The Dragoon Mountains are a range of mountains located in Cochise County, Arizona. The range is about 25 mi long; the range is south of Interstate 10, between the Whetstone Mountains to the west, Chiricahua Mountains to the east. Higher elevations of the major ranges in the region are in the Madrean Sky Islands ecoregion, with sky island habitats. Mount Glenn is the highest point in the range; the Little Dragoon Mountains are the continuation of the Dragoon Mountains north of Texas Canyon. The mountains were included in the short-lived Dragoon National Forest, established in 1907 and combined into Coronado National Forest in 1908; the area is now included in the Douglas Ranger District. The warrior Cochise and his army defeated a small force of Union soldiers here at the First Battle of Dragoon Springs but was defeated at the Second Battle of Dragoon Springs a few days later. Cochise Stronghold Memorial Park lies near Mount Glenn on the eastern slope of the range and the historic town of Tombstone can be found at the southwestern portion of the range.
There are several ghost towns in the Dragoon Mountains including Gleeson and Courtland. Cochise Stronghold Visual overview
The Pinaleño Mountains, are a remote mountain range in southeastern Arizona, near Safford, Arizona. The mountains have over 7,000 feet of vertical relief, more than any other range in the state; the mountains are surrounded by the Sonoran-Chihuahuan Desert. Subalpine forests cover the higher elevations. According to The Nature Conservancy, they traverse five ecological communities and contain "the highest diversity of habitats of any mountain range in North America." The highest point is Mount Graham at 10,720 feet. Locals refer to the whole mountain range as "Mount Graham", in which case the peak is referred to as "High Peak"; the mountains cover 300 square miles and are part of the Coronado National Forest, Safford ranger district. The Pinaleño/Pinal Band of the San Carlos Apache, one of the subgroups of the Western Apache people and their kin and close allies, the Hwaalkamvepaya/Walkamepa Band of the Guwevkabaya/Kwevkepaya, one of the three Yavapai regional groupings were either named after the Pinaleño Mountains or the mountains were named after them.
The mountains are a Madrean sky island range, typical of southern Arizona south-central Arizona, the complete southeastern quadrant of Arizona, from Tucson, Globe to Nogales and the Chiricahuas. Sky island ranges are mountains isolated by desert valleys; the deserts, as well as differences in elevation, prevent flora and fauna from traveling to or from nearby ecosystems. As a result, the mountain ecosystems are isolated, distinct sub-species can develop; this is similar to what Charles Darwin discovered with species he collected from different islands in the Galápagos, a discovery that played a major role in his theory of natural selection. The Mount Graham red squirrel is an isolated population of red squirrels and a sub-species as well. Safford and Willcox, Arizona are the nearest towns to the Pinaleños; the diversity of the flora and fauna in the Pinaleños make them an notable range. Trees that grow there include: Douglas fir, Engelmann spruce, quaking aspen, Ponderosa pine, silverleaf oaks, box elder, bigtooth maple.
Seen animals include mule deer, Coue's white tail deer and black bear. The Mount Graham red squirrel was once considered to be extinct, but was "rediscovered" in the 1970s and as of June 3, 1987, is listed as endangered. For a comprehensive list of the flora and fauna of these biodiverse mountains see the University of Arizona's Mount Graham Biology Program. Unlike many of the other mountains in the area, the Pinaleños have no lava deposits; the lava-based mountains found throughout Arizona tend to be barren, whereas the Pinaleños have a large number of trees, including many that pre-date Columbus's arrival in the Americas. "Researchers from the University of Arizona Tree Ring Laboratory have discovered living trees that date back to 1257 and 1270 AD. Botanists say the Douglas firs have survived because the rocky cliffs of the mountains have served as a fire barrier for them; the scientists found dead firs that dated as far back as 1102 AD." Heliograph Peak was home to a 19th-century heliograph station.
During General Nelson Miles' mid-1880s campaign against the Apaches led by Geronimo, a U. S. Signal Corps officer named. Atop mountain peaks throughout southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, soldiers manned stations using mirrors, or heliographs, to flash messages across great distances. Heliograph Peak, as one of the highest mountains in southeast Arizona, served as one of the peaks in that system. Miles cornered Geronimo in 1886 and had him sent into exile in Florida; the Apache scouts that had helped defeat Geronimo were sent into exile along with him because of questions about their loyalty. Shortly thereafter, the heliograph system was abandoned along with a number of forts used in the Apache campaign; the Civilian Conservation Corps completed many projects in the 1930s. "Men from all over the country came to the area to work in numerous camps, several located on Mount Graham." Treasure Park and Columbine were used during the summer months, Arcadia, Noon Creek and other sites were used during the winter months.
