Cornwall is a ceremonial county in South West England, bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by Devon, the River Tamar forming the border between them. Cornwall is the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the southwesternmost point is the southernmost Lizard Point. Cornwall has a population of 568,210 and an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall is its only city. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae; the Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar.
From the Early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy from the High Middle Ages, expanded in the 19th century when rich copper mines were in production. In the mid-19th century and copper mines entered a period of decline and china clay extraction became more important. Mining had ended by the 1990s. Fishing and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy, but railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century after the decline of the mining and fishing industries. Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate.
Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii; the Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods, it continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany.
The Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer Pytheas, who had sailed to Britain: The inhabitants of that part of Britain called Belerion from their intercourse with foreign merchants, are civilised in their manner of life, they prepare the tin, working carefully the earth in which it is produced... Here the merchants buy the tin from the natives and carry it over to Gaul, after travelling overland for about thirty days, they bring their loads on horses to the mouth of the Rhône; the identity of these merchants is unknown. It has been theorised that they were Phoenicians. Professor Timothy Champion, discussing Diodorus Siculus's comments on the tin trade, states that "Diod
Frederick West "Fred" McCarren was an American television and film actor. He gained recognition for his roles on Hill Street Blues. McCarren was born on April 1951 in Butler, Pennsylvania, he graduated from Butler Senior High School. After attending the University of Cincinnati and Point Park College, he left for a different kind of campus – Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Clown College in Venice, Florida – and instead of joining the circus afterward, he headed for New York City where he found work in TV commercials. A subsequent career in film and television followed soon thereafter from the late 1970s throughout the 1980s, he starred opposite Bea Arthur on the short-lived 1983 sitcom Amanda's and he made guest appearances on television shows such as Scarecrow and Mrs. King, Hill Street Blues, Remington Steele and The Golden Girls. After several years of living in Tarzana, California, McCarren and his wife moved back to his native Pennsylvania in 1989 where he focused on raising his six children.
He continued to work in both radio and television commercials and his voice was heard as the crazy Dr. Sanchez in radio spots for the Mad Mex restaurant chain, he was seen as the coach in a series of TV commercials for Dick's Sporting Goods, as well as TV spots for PNC, PPG, Comcast and Builder's Surplus. Fred McCarren died on July 2, 2006 at the age of 55 from colon cancer at Butler Memorial Hospital in Butler, Pennsylvania. Fred McCarren on IMDb
Philip Steven Gutierrez is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Central District of California. Born in Los Angeles, Gutierrez received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Notre Dame in 1981 and a Juris Doctor from UCLA School of Law in 1984. Gutierrez was in private practice in California from 1986 to 1997, he is of Mexican American descent. Gutierrez was a judge on the Los Angeles County Superior Court, California from 1997 to 2007, he is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Central District of California. Gutierrez was nominated by President George W. Bush on January 9, 2007, to a seat vacated by Terry J. Hatter Jr, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 30, 2007, received his commission on February 16, 2007. Gutierrez heard the trial of a DMCA related case. Gutierrez was noted as providing a scathing rebuke of the prosecution in the early phases of the trial. Philip S. Gutierrez at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center