Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo
Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo was a Spanish explorer born in Palma del Rio, Córdoba, although he is claimed by tradition as a native of Portugal. Among other things he was a maritime navigator known for exploring the West Coast of North America on behalf of the Spanish Empire. Cabrillo was the first European to navigate the coast of present-day California, he is best known for his exploration of the coast of California in 1542–1543. Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo served under the command of Pánfilo de Narváez and aided him in the conquest of Cuba about 1518. Cabrillo's nationality – Portuguese or Spanish – has been debated for centuries, he was described as Portuguese by Spanish chronicler Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas. Several locations in Portugal claim to be his birthplace. However, the source for Herrera's description is unknown; some historians have long believed that Cabrillo was from Spain, a set of documents discovered in 2015 gave strength to that opinion. A witness from a 1532 lawsuit, named Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, testified under oath that he was born in Palma de Micergilio, a town in the province of Córdoba in Spain.
Other details of the witness's biography match known facts about the explorer. A leader of San Diego's Portuguese community cautioned that the new evidence must be evaluated, requested that copies of the documents be turned over to the Portuguese government for study. Lapela, in the parish of Cabril and a municipality of Montalegre, is the region where the nickname "Cabrilha" originated, it became the surname Cabrilho and was pronounced at the time Cabrilhe in Galician and Cabrillo in Spanish, according to the historian João Soares Tavares, biographer of João Rodrigues Cabrilho. The name still exists in Portugal as a surname, several localities named Cabril in Beira Alta and neighboring regions as Castro Daire, Viseu or Pampilhosa da Serra have been claimed as Cabrillo's birthplace. In Lapela there is an ancient house. Local people, alleged local descendants of branches of his ancient family with the same surname, call the house Casa do Galego and Casa do Americano. Cabrillo joined forces with Hernán Cortés in Mexico.
His success in mining gold in Guatemala made him one of the richest of the conquistadores in Mexico. According to his biographer Harry Kelsey, he took an indigenous woman as his common-law wife and sired several children, including at least three daughters, he married Beatriz Sanchez de Ortega in Seville during a hiatus in Spain. She bore him two sons. Cabrillo benefited from the encomienda system. In Honduras, for example, he broke up families, sending the men to the mines for gold and to the forest to harvest materials he needed for shipbuilding; the women and girls he gave over to his soldiers and sailors as slaves. He accompanied Francisco de Orozco to subdue the indigenous Mixtec people at what would become the city of Oaxaca, in Mexico. Little is known of. In 1539, Francisco de Ulloa, commissioned by Cortés, discovered the Gulf of California and reached nearly as far north as the 30th parallel. Cabrillo was commissioned by the new Viceroy of New Spain, Antonio de Mendoza, to lead an expedition up the Pacific coast in search of trade opportunities to find a way to China or to find the mythical Strait of Anián connecting the Pacific Ocean with Hudson Bay.
Cabrillo built and owned the flagship of his venture, stood to profit from any trade or treasure. In 1540 the fleet sailed from Acajutla, El Salvador, reached Navidad, Mexico on Christmas Day. While in Mexico, Pedro de Alvarado went to the assistance of the town of Nochistlán, under siege by hostile natives, was killed when his horse fell on him, crushing his chest. Following Alvarado's death, the viceroy took possession of Alvarado's fleet. Part of the fleet was sent off to the Philippine Islands under Ruy Lopez de Villalobos and two of the ships were sent north under the command of Cabrillo. On June 27, 1542, Cabrillo set out from Navidad with three ships: the 200-ton galleon and flagship San Salvador, the smaller La Victoria, the lateen-rigged, twenty-six oared "fragata" or "bergantin" San Miguel. On August 1, Cabrillo anchored within sight of Cedros Island. Before the end of the month they had passed Baja Point and entered "uncharted waters, where no Spanish ships had been before". On September 28, he landed in what is now San Diego Bay and named it "San Miguel".