"Many of the improvements at campgrounds, as well as hiking trails and other facilities now enjoyed by many visitors to Mount Graham, were built by the CCC personnel." One of their projects included the construction of a 99-foot steel framed lookout tower on Heliograph Peak to watch for fires in the Pinaleños and nearby mountain ranges including the Galiuros, Dos Cabezas, White Mountains, Gilas and Santa Catalinas. The tower still stands as of 2006, most fire watching efforts in Arizona are conducted from the ground or by airplane. In the summer of 2004 the Nuttall-Gibson complex burned over 30,000 acres in the Pinaleños. Monsoon rains helped firefighters in their efforts; the firefighting engaged over 800 firefighters. "Crews were able to prevent the fire from damaging the Mount Graham International Observatory and the cabins. There were only two structures damaged by the fires. A historic fire lookout was burned, an electronic equipment storage shack
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, United States, home to the University of Arizona. The 2010 United States Census put the population at 520,116, while the 2015 estimated population of the entire Tucson metropolitan statistical area was 980,263; the Tucson MSA forms part of the larger Tucson-Nogales combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,010,025 as of the 2010 Census. Tucson is the second-largest populated city in Arizona behind Phoenix, both of which anchor the Arizona Sun Corridor; the city is 108 miles southeast of Phoenix and 60 mi north of the U. S.–Mexico border. Tucson is the 58th largest metropolitan area in the United States. Major incorporated suburbs of Tucson include Oro Valley and Marana northwest of the city, Sahuarita south of the city, South Tucson in an enclave south of downtown. Communities in the vicinity of Tucson include Casas Adobes, Catalina Foothills, Flowing Wells, Midvale Park, Tanque Verde and Vail. Towns outside the Tucson metro area include Benson to the southeast and Oracle to the north, Green Valley to the south.
The Spanish name of the city, Tucsón, is derived from the O'odham Cuk Ṣon, meaning " base of the black ", a reference to a basalt-covered hill now known as Sentinel Peak known as "A" Mountain. Tucson is sometimes referred to as "The Old Pueblo". Tucson was first visited by Paleo-Indians, known to have been in southern Arizona about 12,000 years ago. Recent archaeological excavations near the Santa Cruz River found a village site dating from 2100 BC; the floodplain of the Santa Cruz River was extensively farmed during the Early Agricultural Period, circa 1200 BC to AD 150. These people constructed irrigation canals and grew corn and other crops while gathering wild plants and hunting; the Early Ceramic period occupation of Tucson saw the first extensive use of pottery vessels for cooking and storage. The groups designated as the Hohokam lived in the area from AD 600 to 1450 and are known for their vast irrigation canal systems and their red-on-brown pottery. Jesuit missionary Eusebio Francisco Kino visited the Santa Cruz River valley in 1692, founded the Mission San Xavier del Bac in 1700 about 7 mi upstream from the site of the settlement of Tucson.
A separate Convento settlement was founded downstream along the Santa Cruz River, near the base of what is now "A" mountain. Hugo O'Conor, the founding father of the city of Tucson, Arizona authorized the construction of a military fort in that location, Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón, on August 20, 1775. During the Spanish period of the presidio, attacks such as the Second Battle of Tucson were mounted by Apaches; the town came to be called "Tucson" and became a part of the state of Sonora after Mexico gained independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821. Tucson was captured by Philip St. George Cooke with the Mormon Battalion during the Mexican–American War in 1846-1848, but it soon returned to Mexican control as Cooke continued his mission westward establishing Cooke's Wagon Road to California. Tucson was not included in the Mexican Cession and Cooke's road through Tucson became one of the important routes into California during the California Gold Rush of 1849. Arizona, south of the Gila River, was obtained via treaty from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase on June 8, 1854.
Tucson became a part of the United States of America, although the American military did not formally take over control until March 1856. In 1857, Tucson became a stage station on the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line and in 1858 became 3rd division headquarters of the Butterfield Overland Mail until the line shut down in March 1861; the Overland Mail Corporation attempted to continue running, following the Bascom Affair, devastating Apache attacks on the stations and coaches ended operations in August 1861. From August 1861 to mid-1862, Tucson was the western capital of the Confederate Arizona Territory, the eastern capital being Mesilla. In 1862, the California Column drove the Confederate forces out of Arizona. Tucson and all of what is now Arizona were part of New Mexico Territory until 1863, when they became part of the new Arizona Territory. From 1867 to 1877, Tucson was the capital of the Arizona Territory. Tucson was incorporated in 1877. From 1877 to 1878, the area suffered a rash of stagecoach robberies.
