Louis Henry Sullivan was an American architect, and has been called the father of skyscrapers and father of modernism. Along with Wright and Henry Hobson Richardson, Sullivan is one of the trinity of American architecture. Form follows function is attributed to him although he credited the origin of the concept to an ancient Roman architect, in 1944, he was the second architect in history to posthumously receive the AIA Gold Medal. Louis Henry Sullivan was born to a Swiss-born mother, née Andrienne List, and he learned that he could both graduate from high school a year early and bypass the first two years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by passing a series of examinations. Entering MIT at the age of sixteen, he studied architecture there briefly, after one year of study, he moved to Philadelphia and took a job with architect Frank Furness. The Depression of 1873 dried up much of Furnesss work, at that point Sullivan moved on to Chicago in 1873 to take part in the building boom following the Great Chicago Fire of 1871.
He worked for William LeBaron Jenney, the architect credited with erecting the first steel frame building. After less than a year with Jenney, Sullivan moved to Paris and he returned to Chicago and began work for the firm of Joseph S. Johnston & John Edelman as a draftsman. Johnston & Edleman were commissioned for the design of the Moody Tabernacle, in 1879 Dankmar Adler hired Sullivan. A year later, Sullivan became a partner in the firm and this marked the beginning of Sullivans most productive years. Adler and Sullivan initially achieved fame as theater architects, while most of their theaters were in Chicago, their fame won commissions as far west as Pueblo and Seattle, Washington. After 1889 the firm known for their office buildings, particularly the 1891 Wainwright Building in St. Louis. Prior to the century, the weight of a multistory building had to be supported principally by the strength of its walls. The development of cheap, versatile steel in the half of the nineteenth century changed those rules.
America was in the midst of social and economic growth that made for great opportunities in architectural design. A much more urbanized society was forming and the society called out for new, the mass production of steel was the main driving force behind the ability to build skyscrapers during the mid-1880s. By assembling a framework of steel girders and builders suddenly could create tall, slender buildings with a strong, the rest of the building elements—walls, floors and windows—were suspended from the skeleton, which carried the weight. This new way of constructing buildings, so-called column-frame construction, pushed them up rather than out, the steel weight-bearing frame allowed not just taller buildings, but permitted much larger windows, which meant more daylight reaching interior spaces
A ridge or mountain ridge is a geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. Ridges are usually termed hills or mountains as well, depending on size, there are several main types of ridges, Dendritic ridge, In typical dissected plateau terrain, the stream drainage valleys will leave intervening ridges. These are by far the most common ridges and these ridges usually represent slightly more erosion resistant rock, but not always – they often remain because there were more joints where the valleys formed, or other chance occurrences. This type of ridge is somewhat random in orientation, often changing direction frequently. Similar ridges have formed in such as the Black Hills. Sometimes these ridges are called hogback ridges, oceanic spreading ridge, In tectonic spreading zones around the world, such as at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the volcanic activity forming new plate boundary forms volcanic ridges at the spreading zone.
Isostatic settling and erosion gradually reduce the moving away from the zone. Crater ridges, Large meteorite strikes typically form large impact craters bordered by circular ridges, volcanic crater/caldera ridges, Large volcanoes often leave behind a central crater/caldera bordered by circular ridges. Fault ridges, Faults often form escarpments, sometimes the tops of the escarpments form not plateaus, but slope back so that the edges of the escarpments form ridges. Dune ridges, In areas of large-scale dune activity, certain types of dunes result in sand ridges and eskers, Glacial activity may leave ridges in the form of moraines and eskers. An arête is a ridge of rock that is formed by glacial erosion. Volcanic subglacial ridges, Many subglacial volcanoes create ridge-like formations when lava erupts through a glacier or ice sheet. Shutter ridges, A shutter ridge is a ridge which has moved along a fault line, typically, a shutter ridge creates a valley corresponding to the alignment of the fault that produces it
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. The style of architecture that was created, though characterised as Neo-Renaissance, was essentially of its own time. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain about 1802 by John Nash and this small country house is generally accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from which is derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barrys Italianate style drew heavily for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, the style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved popularity in the United States. A late intimation of Nashs development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon.
Later examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building often enhanced by a belvedere complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor, unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew heavily on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and his most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden. Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Charles Barry into many of his London terraces. Following the completion of Osborne House in 1851, the became a popular choice of design for the small mansions built by the new. These were mostly built in cities surrounded by large but not extensive gardens, on occasions very similar, if not identical, designs to these Italianate villas would be topped by mansard roofs, and termed chateauesque. However, after a modest spate of Italianate villas, and French chateaux by 1855 the most favoured style of an English country house was Gothic, the Italianate style came to the small town of Newton Abbot in Devon, with Isambard Brunels atmospheric railway pumping houses.
