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Cornett

The cornett, cornetto, or zink is an early wind instrument that dates from the Medieval and Baroque periods, popular from 1500 to 1650. It was used in, it is not to be confused with the trumpet-like cornet. The sound of the cornett is produced by lip vibrations against a cup mouthpiece. A cornett consists of a conical wooden pipe covered in leather, is about 24 inches long, has finger holes and a small horn or ivory mouthpiece; the ordinary treble cornett is made by splitting a length of wood and gouging out the two halves to make the conical, curved bore. The halves are glued together, the outside planed to an octagonal cross section, the whole being bound in thin black leather. Six front finger holes and a thumb hole on the back are bored in the instrument, are undercut; the socket for the mouthpiece at the narrow end is reinforced with a brass collar, concealed by an ornamental silver or brass mount. The separate cup mouthpiece is made of horn, ivory, or bone, with a thin rim and thread-wrapped shank.

Because it lacks a little-finger hole at the bottom, its lowest note is the A below middle C, though another tone lower could be produced by slackening the lips to flatten the note. At least three existing specimens of bass cornett reside in the collection of the Musée de la Musique, Paris. Two cornetts were used in consort with three sackbuts to double a church choir; this was popular in Venetian churches such as the Basilica San Marco, where extensive instrumental accompaniment was encouraged in use with antiphonal choirs. Giovanni Bassano was a virtuoso early player of the cornett, Giovanni Gabrieli wrote much of his polychoral music with Bassano in mind. Heinrich Schütz used the instrument extensively in his earlier work; the cornett was, like all Renaissance and Baroque instruments, made in a complete family. The serpent supplanted the bass cornett in the 17th century. Other versions include the mute cornett, a straight narrow-bore instrument with integrated mouthpiece, quiet enough to be used in a consort of viols or recorders.

The cornett was used as a virtuoso solo instrument, a large amount of solo music for the cornetto survives. The use of the instrument had declined by 1700, although the instrument was still common in Europe until the late 18th century. Johann Sebastian Bach, Georg Philipp Telemann and their German contemporaries used both the cornett and cornettino in cantatas to play in unison with the soprano voices of the choir; these composers allocated a solo part to the cornetto. Alessandro Scarlatti used the cornetto or pairs of cornetts in a number of his operas. Johann Joseph Fux used a pair of mute cornetts in a Requiem, it was scored for by Gluck, in his opera Orfeo ed Euridice and features in the TV theme music Testament by Nigel Hess, released in 1983. "At every stage of its development the cornett was an instrument of professional musicians."The cornett is agreed to be a difficult instrument to play—it requires a lot of practice. It embodies a design that survives today in rozhok; the main tube has only the length of a typical woodwind, but the mouthpiece is of the brass type, relying on a combination of the player's lips and the alteration of the length of the sound column via the opening and closing of the finger holes to alter the pitch of the musical sound.

Most modern brass instruments are longer than the cornett, which permits the use of harmonics, the sound being altered by slides or valves to control the pitch. The Baroque era was tolerant of bright or extroverted tonal quality, as the surviving pipe organs of the time attest, thus the Baroque theorist Marin Mersenne described the sound of the cornett as "a ray of sunshine piercing the shadows". Yet there is evidence that the cornett was sometimes badly played, although it seems to have been played much more expertly than any other woodwind instrument, its upper register sounded somewhat like a trumpet or modern cornet, the lower register resembling the sackbutts that accompanied it. Cornett intonation is flexible, which enabled it to be played in tune in a range of tonalities and temperaments; as a result of its design, the cornett requires a specialized embouchure, tiring to play for any length of time. Violins replaced cornetts in consort music, cornetts substituted for violins in consort music and sacred music.

The cornett and violin were considered interchangeable. Cornetts were used to reinforce the human voice in choirs, many commentators suggested that the sound of a well-played cornett, heard at a distance, could be mistaken for a "choice castrato"; the place of the cornett was never filled by any other instrument and it was not until the second half of the 20th century that the cornett revival gave music lovers a chance to hear the sound of this instrument again in its proper context. As a result of the recent informed performance movement the cornett has been rediscovered; the violin was the usual substitute for the cornetto in historical music. The recorder, modern B♭, C, or D trumpet and soprano