Most notable were the two holdups committed by masked road-agent William Whitney Brazelton. Brazelton held up two stages in the summer of 1878 near Point of Mountain Station 17 mi northwest of Tucson. John Clum, of Tombstone, Arizona fame was one of the passengers. Pima County Sheriff Charles A. Shibell and his citizen posse killed Brazelton on Monday August 19, 1878, in a mesquite bosque along the Santa Cruz River 3 miles south of Tucson. Brazelton had been suspected of highway robbery in the Tucson area, the Prescott region and Silver City, New Mexico area. Brazelton's crimes prompted John J. Valentine, Sr. of Wells, Fargo & Co. to send special agent and future Pima County sheriff Bob Paul to investigate. Fort Lowell east of Tucson, was established to help protect settlers from Apache attacks. In 1882, Frank Stilwell was implicated in the murder of Morgan Earp by Cowboy Pete Spence's wife, Marietta, at the coroner's inquest on Morgan Earp's shooting; the coroner's jury concluded Spence, Frederick Bode, Florentino "Indian Charlie" Cruz were the prime suspects in the assassination of Morgan Earp.
Deputy U. S. Marshal Wyatt Earp gathered a few trusted friends and accompanied
Hidalgo County, New Mexico
Hidalgo County is the southernmost county of the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 4,894; the county seat and largest city is Lordsburg. A bill creating Hidalgo from the southern part of Grant County was passed on February 25, 1919, taking effect at the beginning of 1920; the county was named for the town north of Mexico City where the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, which in turn was named for Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, the priest, known as the "Father of Mexican Independence". This county abuts the Mexican border. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,446 square miles, of which 3,437 square miles is land and 9.1 square miles is water. The southern part of the county, the part bounded on the east and south by Mexico, is known as the Boot Heel. Grant County – north Luna County – east Cochise County, Arizona – west Greenlee County, Arizona – northwest Agua Prieta, Mexico – southwest Ascensión, Mexico – southeast Janos, Mexico – south Coronado National Forest Gila National Forest As of the 2000 census, there are 5,932 people in the county, organized into 2,152 households, 1,542 families.
The population density is 1 person per square mile. There are 2,848 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county is 42 % about 55 % of the population is Hispanic. Size of family households: 592 2-persons, 341 3-persons, 316 4-persons, 165 5-persons, 83 6-persons, 48 7-or-more-persons; the average household size is 2.7 and the average family size is 3.29. In non-family households, there are 684 with 314 male householders, 293 female householders, 77 non-relatives. In group quarters, there are 85. In the county, the population is spread out with 31.70% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 25.20% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 13.60% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 35 years. For every 100 females there are 99.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 97.00 males. The median income for a household in the county is $31,286; the per capita income for the county is $12,431. 27.8% of the population is below the poverty line.
Out of the total population, 38.90% of those under the age of 18 and 17.00% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. Unemployment rates in April 2010 was 7.6%. As of the 2010 census, there were 4,894 people, 1,936 households, 1,286 families residing in the county; the population density was 1.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,393 housing units at an average density of 0.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 85.3% white, 0.8% American Indian, 0.6% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 11.0% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 56.6% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were: Of the 1,936 households, 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.4% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families, 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.09.
The median age was 40.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $36,733 and the median income for a family was $41,594. Males had a median income of $43,531 versus $23,482 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,451. About 20.6% of families and 22.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.3% of those under age 18 and 15.0% of those age 65 or over. Lordsburg Virden Animas Cotton City Glen Acres Playas Rodeo Windmill Antelope Wells Mouser Place Road Forks Summit Cloverdale Steins Shakespeare Bramlett Valedon Road Fork Gary Hidalgo has been a swing county, going for the winner every time since 1928, except for once, when it went for Hubert Humphrey over the eventual winner, Richard Nixon. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hidalgo County, New Mexico Janos Biosphere Reserve Geology of Lordsburg Quadrangle, Hidalgo County Animas, Cotton City, Playas Hidalgo county, New Mexico Hidalgo county, New Mexico
The Patagonia Mountains are a 15-mile-long mountain range within the Coronado National Forest, in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. The Patagonia Mountains begin near the Mexico border east of Arizona. Running north, they are geologically related to the Santa Rita Mountains, which continue north beyond Sonoita Creek; the Santa Rita Mountains line up to the north across the Sonoita Valley. Both the Patagonias and the Santa Ritas are east of the Santa Cruz River Valley. Arizona State Route 82 winds through the Sonoita Valley along Sonoita Creek which flows between the Santa Ritas and the Patagonias. Patagonia Lake and the town of Patagonia are located in the Sonoita Valley; some of the important peaks are, Mount Washington, the highest peak at 7,221 feet, Veteran's Peak, 7,211 feet, Guajalote Peak, 6,490 feet. North of Guajalote Peak lies Soldier Basin. Above and to the east of the basin lies the largest endemic stand of ponderosa and Chihuahua pines in the range; the Sierra San Antonio are a continuation of the Patagonia Mountains southwards into Mexico, a mountain range of about 10 miles in length that tapers down to lower elevations where the Santa Cruz River makes its bend near the Sonoran town of San Lazaro.
