koenig wrote Post Horn Gallop as a solo for post horn with orchestral accompaniment. In the 20th century it became a popular piece for brass bands. An imitation of the post horn's fanfare was a common device in music describing, or referring to, the post coach or travel in general.
Notable examples include Bach's Capriccio on the departure of a beloved brother, which includes an "Aria di postiglione" and a "Fuga all'imitazione della cornetta di postiglione", both containing the characteristic octave jump typical for the instrument. Handel's Belshazzar includes, in the second act, a "Sinofonia" that uses a similar motif depicting Belshazzar's messengers leaving on a mission. A similar movement is included in the third "Production" of Telemann's Tafelmusik. Beethoven's Les adieux piano sonata is centered on a horn-like motif, again signifying the departure of a loved-one. Schubert's Winterreise includes the song "Die Post", of which the piano part prominently features a horn signal motif. During World War I wooden post horns were used as a means of collecting war donations via a method called the Nail Men. People would donate and in exchange be allowed to hammer a nail into the horn, until the horn was covered. Since 1941 the post horn has been played on bugle, at the beginning of home matches of Leicester City Football Club of Association Football in Britain.
The post horn is used in the logo of national post services of many countries. The post horn is included in Unicode as U+1F4EF. Australia Post Bâlgarski poshti Belposhta Bpost – features a stylistic postal horn Česká pošta Correos CTT – features a rider on horseback carrying a straight horn Cyprus Postal Services Deutsche Post Eesti Post Hrvatska pošta Íslandspóstur Jersey Post Lietuvos paštas Magyar Posta Makedonska Pošta MaltaPost – features a horn with a Maltese cross in the middle Österreichische Post Pakistan Post P&TLuxembourg Poczta Polska Poşta Moldovei Poşta Română Posta Shqiptare Pošta Slovenije Post Danmark PostBus Switzerland Posten AB PTT Slovenská pošta Ukrposhta Until 2002, the Finnish Postal and Telegraph Administration and its successors featured a postal horn in their logos; the logo from 1987 onwards had a single symbol combining telegraph symbols. French horn Little Post Horn Squid The Crying of Lot 49, by Thomas Pynchon Postage stamps and postal history of Germany Postage stamps and postal history of Norway Serenade No.
9, the "Posthorn" serenade Video of Koenig's Post Horn Gallop performed by Steve Fletcher and Jerry Clack of The London Banqueting Ensemble. Post horn calls. Hungarian Post Co. Links to sound files; the Sound of Post Horns – Strains from a Past Era – Museumsposten – © Post & Tele Museum, Denmark
The euphonium is a large, conical-bore, tenor-voiced brass instrument that derives its name from the Ancient Greek word εὔφωνος euphōnos, meaning "well-sounding" or "sweet-voiced". The euphonium is a valved instrument. Nearly all current models have piston valves; the euphonium may be played in bass clef as a non-transposing instrument or in treble clef as a transposing instrument. In British brass bands, it is treated as a treble-clef instrument, while in American band music, parts may be written in either treble clef or bass clef, or both; the euphonium is in the family of brass instruments, more low-brass instruments with many relatives. It is similar to a baritone horn; the difference is that the bore size of the baritone horn is smaller than that of the euphonium, the baritone is cylindrical bore, whereas the euphonium is predominantly conical bore. It is controversial. In the trombone family large and small bore trombones are both called trombones, while the cylindrical trumpet and the conical flugelhorn are given different names.
As with the trumpet and flugelhorn, the two instruments are doubled by one player, with some modification of breath and embouchure, since the two have identical range and identical fingering. The cylindrical baritone offers a brighter sound and the conical euphonium offers a more mellow sound; the American baritone, featuring three valves on the front of the instrument and a curved, forward-pointing bell, was dominant in American school bands throughout most of the 20th century, its weight and configuration conforming to the needs of the marching band. While this instrument is a conical-cylindrical bore hybrid, somewhere between the classic baritone horn and euphonium, it was universally labelled a "baritone" by both band directors and composers, thus contributing to the confusion of terminology in the United States. Several late 19th century music catalogs sold a euphonium-like instrument called the "B♭ bass". In these catalog drawings, the B♭ Bass had thicker tubing than the baritone. Along the same lines and bugle corps introduced the "Bass-baritone", distinguished it from the baritone.