A little over a week he reached Santa Catalina Island, which he named "San Salvador", after his flagship. On sending a boat to the island "a great crowd of armed Indians appeared" — whom, they "befriended". Nearby San Clemente Island was named "Victoria", in honor of the third ship of the fleet; the next morning, October 8, Cabrillo came to San Pedro Bay, named "Baya de los Fumos". The following day they anchored overnight in Santa Monica Bay. Going up the coast Cabrillo saw Anacapa Island, which they learned from the Indians was uninhabited; the fleet spent the next week in the i
Northern elephant seal
The northern elephant seal is one of two species of elephant seal. It is a member of the family Phocidae. Elephant seals derive their name from their great size and from the male's large proboscis, used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises during the mating competition. Sexual dimorphism in size is great. Correspondingly, the mating system is polygynous; the huge male northern elephant seal weighs 1,500–2,300 kg and measures 4–5 m, although some males can weigh up to 3,700 kg. Females are much smaller and can range from 400 to 900 kg in weight, or a third of the male's bulk, measure from 2.5 to 3.6 m. The bull southern elephant seals are, on average, larger than those in the northern species, but the females in both are around the same size, indicating the higher level of sexual dimorphism in the southern species. Northern elephant seals live for around 9 years. Both adult and juvenile elephant seals are black before molting. After molting, they have a silver to dark gray coat that fades to brownish-yellow and tan.
Adult males have hairless necks and chests speckled with pink and light brown. Pups are black at birth and molt to a silver gray after weaning; the eyes are large and black. The width of the eyes and a high concentration of low-light pigments suggest sight plays an important role in the capture of prey. Like all seals, elephant seals have atrophied hind limbs whose underdeveloped ends form the tail and tail fin; each of the "feet" can deploy five webbed fingers. This agile, dual palm is used to propel water; the pectoral fins are used little while swimming. While their hind limbs are unfit for locomotion on land, elephant seals use their fins as support to propel their bodies, they are able to propel themselves in this way for short-distance travel, to return to water, catch up with a female or chase an intruder. Like other seals, elephant seals' bloodstreams are adapted to the cold in which a mixture of small veins surrounds arteries capturing heat from them; this structure is present in extremities such as the hindlimbs.
A unique characteristic of the northern elephant seal is that it has developed the ability to store oxygenated red blood cells within its spleen. In a 2004 study researchers used MRI to observe physiological changes of the spleens of 5 seal pups during simulated dives. By 3 minutes, the spleens on average contracted to a fifth of their original size, indicating a dive-related sympathetic contraction of the spleen. A delay was observed between contraction of the spleen and increased hematocrit within the circulating blood, attributed to the hepatic sinus; this fluid-filled structure is expanded due to the rush of RBC from the spleen and releases the red blood cells into the circulatory system via a muscular vena caval sphincter found on the cranial aspect of the diaphragm. This ability to introduce RBC into the blood stream is to prevent any harmful effects caused by a rapid increase in hematocrit; the northern elephant seal lives in the eastern Pacific Ocean. They spend most of their time at sea, only come to land to give birth and molt.
These activities occur at rookeries that are located on remote mainland beaches. The majority of these rookeries are in California and northern Baja California, ranging from Point Reyes National Seashore, California to Isla Natividad, Mexico. Significant breeding colonies exist at Channel Islands, Año Nuevo State Reserve, Piedras Blancas Light, Morro Bay State Park and the Farallon Islands in the US, Isla Guadalupe, Isla Benito del Este and Isla Cedros in Mexico. In recent decades the breeding range has extended northwards. In 1976 the first pup was found on Point Reyes and a breeding colony established there in 1981. Since the mid-1990s some breeding has been observed at Castle Rock in Northern California and Shell Island off Oregon, in January 2009 the first elephant seal births were recorded in British Columbia at Race Rocks; the California breeding population is now demographically isolated from the population in Baja California. Northern elephant seals exhibit extreme sexual dimorphism in their feeding behaviours.
When the males leave their rookeries, they migrate northwards to their feeding grounds along the continental shelf from Washington to the western Aleutians in Alaska. The males feed on benthic organisms on the ocean floor; when the females leave their rookeries, they head north or west into open ocean, forage across a large area in the northeastern Pacific. They have been recorded as far west as Hawaii. Female elephant seals feed on pelagic organisms in the water column. Vagrant elephant seals appear on tropical regions such as at Mariana Islands. Historical occurrences of elephant seal presence, residential or occasional, in western North Pacific are unknown. There have been two records of vagrants visiting to Japanese coasts. A 2.5 meter female was found on Sanze beach, Yamagata in October 2017, making it the first record from Sea of Japan. This individual was weakened but showing signs of recovery after receiving medications at Kamo Aquarium, the aquarium is discussing whether or not to release her.