An example that is not very known, but a clear example of Italianate architecture, is St. Christophers Anglican church in Hinchley Wood, Surrey. When the Ottomans exiled Fakhreddine to Tuscany in 1613, he entered an alliance with the Medicis, upon his return to Lebanon in 1618, he began modernising Lebanon. He developed an industry, upgraded olive-oil production, and brought with him numerous Italian engineers who began the construction of mansions. The cities of Beirut and Sidon were especially built in the Italianate style, the influence of these buildings, such as the ones in Deir el Qamar, influenced building in Lebanon for many centuries and continues to the present time
A rain gutter or surface water collection channel is a component of water discharge system for a building. Water from a pitched roof flows down into a valley gutter, an eaves gutter is known as an eavestrough, eaves channel, guttering or simply as a gutter. The word gutter derives from Latin gutta, meaning a drop, guttering in its earliest form consisted of lined wooden or stone troughs. Lead was a liner and is still used in pitched valley gutters. Many materials have been used to make guttering, cast iron, asbestos cement, UPVC, gutters prevent water ingress into the fabric of the building by channelling the rainwater away from the exterior of the walls and their foundations. Water running down the walls causes dampness in the rooms and provides a favourable environment for growth of mould. A rain gutter may be a, Roof integral trough along the edge of the roof slope which is fashioned from the roof covering and flashing materials. Discrete trough of metal, or other material that is suspended beyond the roof edge, wall integral structure beneath the roof edge, traditionally constructed of masonry, fashioned as the crowning element of a wall. A roof must be designed with a fall to allow the rainwater to discharge.
The water drains into a gutter that is fed into a downpipe, a flat roof will have a watertight surface with a fall of 1 in 60, or 1 in the case of lead. They can drain internally or to a gutter, which has a minimum 1 in 360 fall towards the downpipe. The pitch of a roof is determined by the construction material of the covering. For slate this will be at 25%, for machine made tiles it will be 35%, water falls towards a parapet gutter, a valley gutter or an eaves gutter. When two pitched roofs meet at an angle, they form a pitched valley gutter, the join is sealed with valley flashing. Parapet gutters and valley gutters discharge into internal rainwater pipes or directly into external down pipes at the end of the run, the capacity of the gutter is a significant design consideration. The area of the roof is calculated and this is multiplied by rainfall which is assumed to be 0.0208 and this gives a required discharge outfall capacity.022 l/s/m²- while one in Cumbria delivers 0.014 l/s/m². Eaves gutters can be made from a variety of such as cast iron, zinc, galvanised steel, painted steel, painted aluminium, PVC and occasionally from concrete, stone.
Water collected by a rain gutter is fed, usually via a downpipe, alternatively it would connect via a gulley with 50mm water seal to a combined drain
Geison is an architectural term of relevance particularly to ancient Greek and Roman buildings, as well as archaeological publications of the same. The upper edge of the exterior often had an edge formed as a hawksbeak molding to shed water, there were typically elaborate moldings or other decorative elements. Above the geison ran the sima, the underside of the geison may be referred to as a soffit. The form of a geison is often used as one element of the argument for the chronology of its building. The horizontal geison runs around the perimeter of a Greek temple, projecting from the top of the entablature to protect it from the elements. Horizontal geisa may be found in ancient structures that are built according to one of the architectural orders. The horizontal sima ran above the horizontal geison along the sides of a building, acting as a rain gutter and final decoration. In the Doric order, the underside of the horizontal geison is decorated with a series of protruding, rectangular mutules aligned with the triglyphs.
Each mutule typically had three rows of six guttae protruding from its underside, the gaps between the mutules are termed viae. The effect of this decoration was to link the entire Doric entablature with a repeating pattern of vertically and horizontally aligned architectural elements. Use of the hawksbill molding at the top of the segment is common. In order to separate the geison from the visually, there is typically a bed molding aligned with the face of the triglyphs. Horizontal geisa of these orders relied on moldings rather than the mutules of the Doric order for their decoration, a raking geison ran along the top edge of a pediment, on a temple or other structure such as the aedicula of a scaenae frons. This element was less decorative than the horizontal geison. The difference is marked in the Doric order, where the raking geison lacks the distinctive mutules. The raking sima ran over the raking geison as a finish and, essentially. Handbook of Greek and Roman Architecture 2nd Edition
A snow cornice or simply cornice is an overhanging edge of snow on a ridge or the crest of a mountain and along the sides of gullies. They form by wind blowing snow over sharp terrain breaks where it attaches and this build-up is most common on the leeward sides of mountains. Cornices are extremely dangerous and travelling above or below them should be avoided, when a cornice collapses, it breaks in from the cornice to the top of the peak, even being on the snow on top of rock exposes the alpinist to hazard in this situation. The best practice in mountaineering is to stay far enough back from the edge so as not to be able to see the drop, of course, this is not always possible. A good test for safety is to insert an ice axe and this indicates the ice is being lit from underneath, and that the climber should retreat to a safer location. In avalanche safety, cornices are a high avalanche danger as they often break, cornices are particularly vulnerable to collapse during periods of solar warming.
