Corona Australis is a constellation in the Southern Celestial Hemisphere. Its Latin name means "southern crown", it is the southern counterpart of Corona Borealis, the northern crown, it is one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century astronomer Ptolemy, it remains one of the 88 modern constellations. The Ancient Greeks saw Corona Australis as a wreath rather than a crown and associated it with Sagittarius or Centaurus. Other cultures have likened the pattern to a turtle, ostrich nest, a tent, or a hut belonging to a rock hyrax. Although fainter than its northern counterpart, the oval- or horseshoe-shaped pattern of its brighter stars renders it distinctive. Alpha and Beta Coronae Australis are the two brightest stars with an apparent magnitude of around 4.1. Epsilon Coronae Australis is the brightest example of a W Ursae Majoris variable in the southern sky. Lying alongside the Milky Way, Corona Australis contains one of the closest star-forming regions to the Solar System—a dusty dark nebula known as the Corona Australis Molecular Cloud, lying about 430 light years away.
Within it are stars at the earliest stages of their lifespan. The variable stars R and TY Coronae Australis light up parts of the nebula, which varies in brightness accordingly; the name of the constellation was entered as "Corona Australis" when the International Astronomical Union established the 88 modern constellations in 1922. In 1932, the name was instead recorded as "Corona Austrina" when the IAU's commission on notation approved a list of four-letter abbreviations for the constellations; the four-letter abbreviations were repealed in 1955. The IAU presently uses "Corona Australis" exclusively. Corona Australis is a small constellation bordered by Sagittarius to the north, Scorpius to the west, Telescopium to the south, Ara to the southwest; the three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is "CrA". The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of four segments. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 17h 58.3m and 19h 19.0m, while the declination coordinates are between −36.77° and −45.52°.
Covering 128 square degrees, Corona Australis culminates at midnight around the 30th of June and ranks 80th in area. Only visible at latitudes south of 53° north, Corona Australis cannot be seen from the British Isles as it lies too far south, but it can be seen from southern Europe and from the southern United States. While not a bright constellation, Corona Australis is nonetheless distinctive due to its identifiable pattern of stars, described as horseshoe- or oval-shaped. Though it has no stars brighter than 4th magnitude, it still has 21 stars visible to the unaided eye. Nicolas Louis de Lacaille used the Greek letters Alpha through to Lambda to label the most prominent eleven stars in the constellation, designating two stars as Eta and omitting Iota altogether. Mu Coronae Australis, a yellow star of spectral type G5.5III and apparent magnitude 5.21, was labelled by Johann Elert Bode and retained by Benjamin Gould, who deemed it bright enough to warrant naming. The only star in the constellation to have received a name is Alfecca Meridiana or Alpha CrA.
The name combines the Arabic name of the constellation with the Latin for "southern". In Arabic, Alfecca means "break", refers to the shape of both Corona Australis and Corona Borealis. Called "Meridiana", it is a white main sequence star located 125 light years away from Earth, with an apparent magnitude of 4.10 and spectral type A2Va. A rotating star, it spins at 200 km per second at its equator, making a complete revolution in around 14 hours. Like the star Vega, it has excess infrared radiation, which indicates it may be ringed by a disk of dust, it is a main-sequence star, but will evolve into a white dwarf. Beta Coronae Australis is an orange giant 474 light years from Earth, its spectral type is K0II, it is of apparent magnitude 4.11. Since its formation, it has evolved from a B-type star to a K-type star, its luminosity class places it as a bright giant. 100 million years old, it has a radius of 43 solar radii and a mass of between 4.5 and 5 solar masses. Alpha and Beta are so similar; some of the more prominent double stars include Gamma Coronae Australis—a pair of yellowish white stars 58 light years away from Earth, which orbit each other every 122 years.
Widening since 1990, the two stars can be seen as separate with a 100 mm aperture telescope. They have a combined visual magnitude of 4.2. Epsilon Coronae Australis is an eclipsing binary belonging to a class of stars known as W Ursae Majoris variables; these star systems are known as contact binaries as the component stars are so close together they touch. Varying by a quarter of a magnitude around an average apparent magnitude of 4.83 every seven hours, the star system lies 98 light years away. Its spectral type is F4VFe-0.8+. At the southern end of the crown asterism are the stars Eta¹ and Eta² Coronae Australis, which form an optical double. Of magnitude 5.1 and 5.5, they are both white. Kappa Coronae Australis is an resolved optical double—the components are of apparent magnitudes 6.3 and 5.6 and are
Georg Joseph Beer was an Austrian ophthalmologist. He is credited with introducing a flap operation for treatment of cataracts, as well as popularizing the instrument used to perform the surgery. A theology student, in 1786 he earned his medical doctorate in Vienna. Under the guidance of Joseph Barth, his primary focus turned to the field of ophthalmology. However, his professional relationship with Barth was never close, he referred to his years with Barth as his "years of torture"; the final break in their relationship was caused by Barth's favour of Johann Adam Schmidt, who became a renowned ophthalmologist. He built a successful practice despite the obstacles created by Barth, who publicly expressed doubts in regards to Beer's qualifications. Beer became a popular teacher, attracted a number of students who excelled in the field of ophthalmology. Among his better known pupils were William Mackenzie, Philipp Franz von Walther, Carl Ferdinand von Graefe, Johann Nepomuk Fischer, Konrad Johann Martin Langenbeck, Anton von Rosas, Maximilian Joseph von Chelius, Francesco Flarer and Christoph Friedrich Jaeger Ritter von Jaxtthal, his future son-in-law.