The thicker tubing of the three-valve B♭ bass allowed for production of strong false-tones, providing chromatic access to the pedal register. Ferdinand Sommer's original name for the instrument was the euphonion, it is sometimes called the tenor tuba in B♭, although this can refer to other varieties of tuba. Names in other languages, as included in scores, can be ambiguous as well, they include French basse, saxhorn basse, tuba basse. The most common German name, may have influenced Americans to adopt the name "baritone" for the instrument, due to the influx of German musicians to the United States in the nineteenth century; as a baritone-voiced brass instrument, the euphonium traces its ancestry to the ophicleide and back to the serpent. The search for a satisfactory foundational wind instrument that could support massed sound above its pitch took many years. While the serpent was used for over two centuries dating back to the late Renaissance, it was notoriously difficult to control its pitch and tone quality due to its disproportionately small open finger holes.
The ophicleide, used in bands and orchestras for a few decades in the early to mid-19th century, used a system of keys and was an improvement over the serpent but was still unreliable in the high register. With the invention of the piston valve system c. 1818, the construction of brass instruments with an sound and facility of playing in all registers became possible. The euphonium is said to have been invented, as a "wide-bore, valved bugle of baritone range", by Ferdinand Sommer of Weimar in 1843, though Carl Moritz in 1838 and Adolphe Sax in 1843 have been credited. While Sax's family of saxhorns were invented at about the same time and the bass saxhorn is similar to a euphonium, there are differences; the "British-style" compensating euphonium was developed by David Blaikley in 1874, has been in use in Britain with the basic construction little changed since then. Modern day euphonium makers have been working to further enhance the construction of the euphonium. Companies such as Adams and Besson have been leading the way in perfecting the instrument.
Adams euphoniums have developed an adjustable lead pipe receiver which allows players to change the timbre of the instrument to whatever they player finds preferable. Besson has been credited with the adjustable main tuning slide trigger, which allows players more flexibility with intonation; the euphonium, like the tenor trombone, is pitched in concert B♭. For a valved brass instrument like the euphonium, this means that when no valves are in use the instrument will produce partials of the B♭ harmonic series, it is orchestrated as a non-transposing instrument like the trombone, written at concert pitch in the bass clef with higher passages in the tenor clef. Treble clef euphonium parts transposing down a major ninth are included in much concert band music: in the British-style brass band tradition, euphonium music is always written this way. In continental European band music, parts for the euphonium may be written in the bass clef as a B♭ transposing instrument sounding a major second lower than written.
Professional models have three top-action valves, played with
Musical instrument classification
Throughout history, various methods of musical instrument classification have been used. The most used system divides instruments into string instruments, woodwind instruments, brass instruments and percussion instruments; the oldest known scheme of classifying instruments is Chinese and dates from the 3rd millennium BC. It grouped instruments according to the materials they are made of. Instruments made of stone were in one group, those of wood in another, those of silk are in a third, those of bamboo in a fourth, as recorded in the Yo Chi, compiled from sources of the Chou period and corresponding to the four seasons and four winds; the eight-fold system of pa yin, from the same source, occurred and in the legendary Emperor Zhun's time it is believed to have been presented in the following order: metal, silk, gourd, clay and wood classes, it correlated to the eight seasons and eight winds of Chinese culture and west, autumn-winter and NW, summer and south and east, winter-spring and NE, summer-autumn and SW, winter and north, spring-summer and SE, respectively.
However, the Chou-Li, an anonymous treatise compiled from earlier sources in about the 2nd century BC, had the following order: metal, clay, silk, wood and bamboo. The same order was presented in the Tso Chuan, attributed to Tso Chiu-Ming compiled in the 4th century BC. Much Ming dynasty scholar Chu Tsai Yu recognized three groups: those instruments using muscle power or used for musical accompaniment, those that are blown, those that are rhythmic, a scheme, the first scholarly attempt, while the earlier ones were traditional, folk taxonomies. More instruments are classified according to how the sound is produced; the modern system divides instruments into wind and percussion. It is of Greek origin; the scheme was expanded by Martin Agricola, who distinguished plucked string instruments, such as guitars, from bowed string instruments, such as violins. Classical musicians today do not always maintain this division, but distinguish between wind instruments with a reed and those where the air is set in motion directly by the lips.
Many instruments do not fit neatly into this scheme. The serpent, for example, ought to be classified as a brass instrument, as a column of air is set in motion by the lips. However, it looks more like a woodwind instrument, is closer to one in many ways, having finger-holes to control pitch, rather than valves. Keyboard instruments do not fit into this scheme. For example, the piano has strings, but they are struck by hammers, so it is not clear whether it should be classified as a string instrument or a percussion instrument. For this reason, keyboard instruments are regarded as inhabiting a category of their own, including all instruments played by a keyboard, whether they have struck strings, plucked strings or no strings at all, it might be said that with these extra categories, the classical system of instrument classification focuses less on the fundamental way in which instruments produce sound, more on the technique required to play them. Various names have been assigned to these three traditional Western groupings: Boethius labelled them intensione ut nervis, spiritu ut tibiis, percussione.