The old mining camps and ghost towns of Mowry, Washington Camp and Duquesne are located in the Patagonia Mountains. Nogales and Nogales, are in the valley to the southwest of the mountain range; the San Rafael Valley and Canelo Hills are to the east of the Patagonia Mountains. The connected Santa Rita and Sierra San Antonio ranges are part of the Madrean Sky Islands ecoregion, the sky island mountain ranges region on the north of the Sierra Madre Occidental, the major cordillera and mountain ecoregion of central-western and northwestern Mexico. List of Madrean Sky Island mountain ranges - Sonoran - Chihuahuan Deserts List of mountain ranges of Arizona Coronado National Forest Moutainzone.com: The Patagonia Mountains Safossils.com: Patagonia Mountains — photo gallery
Cochise County, Arizona
Cochise County is located in the southeastern corner of the U. S. state of Arizona. The population was 131,346 at the 2010 census; the county seat is Bisbee. Cochise County includes Arizona Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county borders southwestern New northeastern Sonora in Mexico. In 1528 Spanish Explorers: Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca and Fray Marcos de Niza survived a shipwreck off Texas coast. Captured by Native Americans they spent 8 years finding their way back to Mexico City, via the San Pedro Valley, their journals and stories lead to the Cibola, seven cities of gold myth. The Expedition of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1539 using it as his route north through what they called the Guachuca Mountains of Pima lands and part of the mission routes north, but was occupied by the Sobaipuri descendants of the Hohokam, they found a large Pueblo between Benson and Whetstone, several smaller satellite villages and smaller pueblos including ones on Fort Huachuca, Huachuca City and North Eastern Fry.
About 1657 Father Kino visited the Sobaipuris just before the Apache forced most from the valley, as they were struggling to survive due to increasing Chiricahua Apache attacks as they moved into the area of Texas Canyon in the Dragoon Mountains. In 1776 The Presidio Santa Cruz de Terrante was founded on the West bank of the San Pedro River, to protect the natives as well as the Spanish settlers who supplied the mission stations, but it was chronically short on provisions from raids, lack of personnel to adequately patrol the eastern route due to wars with France and England, so the main route north shifted west to the Santa Cruz valley, farther from the Chiricahua Apache's ranges who exclusively controlled the area by 1821. Cochise County was created on February 1881, out of the eastern portion of Pima County, it took its name from the legendary Chiricahua Apache war chief Cochise. The county seat was Tombstone until 1929. Notable men who once held the position of County Sheriff were Johnny Behan, who served as the first sheriff of the new county, and, one of the main characters during the events leading to and following the Gunfight at the O.
K. Corral. In 1886, Texas John Slaughter became sheriff. Lawman Jeff Milton and lawman/outlaw Burt Alvord both served as deputies under Slaughter. A syndicated television series which aired from 1956 to 1958, Sheriff of Cochise starring John Bromfield, was filmed in Bisbee; the Jimmy Stewart movie Broken Arrow and subsequent television show of the same name starring John Lupton, which aired from 1956 to 1958, took place in Cochise County. J. A. Jance's Joanna Brady mystery series takes place in Cochise County, with Brady being the sheriff. Beginning in the late 1950s, the small community of Miracle Valley was the site of a series of bible colleges and similar religious organizations, founded by television evangelist A. A. Allen. In 1982, Miracle Valley and neighboring Palominas were the site of a series of escalating conflicts between a newly arrived religious community and the county sheriff and deputies that culminated in the Miracle Valley shootout. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,219 square miles, of which 6,166 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water.
Cochise County is close to the size of the States of Rhode Connecticut combined. Chiricahua National Monument Coronado National Forest Coronado National Memorial Fort Bowie National Historic Site Kartchner Caverns State Park Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area As of the 2000 census, there were 117,755 people, 43,893 households, 30,768 families residing in the county; the population density was 19 people per square mile. There were 51,126 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.66% White, 4.52% Black or African American, 1.15% Native American, 1.65% Asian, 0.26% Pacific Islander, 12.05% from other races, 3.72% from two or more races. 30.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.35 % reported speaking Spanish at home. There were 43,893 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families.
25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,105, the median income for a family was $38,005. Males had a median income of $30,533 versus $22,252 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,988. About 13.50% of families and 17.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.80% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over. In 2000, the largest denominational group was Evangelical Protestants; the largest religious bodies were The Southern Baptist Convention.
As of the 2010 census, there were 131,346 people, 50,865 households, 33,653 families residing in the county