In 1812 Beer was appointed to the chair of ophthalmology at the University of Vienna. In 1818 he suffered a stroke which left him incapacitated and led to his death three years later. During his career he sought to liberate ophthalmology from dogmatic beliefs held at the time, to establish ophthalmology on a foundation of careful observation, his best written work was the celebrated Lehre von den Augenkrankheiten, als Leitfaden zu seinen öffentlichen Vorlesungen entworfen, used as an important reference in ophthalmic medicine for many years afterwards. "Georg Joseph Beer" @ Who Named It Beer's neurotree profile
Bela Papp is a Finnish figure skater. He is the 2011 Finnish national champion. Selected to compete at four consecutive World Junior Championships, he qualified twice for the free skate. Bela Papp was born on 9 March 1994 in Finland, his mother, Ulla, is a figure skating coach, his siblings—Beata, Benjam—have all competed in the sport. He relocated to British Columbia, Canada in July 2007; as of 2014, he is a student at Simon Fraser University. In the 2007–08 season, Papp was sent to Lake Placid, New York to compete at his first ISU Junior Grand Prix event. After winning the Finnish national junior title, he was assigned to the 2008 World Junior Championships in Sofia, Bulgaria but did not qualify for the free skate; the following season, Papp repeated as the Finnish junior champion. He was eliminated before the free skate again at the 2009 World Junior Championships but was successful at the 2010 World Junior Championships in The Hague, where he finished 24th. In the 2010–11 season, Papp won the Finnish national title on the senior level.
He was assigned to the 2011 World Junior Championships in Gangneung, South Korea, where he placed 22nd, the 2011 World Championships in Moscow, where he was eliminated after the preliminary round. Surgery on the L5 bilateral pars in his lower back kept him out of competition in the 2012–13 season. CS: Challenger Series.
The Cherokee darter is a rare species of fish in the perch family. It is endemic to Georgia in the United States, it inhabits creeks with rocky bottoms and little silt occurring just above and below riffles. It is a whitish or yellowish fish with green and black spots on the flanks and eight dark saddle-like bars dorsally, it has a small range and its habitat is being degraded and fragmented, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its conservation status as being endangered. The fish is whitish to yellowish with olive green and black spots on the sides which become larger during the breeding season. Eight dark saddle-like markings are on the back; the male is a maximum of about 5 cm in length. Spawning occurs from March through June, with the females depositing the eggs in gravel or sometimes bedrock or wood debris; the fish becomes sexually mature at one year and it does not appear to live more than two years. The Cherokee darter is endemic to Georgia in the United States, where it is limited to the Etowah River system.
It lives in creeks with rocky bottoms, staying in clear parts of the stream with little silt. The fish can be found in several tributaries of the Etowah River, but few of the populations are large or healthy; the larger populations can be found in the northern tributaries above Lake Allatoona. This reservoir is in the center of the fish's distribution, dividing it in two and causing fragmentation of the population; this fish was not formally described as a new species until 1995, but it was federally listed as a threatened species of the United States in 1994. The population of this fish is declining due to loss of suitable habitat because of stream impoundment and pollution; the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its conservation status as being endangered. Etheostoma scotti. FishBase
Keizo Takemi is a Japanese politician. He is a member of the House of Councillors of Japan. Takemi used to be a professor of Tokai University, he was first elected to a member of the House of Councillors on 23 July 1995. He served until July 2007, was Vice Minister of Ministry of Health and Welfare of the Abe Cabinet from September 2006 until August 2007. Takemi narrowly lost his seat in 2007. In 2012, he returned to the House of Councillors, he won reelection in 2013 and 2019, he was a tutor of the School of Politics for Women. In 2006, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Takemi to a High-level Panel on United Nations Systemwide Coherence, set up to explore how the United Nations system could work more coherently and across the world in the areas of development, humanitarian assistance and the environment. In March 2016, Takemi was appointed by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to the High-Level Commission on Health Employment and Economic Growth, co-chaired by presidents François Hollande of France and Jacob Zuma of South Africa.
In June 2019, World Health Organization Director General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus appointed him as WHO Goodwill Ambassador for Universal Health Coverage. His father was president of the Japan Medical Association. Official site
Billy Hill was an American country music group founded by singer/songwriter/guitarists Dennis Robbins, Bob DiPiero and John Scott Sherrill, along with Reno Kling and Martin Parker. Before the group's foundation, Robbins had been a member of The Rockets, Kling played bass for Steve Earle. Sherrill and Robbins alternated as lead vocalists, but credited the frontman role to a fictional character named Billy Hill and wrote a biography on the character; the band recorded one album for Reprise Records and charted two singles on the Billboard country charts. After disbanding in 1990, Robbins became a solo artist for Giant. DiPiero and Sherrill have continued working as songwriters. All tracks are written by DiPiero and Sherrill except as noted. Compiled from liner notes. Bob DiPiero — background vocals Reno Kling — bass guitar Martin Parker — drums, percussion Dennis Robbins — lead and background vocals, acoustic guitar, electric guitar, slide guitar John Scott Sherrill — lead and background vocals, acoustic guitar, electric guitar Bucky Baxter — steel guitar Barry Beckett — piano, Hammond B-3 organ Bessyl Duhon — accordion Glen Duncan — fiddle, mandolin Notes: A "Nickel in My Name" did not chart on Hot Country Songs, but peaked at No. 10 on Hot Country Radio Breakouts