Ottoman encyclopedist Hadji Khalifa recognized the same three classes in his Kashf al-Zunun an Asami al-Kutub wa al-Funun, a treatise on the origin and construction of musical instruments. But this was exceptional for Near Eastern writers as they ignored the percussion group as did early Hellenistic Greeks, the Near Eastern culture traditionally and that period of Greek history having low regard for that group; the T'boli of Mindanao use the same three categories as well, but group the strings with the winds together based on a gentleness-strength dichotomy, re
The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. As on all brass instruments, sound is produced when the player's vibrating lips cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate. Nearly all trombones have a telescoping slide mechanism that varies the length of the instrument to change the pitch. Many modern trombone models use a valve attachment to lower the pitch of the instrument. Variants such as the valve trombone and superbone have three valves similar to those on the trumpet; the word "trombone" derives from Italian tromba and -one, so the name means "large trumpet". The trombone has a predominantly cylindrical bore like its valved counterpart the baritone and in contrast to its conical valved counterparts, the cornet, the euphonium, the French horn; the most encountered trombones are the tenor trombone and bass trombone. The most common variant, the tenor, is a non-transposing instrument pitched in B♭, an octave below the B♭ trumpet and an octave above the pedal B♭ tuba; the once common E♭ alto trombone became less used as improvements in technique extended the upper range of the tenor, but it is now enjoying a resurgence due to its lighter sonority, appreciated in many classical and early romantic works.
Trombone music is written in concert pitch in either bass or tenor clef, although exceptions do occur, notably in British brass-band music where the tenor trombone is presented as a B♭ transposing instrument, written in treble clef. A person who plays the trombone is called a trombone player; the trombone is a predominantly cylindrical tube bent into an elongated "S" shape. Rather than being cylindrical from end to end, the tube is a complex series of tapers with the smallest at the mouthpiece receiver and the largest just before the bell flare; the design of these tapers affects the intonation of the instrument. As with other brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through pursed lips producing a vibration that creates a standing wave in the instrument; the detachable cup-shaped mouthpiece is similar to that of the baritone horn and related to that of the trumpet. It has the venturi: a small constriction of the air column that adds resistance affecting the tone of the instrument and is inserted into the mouthpiece receiver in the slide section.
The slide section consists of a leadpipe, the inner and outer slide tubes, the bracing, or "stays". Modern stays are soldered, while sackbuts were made with unsoldered stays. The'slide', the most distinctive feature of the trombone, allows the player to extend the length of the air column, lowering the pitch. To prevent friction from slowing the action of the slide, additional sleeves were developed during the Renaissance, these "stocking" were soldered onto the ends of the inner slide tubes. Nowadays, the stockings are incorporated into the manufacturing process of the inner slide tubes and represent a fractional widening of the tube to accommodate the necessary method of alleviating friction; this part of the slide must be lubricated frequently. Additional tubing connects the slide to the bell of the instrument through a neckpipe, bell or back bow; the joint connecting the slide and bell sections is furnished with a ferrule to secure the connection of the two parts of the instrument, though older models from the early 20th century and before were equipped with friction joints and no ancillary mechanism to tighten the joint.
The adjustment of intonation is most accomplished with a tuning slide, a short slide between the neckpipe and the bell incorporating the bell bow. However, unlike other instrumentalists, are not subject to the intonation issues resulting from valved or keyed instruments, since they can adjust intonation "on the fly" by subtly altering slide positions when necessary. For example, second position "A" is not in the same place on the slide as second position "E". Many types of trombone include one or more rotary valves used to increase the length of the instrument by directing the air flow through additional tubing; this allows the instrument to reach notes that are otherwise not possible without the valve as well as play other notes in alternate positions. Like the trumpet, the trombone is considered a cylindrical bore instrument since it has extensive sections of tubing, principally in the slide section, that are of unchanging diameter. Tenor trombones have a bore of 0.450 inches to 0.547 inches after the leadpipe and through the slide.
The bore expands through the gooseneck to the bell, between 7 and 8 1⁄2 inches. A number of common variations on trombone construction are noted below. "Trombone" comes from the Italian word tromba plus the suffix -one, meaning "big trumpet". During the Renaissance, the equivalent English term was "sackbut"; the word first appears in court records in 1495 as "shakbusshe" at about the time King Henry VII married a Portuguese princess who brought musicians with her. "Shakbusshe" is similar to "sacabuche", attested in Spain as early as 1478. The French equivalent "saqueboute" appears in 1466; the German "Posaune" long predates the invention of the slide and could refer to a natural trumpet as late as the early fifteenth century. Both towns and courts sponsored bands of shaw