Some individuals have been observed on the coast of northeast Asia. Certain individuals es
Four Crowned Martyrs
The designation Four Crowned Martyrs or Four Holy Crowned Ones refers to nine individuals venerated as martyrs and saints in the Catholic Church. The nine saints are divided into two groups: Severus, Carpophorus, Victorinus Claudius, Symphorian and SimpliciusAccording to the Golden Legend, the names of the members of the first group were not known at the time of their death "but were learned through the Lord’s revelation after many years had passed." They were called the "Four Crowned Martyrs" because their names were unknown. Severus, Severian and Victorinus were martyred at Rome or Castra Albana, according to Christian tradition. According to the Passion of St. Sebastian, the four saints were soldiers who refused to sacrifice to Aesculapius, therefore were killed by order of Emperor Diocletian, two years after the death of the five sculptors, mentioned below; the bodies of the martyrs were buried in the cemetery of Santi Marcellino e Pietro on the fourth mile of the via Labicana by Pope Miltiades and St. Sebastian.
The second group, according to Christian tradition, were sculptors from Sirmium who were killed in Pannonia. They refused to fashion a pagan statue for the Emperor Diocletian or to offer sacrifice to the Roman gods; the Emperor ordered them to be placed alive in lead coffins and thrown into the river in about 287. Simplicius was killed with them. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, he Acts of these martyrs, written by a revenue officer named Porphyrius in the fourth century, relates of the five sculptors that, although they raised no objections to executing such profane images as Victoria and the Chariot of the Sun, they refused to make a statue of Æsculapius for a heathen temple. For this they were condemned to death as Christians, they were put into leaden caskets and drowned in the River Save. This happened towards the end of 305; the references in the text of the martyrs' passio to porphyry quarrying and masonry located at the'porphyritic mountain' indicate that the story's setting is misplaced.
Mons Porphyrites was quarried to supply the rare and expensive imperial porphyry for the emperor's building works and statuary, for which it was set aside. Mons Porphyrites is in the Thebaid, a centre of Christian erimiticism in Late Antqiuity; the emperor Diocletian did indeed commission the extensive use of porphyry in his many building projects. Diocletian visited the Thebaid during his reign, though he was more associated with the Balkans, which might explain why the story's location was transposed to Pannonia over time; when the names of the first group were learned, it was decreed that they should be commemorated with the second group. The bodies of the first group were interred by St. Sebastian and Pope Melchiades at the fourth milestone on the Via Labicana, in a sandpit where there rested the remains of other executed Christians, it is unclear where the names of the second group come from. The tradition states that Melchiades asked that the saints be commemorated as Claudius, Nicostratus and Castorius.
These same names are identical to names shared by converts of Polycarp the priest, in the legend of St. Sebastian. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, however, "this report has no historic foundation, it is a tentative explanation of the name Quatuor Coronati, a name given to a group of authenticated martyrs who were buried and venerated in the catatomb of Saint Marcellinus and Pietro, the real origin of which, however, is not known. They were classed with the five martyrs of Pannonia in a purely external relationship."The bodies of the martyrs are kept in four ancient sarcophagi in the crypt of Santi Marcellino e Pietro. According to a lapid dated 1123, the head of one of the four martyrs is buried in Santa Maria in Cosmedin; the rather confusing story of the four crowned martyrs was well known in Renaissance Florence, principally as told in the thirteenth-century Golden Legend by Jacopo da Voragine. It appears that the original four martyrs were beaten to death by order of the emperor Diocletian.
Their story became conflated with that of a group of five stonecarvers martyred by Diocletian, in this case because they refused to carve an image of a pagan idol. Due to their profession as sculptors, the five early Christian martyrs were an obvious choice for the guild of stonemasons, but their number seems to have been understood to be four, as in this case. Problems arise with determining the historicity of these martyrs because one group contains five names instead of four. Alban Butler believed that the four names of group one, which the Roman Martyrology and the Breviary say were revealed as those of the Four Crowned Martyrs, were borrowed from the martyrology of the Diocese of Albano Laziale, which kept their feast on August 8, not November 8; these four "borrowed" martyrs were not buried in Rome, but in the catacomb of Albano. The Catholic Encyclopedia wrote that the "martyrs of Albano have no connection with the Roman martyrs"; the double tradition may have arisen because a second passio had to be written.