List of climbing topics Sastrugi Media related to Snow cornices at Wikimedia Commons Cornice from the Avalanche Encyclopedia Climber found dead in Mount St. Helens crater after falling through cornice
The Wainwright Building is a 10-story red brick office building at 709 Chestnut Street in downtown St. Louis, Missouri. The Wainwright Building is among the first skyscrapers in the world and it was designed by Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan in the Palazzo style and built between 1890 and 1891. It was named for local brewer, building contractor, and financier Ellis Wainwright, the building, listed as a landmark both locally and nationally, is described as a highly influential prototype of the modern office building by the National Register of Historic Places. Architect Frank Lloyd Wright called the Wainwright Building the very first human expression of a tall steel office-building as Architecture, the building is currently owned by the State of Missouri and houses state offices. The Wainwright building was commissioned by Ellis Wainwright, a St. Louis brewer, Wainwright needed office space to manage the St Louis Brewers Association. As designed, the first floor of the Wainwright Building was intended for street-accessible shops, the higher floors were for honeycomb offices, while the top floor was for water tanks and building machinery.
He wrote, must be tall, every inch of it tall, the force and power of altitude must be in it the glory and pride of exaltation must be in it. It must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exultation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line and his 1896 article cited his Wainwright Building as an example. Despite the classical column concept, the design was deliberately modern. Historian Carl W. Condit described the Wainwright as a building with a strong, the base contained retail stores that required wide glazed openings, Sullivans ornament made the supporting piers read as pillars. Above it the nature of offices up a single flight of stairs are expressed as broad windows in the curtain wall. A cornice separates the second floor from the grid of windows of the screen wall. The buildings windows and horizontals were inset slightly behind columns and piers, as part of a “vertical aesthetic” to create what Sullivan called “a proud and soaring thing.
”This perception has since been criticized as the skyscraper were designed to make money, not to serve as a symbol. Apart from the brick piers, the only solids of the wall surface are the spandrel panels between the windows. They have rich patterns in low relief, varying in design. The frieze is pierced by unobtrusive bulls-eye windows that light the floor, originally containing water tanks. The building includes embellishments of terra cotta, a material that was gaining popularity at the time of construction. One of Sullivans primary concerns was the development of an architectural symbolism consisting of geometric, structural forms
A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of intersecting roof pitches. The shape of the gable and how it is detailed depends on the system used, which reflects climate, material availability. A gable wall or gable end more commonly refers to the wall, including the gable. A variation of the gable is a gable, which has a stairstep design to accomplish the sloping portion. Gable ends of more recent buildings are often treated in the way as the Classic pediment form. But unlike Classical structures, which operate through trabeation, the ends of many buildings are actually bearing-wall structures. Thus, the detailing can be ambiguous or misleading, gable style is used in the design of fabric structures, with varying degree sloped roofs, dependent on how much snowfall is expected. Sharp gable roofs are a characteristic of the Gothic and classical Greek styles of architecture, the opposite or inverted form of a gable roof is a V-roof or butterfly roof. While a front-gabled building faces the street with its gable, a building faces it with its cullis.