Rosalind Birnie Philip

Rosalind Birnie Philip, was the sister-in-law of James McNeill Whistler. After the death of her sister Beatrice in 1896 Rosalind acted as secretary to Whistler and was appointed Whistler's sole beneficiary and the executrix in his will. Rosalind Birnie Philip was born at Chelsea, London on 14 November 1873, she was the youngest of ten children of the sculptor John Birnie Frances Black. Rosalind’s sister Beatrice married James McNeill Whistler in 1888, following the death of her first husband Edward William Godwin, her sister Ethel Whibley had been the secretary to Whistler from 1890 to 1894 before her marriage to the writer Charles Whibley. In Whistler's correspondence Beatrice Whistler was referred to a'Trixie' or'Chinkie' ‘Luck’ and ‘Wam’. In 1896, when Rosalind was 22 years of age, Beatrice died of cancer. Whistler made her his ward and in his will she was appointed his executrix, she acted as his secretary and modelled for Whistler. From 1902 she managed Whistler's household in Chelsea. In 1900 Whistler’s publisher, William Heinemann, proposed to Whistler that he authorise a biography and Heinemann suggested William Ernest Henley Charles Whibley, neither of whom were acceptable to Whistler.

Heinemann asked Elizabeth Robins Pennell to write his biography. The biography was published as The Life of James McNeill Whistler, although Rosalind, as executor of Whistler’s estate, attempted to prevent its publication because she disapproved of the manuscript. Rosalind saw her role as being the guardian of Whistler's reputation, her views about the Pennells' biography recalls Whistler's objection to biographers. Whistler had stated that he was "determined that no mendacious scamp shall tell the foolish truths about me." Following Whistler’s death in 1903 Rosalind inherited his estate. She continued to collect his letters and purchased prints to add to the collection of the works of Whistler. In 1938 she made the first gift to the Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery of the University of Glasgow, of major paintings of Whistler as well as prints and drawings. In 1955 she gifted the University a collection of Whistler’s correspondence and books. Following Rosalind’s death in 1958 the balance of her collection of Whistler’s paintings, works on paper and manuscripts and books went to the University.

Rosalind appears in the following images: Paintings The Black Hat - Miss Rosalind Birnie Philip, Rosalind is in three-quarter profile. Drawings Rosalind Birnie Philip. Lithographs. McLaren Young, MacDonald, Margaret F. Spencer and Miles, The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler, 2 vols, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1980. MacDonald, Margaret F. James McNeill Whistler. Drawings and Watercolours. A Catalogue Raisonné, New Haven and London, 1995. MacDonald, Margaret F. Galassi, Susan Grace and Ribeiro, Whistler, Women, & Fashion, Frick Collection/Yale University, 2003 The Correspondence of James McNeill Whistler, Glasgow University Edited by M. F. MacDonald, P.de Montfort, N. Thorp. Catalogue raisonné of the etchings of James McNeill Whistler by M. F. MacDonald, G. Petri, M. Hausberg, J. Meacock; the Whistler Collection at University of Glasgow, Hunterian Art Gallery, including works from Whistler's estate. University of Glasgow, Special Collections

Aibonito barrio-pueblo

Aibonito barrio-pueblo is a barrio and the administrative center of Aibonito, a municipality of Puerto Rico. Its population in 2010 was 3,539; as was customary in Spain, in Puerto Rico, the municipality has a barrio called pueblo which contains a central plaza, the municipal buildings, a Catholic church. Fiestas patronales are held in the central plaza every year. In 2016, the following areas and neighborhoods were included in the Pueblo barrio electoral unit: Barrio Pueblo Sur, Barrio Pueblo Norte, Urbanización Buena Vista; the central plaza, or square, is a place for official and unofficial recreational events and a place where people can gather and socialize from dusk to dawn. The Laws of the Indies, Spanish law, which regulated life in Puerto Rico in the early 19th century, stated the plaza's purpose was for "the parties", that the square should be proportionally large enough for the number of neighbors; these Spanish regulations stated that the streets nearby should be comfortable portals for passersby, protecting them from the elements: sun and rain.

When law 1-2001 was passed, measures have been taken to identify and address the high levels of poverty and the lack of resources and opportunities affecting specific communities in Puerto Rico. By 2008, there were 742 places on the list of Comunidades Especiales de Puerto Rico and in 2004 the municipal area of Aibonito had made the list. In 2014, William Alicea Pérez, the mayor of Aibonito celebrated the improvements, made to Aibonito to its urban center. Several infrastructure projects were completed in 2014. An assisted living center was inaugurated, a stadium as well; the mayor announced plans for a future gym, gave updates on progress of another stadium and other projects that were under way for the benefit of Aibonito. Pérez would continue to be improved upon; the construction of a gym for boxing and martial arts is underway with the help of Miguel Cotto, a Puerto Rican boxing champion. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Aibonito barrio-pueblo