It was written to account for the fact that there were five saints in group two rather than four. Thus, the story concerning grou
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
Common name: Pacific gopher snake, coast gopher snake, western gopher snake, more. Pituophis catenifer is a species of nonvenomous colubrid snake endemic to North America. Nine subspecies are recognized, including the nominotypical subspecies, Pituophis catenifer catenifer, described here; this snake is mistaken for the prairie rattlesnake but can be distinguished from a rattlesnake by the lack of black and white banding on its tail and by the shape of its head, narrower than a rattlesnake's. The specific name, catenifer, is Latin for "chain-bearing", referring to the dorsal color pattern. Adults are 36-84 inches in length. Dorsally they are yellowish or pale brown, with a series of large dark brown or black blotches, smaller dark spots on the sides. Ventrally they are yellowish, either uniform or with brown markings; the gopher snake has an odd defensive mechanism, in which it will puff up its body and curl itself into the classic strike pose of a pit viper. However, rather than delivering an open-mouthed strike, the gopher snake is known for striking with a closed mouth, using its blunt nose to "warn off" possible predators.
It will shake its tail, confusing predators into thinking it is a rattlesnake. This works best when the snake is on gravel, it hunts its prey on land, but ventures out into ponds to hunt frogs. Wild gopher snakes live 12 to 15 years, but the oldest captive recorded lived over 33 years. Common names for this species, or its several subspecies, are: Pacific gopher snake, Henry snake, coast gopher snake, Churchill's bullsnake, Oregon bullsnake, Pacific pine snake, western bullsnake, western gopher snake, Sonoran gopher snake, western pine snake, blow snake, yellow gopher snake. Colubridae by common name Colubridae by taxonomic synonyms Blainville, H. D. 1835. Description de quelques espèces de reptiles de la Californie précédée de l'analyse d'un système général d'herpétologie et d'amphibiologie. Nouvelles Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle 4: 233-296. Data related to Pituophis catenifer at Wikispecies Pituophis catenifer at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 4 February 2009
Marah macrocarpus or Marah macrocarpa, wild cucumber, or bigroot, is a species of the genus Marah. The plant is native to Baja California, its range extends from the Transverse Ranges and Channel Islands through the Peninsular Ranges. It grows by streams, in washes, on slopes in chaparral and oak woodlands, at elevations up to 900 metres, it will tolerate a variety of soil types and acidities. Vines can grow in full-sun to shaded conditions, it emerges soon after winter rains begin, grows until late spring, dies back in the heat and dryness of summer. Marah macrocarpus has the most pubescent shoots and leaves of all the Marah species native to California - this being consistent with its range having the most xeric climate. Vines appear in late winter in response to increased rainfall, can climb or scramble to a length of 6 metres. Vines emerge from a large, hard tuberous root which can reach several meters in length and weigh in excess of 100 kilograms. Vines develop leaves and flowers and fruit quickly with the first nodes of the quick-growing vines containing male and female flower heads.
Its leaves have five lobes with individual plants showing wide variation in leaf size and lobe length. FlowerThe flower can vary in colour from yellowish green to cream to white. Flowers appear; the flowers are monoecious, that is, individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant. Male flowers appear in open clusters while females flowers, distinguished by a swollen base appear individually; the plant is self-fertile, i.e. pollen from the male flowers can fertilise the female flowers on the same plant. Fruit The fruit is longer than it is wide, 5–6 cm in diameter and 15–20 cm long, covered in prickles of variable density, up to 1 cm long but without hooks. Unripe fruit are ripening to yellow; the fruit swells as it ripens until rupturing and releasing the large seeds. Fruit begin to form in late ripen by early summer. Seeds of Marah macrocarpus are large and smooth. Southern California manroot has larger, longer seeds than the other manroot species except for Marah horridus.