The terms are used in architecture and city planning to determine a building in its urban situation, front-gabled buildings are considered typical for German city streets in the medieval gothic period, while Renaissance buildings, influenced by Italian architecture are often side-gabled. In America, front-gabled houses, such as the Gablefront house, were primarily between the early 19th century and 1920. A wimperg is a German and Dutch word for a Gothic ornamental gable with tracery over windows or portals and it was a typical element in Gothic Architecture especially in cathedral architecture. Wimpergs often had crockets or other elements in the Gothic style. The intention behind the wimperg was the perception of increased height, the gable end roof is a poor design for hurricane regions, as it easily peels off in strong winds. The part of the roof overhangs the triangular wall very often creates a trap that can catch wind like an umbrella. A series of ornamental timber gables, from existing examples in England and France of the 16th Century
For the aerodynamic device, see Bargeboard. Bargeboards are sometimes moulded only or carved, but as a rule the lower edges were cusped and had tracery in the spandrels besides being otherwise elaborated. An example in Britain was one at Ockwells in Berkshire, which was moulded and carved as if it were intended for internal work, in New Orleans, bargeboard is the wood from which many of the creole cottages were constructed in the early to mid-1800s. Barges were constructed up-river to carry goods to New Orleans, the planks are generally 2 inches thick and of varying lengths and widths, although 10 inches width is common. It is hard, solid wood that has lasted between 150 and 200 years in a wet, humid climate, cornice Karamon – use in Japanese architecture Eaves Soffit Media related to Bargeboards at Wikimedia Commons
Ancient Greek architecture
Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its temples, many of which are found throughout the region, mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. The second important type of building that all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre. Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics, both of structure and decoration, nikolaus Pevsner refers to the plastic shape of the temple. placed before us with a physical presence more intense, more alive than that of any building. The architecture of ancient Rome grew out of that of Greece, the successive styles of Neoclassical architecture and Greek Revival architecture followed and adapted Ancient Greek styles closely. The mainland and islands of Greece are rocky, with deeply indented coastline, the most freely available building material is stone. Limestone was readily available and easily worked, there is an abundance of high quality white marble both on the mainland and islands, particularly Paros and Naxos.
This finely grained material was a contributing factor to precision of detail. Deposits of high quality potters clay were found throughout Greece and the Islands and it was used not only for pottery vessels, but roof tiles and architectural decoration. The climate of Greece is maritime, with both the coldness of winter and the heat of summer tempered by sea breezes and this led to a lifestyle where many activities took place outdoors. Colonnades encircling buildings, or surrounding courtyards provided shelter from the sun, the light of Greece may be another important factor in the development of the particular character of ancient Greek architecture. The light is extremely bright, with both the sky and the sea vividly blue. The clear light and sharp shadows give a precision to the details of landscape, pale rocky outcrops and this clarity is alternated with periods of haze that varies in colour to the light on it. In this characteristic environment, the ancient Greek architects constructed buildings that were marked by precision of detail, the gleaming marble surfaces were smooth, fluted, or ornately sculpted to reflect the sun, cast graded shadows and change in colour with the ever-changing light of day.
Historians divide ancient Greek civilization into two eras, the Hellenic period, and the Hellenistic period, during the earlier Hellenic period, substantial works of architecture began to appear around 600 BC. Before the Hellenic era, two cultures had dominated the region, the Minoan, and the Mycenaean. The Mycenaean culture, which flourished on the Peloponnesus, was different in character. Its people built citadels and tombs rather than palaces, following these events, there was a period from which few signs of culture remain. This period is often referred to as a Dark Age
The Tachara, or the Tachar Château, referred to as the Palace of Darius the Great, was the exclusive building of Darius I at Persepolis, Iran. It is located 70 km northeast of the city of Shiraz in Fars Province. The construction dates back to the time of the Achaemenid Empire, the building has been attributed to Darius I, but only a small portion of it was finished under his rule. It was completed after the death of Darius I in 486, by his son and successor, Xerxes I and it was used by Artaxerxes I. Its ruins are immediately south of the Apadana, in the 4th century BC, following his invasion of Achaemenid Persia in 330 BC, Alexander the Great allowed his troops to loot Persepolis. This palace was one of the few structures that escaped destruction in the burning of the complex by Alexander the Greats army, the Tachara stands back to back to the Apadana, and is oriented southward. Measuring 1,160 square meters, it is the smallest of the buildings on the Terrace at Persepolis. As the oldest of the structures on the Terrace, it was constructed of the finest quality gray stone.
The surface was almost completely black and polished to a glossy brilliance and this surface treatment combined with the high quality stone is the reason for it being the most intact of all ruins at Persepolis today. Although its mud block walls have completely disintegrated, the stone blocks of the door. Its main room is a mere 15.15 m ×15.42 m with three rows of four columns. A complete window measuring 2.65 m ×2.65 m ×1.70 m was carved from a block of stone. The door frame was fashioned from three separate monoliths and weighed 75 tons, like many other parts of Persepolis, the Tachara has reliefs of tribute-bearing dignitaries. There are sculptured figures of lance-bearers carrying large rectangular shields, attendants or servants with towel and perfume bottles. There is a bas-relief at the doorway depicting Darius I wearing a crenellated crown covered with sheets of gold. The Tachara is connected to the court by a double reversed stairway. Later under the reign of Artaxerxes III, a new stairway was added to the northwest of the Tachara which is connected to the hall through a new doorway.
Darius the Greats pride at the superb craftsmanship is evident by his ordering the inscription on all 18 niches and window frames, Frames of stone