Fruits hold four or more seeds. Seeds sprout in the cool wetness of late winter. Seeds have an intriguing germination process; the initial shoot grows downward into the earth. This shoot splits, one part beginning to swell and form the tuber, while the second part grows back to the surface and becomes the vine. Three varieties were recognised: Marah macrocarpa var. macrocarpus Marah macrocarpa var. major Marah macrocarpa var. micranthus All parts of the plant have a bitter taste. Despite this, the leaves have been used as a vegetable; the large tuber of the manroot can be processed for a soap-like extract. Flora of the California chaparral and woodlands Calflora Database: Marah macrocarpa Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Marah macrocarpa Entry in the Plants for a Future database UC CalPhotos gallery: Marah macrocarpa
An auk or alcid is a bird of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. The alcid family includes the murres, auklets and murrelets. Apart from the extinct great auk, all auks are notable for their ability to "fly" under water as well as in the air. Although they are excellent swimmers and divers, their walking appears clumsy. Several species have different common names in North America; the guillemots of Europe are referred to as murres in North America, if they occur in both continents, the little auk is referred to as the dovekie. Auks are superficially similar to penguins having black-and-white colours, upright posture and some of their habits, they are not related to penguins, but rather are believed to be an example of moderate convergent evolution. Auks are monomorphic. Extant auks range in size from the least auklet, at 85 g and 15 cm, to the thick-billed murre, at 1 kg and 45 cm. Due to their short wings, auks have to flap their wings quickly in order to fly. Although not to the extent of penguins, auks have sacrificed flight, mobility on land, in exchange for swimming ability.
This varies by subfamily, the Uria guillemots and murrelets being the most efficient under the water, whereas the puffins and auklets are better adapted for flying and walking. The feeding behaviour of auks is compared to that of penguins. In the region where auks live, their only seabird competition are cormorants. In areas where the two groups feed on the same prey, the auks tend to feed further offshore. Strong-swimming murres hunt faster schooling fish. Time depth recorders on auks have shown that they can dive as deep as 100 m in the case of Uria guillemots, 40 m for the Cepphus guillemots and 30 m for the auklets. Auks are pelagic birds, spending the majority of their adult life on the open sea and going ashore only for breeding, although some species — like the common guillemot — spend a great part of the year defending their nesting spot from others. Auks are monogamous, tend to form lifelong pairs, they lay a single egg, they are philopatric. Some species, such as the Uria guillemots, nest in large colonies on cliff edges.
All species except the Brachyramphus murrelets are colonial. Traditionally, the auks were believed to be one of the earliest distinct charadriiform lineages due to their characteristic morphology. However, genetic analyses have demonstrated that these peculiarities are the product of strong natural selection instead: as opposed to, for example, auks radically changed from a wading shorebird to a diving seabird lifestyle. Thus, the auks are no longer separated in their own suborder, but are considered part of the Lari suborder which otherwise contains gulls and similar birds. Judging from genetic data, their closest living relatives appear to be the skuas, with these two lineages separating about 30 million years ago. Alternatively, auks may have split off far earlier from the rest of the Lari and undergone strong morphological, but slow genetic evolution, which would require a high evolutionary pressure, coupled with a long lifespan and slow reproduction; the earliest unequivocal fossils of auks are from some 35 mya.
The genus Miocepphus, is the earliest known from good specimens. Two fragmentary fossils are assigned to the Alcidae, although this may not be correct: Hydrotherikornis and Petralca. Most extant genera are known to exist since the Late Early Pliocene. Miocene fossils have been found in both California and Maryland, but the greater diversity of fossils and tribes in the Pacific leads most scientists to conclude that it was there they first evolved, it is in the Miocene Pacific that the first fossils of extant genera are found. Early movement between the Pacific and the Atlantic happened to the south movements across the Arctic Ocean; the flightless subfamily Mancallinae, restricted to the Pacific coast of southern North America and became extinct in the Early Pleistocene, is sometimes includes in the family Alcidae under some definitions. One species, Miomancalla howardae, is the largest charadriiform of all time; the extant auks are broken up into 2 main groups: the high-billed puffins and auklets, as opposed to the more slender-billed murres and true auks, the murrelets and guillemots.
The tribal arrangement was based on analyses of morphology and ecology. MtDNA cytochrome b sequence and allozyme studies confirm these findings except that the Synthliboramphus murrelets should be split into a distinct tribe, as they appear more related to the Alcini – in any case, assumption of a closer relationship between the former and the true guillemots was only weakly supported by earlier studies. Of the genera there are only a few species in each; this is a product of the rather small geographic range of the family, the periods of glacial advance and retreat that have